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Title Author 1 Author 2 Abstract PDF
An Automated Approach of CT Scan Image Processing for Brain Tumor Identification and Evaluation Shabana Urooj Amir

Brain Tumor identification and evaluation requires Computed Tomography (CT) scan and image processing in medical diagnosis. The Manual methods for the detection of abnormal cell growths in brain tissue is both time consuming and non-reliable. This paper initiates with a discussion of a clinical diagnosis case of normal brain tissue and other with tumor affected images. The affected area is identified first with manual approach and further an automated approach is discussed using NI Lab VIEW software for locating the exact position and its evaluation. The described method provides a better way of diagnosing brain tumor in a quick and reliable automated manner. In the view of this, an automatic segmentation of brain MR images is needed to correctly segment White Matter (WM), Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gray Matter (GM) tissues of brain in a shorter span of time. The manual segmentation of brain tumor is abstruse job and may provide erroneous results.

Application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems as Neural Interface Dinesh Bhatia BabluLal Rajak

The aim of this work is the realization of an "Artificial Arm Pressure" permitting to reproduce oscillometric waveforms able to replace expensive clinical trials for validating and testing a Holter blood pressure device. To perform this new device a hybrid simulator (numerical/hydraulic) of the left cardiocirculatory network was implemented in order to reproduce in different fixed times different oscillometric blood arterial pressure waveforms. The “Artificial Arm Pressure" consists of a numerical simulator of the left cardiovascular system, in which it is possible to fix the left atrial pressure (preload) and the left arterial pressure (afterload) and of an hydraulic system consisting of a D/A converter, a servo-amplifier, a D/C motor and a “gear pump”. The numerical simulator allows to vary the heart rate, the time duration of systole/diastole and the morphology of the ventricular/aortic pressure waveform in order to reproduce different physiopathology cardiovascular diseases. The hybrid simulator can be used to program the type and amount of steps you want to perform in 24/48-h to check the correct operation/calibration of the Holter blood pressure device. A Holter programmed to acquire data every 15 min has been tested for 24-h on the "Artificial Arm Pressure". The comparison between simulated and measured data shown that for systolic (diastolic) blood pressure the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.6% (±2.9). In the case of HR, the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.0%.

Medical Devices for Measuring Respiratory Rate in Children: a Review William Daw Ruth Kingshott

Respiratory rate is an important vital sign used for diagnosing illnesses in children as well as prioritising patient care. All children presenting acutely to hospital should have a respiratory rate measured as part of their initial and ongoing assessment. However measuring the respiratory rate remains a subjective assessment and in children can be liable to measurement error especially if the child is uncooperative. Devices to measure respiratory rate exist but many provide only an estimate of respiratory rate due to the associated methodological complexities. Some devices are used within the intensive care, post-operative or more specialised investigatory settings none however have made their way into the everyday clinical setting. A non-contact device may be better tolerated in children and not cause undue stress distorting the measurement. Further validation and adaption to the acute clinical setting is needed before such devices can supersede current methods.

Development of a Small Portable Device for Measuring Respiratory System Resistance Based on Forced Oscillation Technique Wei Chang Kuibi Shi

Spirometry and forced oscillation technique (FOT) are two different methods that are currently used for lung function test. However, the former requires patient’s effort to cooperate, thus is often unreliable for certain patients such as the young children and the latter is always related to bulky and expensive machines. In order to overcome the limitations of current device, we developed a portable prototype of FOT device for measuring respiratory resistance. The device consisted of a small advanced voice coil actuator to generate sinusoidal oscillatory airflow with amplitude of 2.5 cmH2O and frequency of 5 Hz, which was then superimposed onto the normal breathing airflow of the patient via a mouth piece. The pressure and flow signals of the respiratory airflow after absorption and refraction by the airways and the lung tissues were detected and acquired using NI USB-6211 data acquisition card and synchronous sampling pressure and flow sensors. After the upper computer received the digital signals that the capture card converted, the signals were processed and analyzed in real-time by the proprietary LabVIEW-based software. The analysis included digital signal filtering and impedance calculation in frequency domain, resulting in respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). The results of present experiments on healthy volunteers demonstrated that the device could measure the respiratory system resistance with good reliability and accuracy. Importantly, due to both the hardware and software design the weight and volume of this device was reduced down to 3.5kg and 2500 cm3, respectively, proving the prototype to be worth of further developing into an inexpensive and portable tool for testing or monitoring lung function at rural community clinics or homes.

Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Smooth Muscle Layer Thickening on Stress Distribution in the Airway Wall Jian Chen Xiaohao Shi

Many chronic respiratory diseases are associated with airway remodeling such as hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells. It is well known that the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells directly affects the mechanical properties of the smooth muscle layer. Consequently, it may cause uneven distribution of stress and thus local stress stimulation of the cells and tissues in the airway wall, possibly leading to pathogenesis of airway dysfunction such as airway hyperresponsiveness. However, it is difficult to experimentally study the effect of smooth muscle layer on stress distribution in the airway wall. Therefore, in the present work, we built a finite element model which simplified the anatomical structure of the airway wall as a three-layer structure that included an inner wall layer, a smooth muscle layer and an adventitia layer. Based on this model, we varied the smooth muscle layer thickness either uniformly or locally and then computed the stress distribution in the modeled airway wall. The results revealed that the minimum stress occurred in the adventitia layer, and the maximum stress occurred in the smooth muscle layer. More importantly, the smooth muscle layer thickening, occurred either uniformly or locally, led to elevated stress level and enhanced stress concentration in the smooth muscle layer. And the enhancement of stress level and concentration was variable depending on the pattern of smooth muscle layer thickening. For a given extent of smooth muscle layer thickening, the stress level and concentration appeared to be determined by the number of locations and the separation distance between the locations at which the smooth muscle layer thickening occurred. In other words, the maximum stress level in the smooth muscle layer increased from 2.712kPa to 2.842KPa depending on whether the local thickening occurred at one location, 3 or 5 equally separated locations, 2 connected and 1 distanced location, or 3 all connected locations. These simulation results provide important insight for better understanding the mechanism through which the airway smooth muscle is involved in the alteration of airway dysfunction in health and disease, which may be helpful in developing novel diagnosis/therapy via targeting smooth muscle hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy for the prevention/treatment of asthma.

Effect Assessment of Airflow Resistance by Local Airway Stenosis with 3D Printing Airway Model Kuibi Shi Wei Chang

Clinically noticing airway constriction can randomly cause small airway quickly closed and the surrouding airway occlusion happens subsequently. A phenomenon may happened called "avalanche phenomenon" inside airway [1]. But few study on how local airway stenosis affects the respiratory flow. Because the real local airway stenosis and its flow are still unable to be directly observed and measured. In this paper, narrow numerical model of the main and branched airway are established based on CT data of normal human airways. Then the trachea and bronchial branched airway constriction models are printed out on the 3D printer by PLA material. Finally, to measure airflow impedance of different airway models and analyze the impact of structural changes in the airway (shrink and narrow) airway impedance, we adopt independent research and development Forced Oscillation Technique(FOT). The test results preliminary show that the trachea stenosis has big effect on the airway viscous resistance (Rrs) and the elastic resistance (Xrs). The bronchial stenosis obviously increases the airway elastic resistance. This article provides a new method for the study on how local constriction affects the airflow inside airway in the future.

Developing a Human Balance Test System (DETES) in Order to Investigate Control Mechanisms of Human Erect Posture S. Gürses M.E. Akçay

An originally designed 3-dof (2-dof perturbation platform and 1-dof cabin) human balance testing system (DETES) has been developed for delivering mechanical and perceptual stimuli in a controlled embedding environment in order to investigate sensory-motor control of human erect posture at physiological and/or pathological conditions. The human balance (especially studying vestibular system involved mechanisms) demonstrating complex (nonlinear) dynamical behavior in the context of postural adjustments having ecological roots/meanings (information) is to be tested (by means of quiet and perturbed stance) and analyzed for supporting (differential) diagnosis, monitoring/following the progress of the disease, and creating the new adaptive motor learning protocols for rehabilitation.

Modeling a Cell Motility on the Surface with a Pit Arkady Voloshin  

Living cells respond to outside physical environment in many ways including changing their geometry and location. A cell was modeled as a tensegrity structure that consists of the cytoskeleton, the cellular nucleus and lamellipodia. This model was based on the use of isolated elastic components consisting of a set of continuous compression components and a set of continuous tension components. To investigate the influence of surface topography on cellular movement, several representative cases were designed and simulated. By using internal strain energy as a main criterion to estimate the stability of the cell at various locations, we could show that cells have a tendency to move towards and stay on the sidewall of a pit. They also have a tendency to leave the concave corner. The obtained simulation results were in agreement with the available experimental evidence. Thus, the proposed model and approach may be a valuable tool for understanding the mechanics of a cell motion.

Systemic, Physical and Pharmacological Treatment of Spinal Column and Somatic Diseases or Russian Alternative to Chinese Acupuncture Klimenko Mikhail Mikhailovich Luchkina Viktoria Vladimirovna

The complex KUMP-01 was designed for relief of acute and chronic pains in spinal column. The complex became the basis for new medical technologies of combined treatment with the use of medicinal products against the background of restoring of vertebral column physiology. This allowed to manage spinal column pains and treat somatic diseases as well as maintain the proper quality of life.

نشأة الشعر الديني عند العرب وأثره في الآداب الأوربية د. محمد عباسة  

ظهر الأدب الديني عند العرب منذ بداية الرسالة المحمدية، وكان أول من مدح رسول الإسلام والمسلمين، الشعراء الذين انتدبهم محمد (ص) للدفاع عن الدعوة الإسلامية. وإن كان الشعراء قد سبقوا العرب في المدائح الدينية، إلا أنهم لم يبلغوا ما بلغه العرب في عهد الإسلام. وإذا كانت المدائح الدينية والمواعظ والزهديات قد نشأت لدواع محلية، فإن بعد احتكاك العرب والمسلمين بغيرهم من شعوب الأمم المجاورة، تسرب إلى شعرهم الديني بعض المفاهيم والأفكار الأجنبية، وقد يكون ظهور الشعر الصوفي عند العرب في بداياته متأثرا بهذه الثقافات. لكن بعد اتساع رقعة البلاد الإسلامية، وانتقال الشعر إلى خارج الحدود المشرقية، استطاع الشعراء العرب المسلمون، وعلى وجه الخصوص، الأندلسيون، أن يطوروا الشعر الديني ويذهبوا بالصوفية إلى أبعد الحدود، مما أدى بأدباء أوربا إلى التأثر بمضامين وأشكال الشعر الديني من قصائد وموشحات وأزجال.

العلاقات الاجتماعية بين العرب والفرنجة وتأثيرها على الأدب والفكر د. محمد عباسة  

الأدب المقارن من الدراسات الحديثة التي نشأت في أوربا في القرن التاسع عشر الميلادي، وذلك بفضل الباحثين الذين عكفوا على دراسة الآداب العربية والشرقية. وقد تبين لهؤلاء الدارسين أن هناك أوجه شبه متعددة بين الأدب الأوربي والأدب العربي. واتجهت البحوث إلى أن الأدب الأوربي القديم هو الذي تأثر بأدب الأمم الأخرى. غير أنه لا يمكن أن نسلم بهذه الفرضية ما لم ندرس العوامل التي بفضلها انتقلت العلوم والآداب من أمة إلى أخرى. الصلات الأدبية تمكن من تحديد أصالة الأدب والفكر وتبرهن على مظاهر التأثير. وفي هذا البحث، نحاول الكشف عن مختلف العلاقات الاجتماعية التي كانت قائمة بين العرب المسلمين والإفرنج في العصور الوسطى. وقد خلصنا من خلال هذه الدراسة المقارنة إلى أن هذه العلاقات التي أدت إلى احتكاك العرب بالإفرنج، مكنت هؤلاء الأوربيين من التعرف على أهم عناصر الحضارة العربية الإسلامية والتأثر بها في شتى الميادين، وعلى وجه الخصوص، الفلسفة والأدب.

حب الآخر في الشعر الأندلسي والبروفنسي د. محمد عباسة  

لقد عمل الإسلام على نبذ العصبية وإرساء مبادئ التسامح والمحبة، وجعل من الشاعر شاعر أمة لا شاعر قبيلة. لكن العرب انحرفوا عن هذه المبادئ عند قيام الدولة الأموية التي عملت على إحياء العصبيات الجاهلية وتشجيع النقائض بين الأحزاب السياسية مما أدى إلى ظهور طوائف عرقية في المجتمع الإسلامي تشبعت بالشعوبية. أما بلاد المغرب فلم تعرف هذه الصراعات العرقية منذ ظهور الإسلام فيها. لقد تزوج الأندلسيون بنساء إسبانيات وتغزل شعراؤهم بالنصرانيات، وقد انتقل هذا النوع من الحب إلى جنوب فرنسا، ونظم فيه شعراء البروفنس الذين تأثروا في هذا الموضوع بالشعراء الأندلسيين. وعلى الرغم من الصراع الذي كان قائما بين المسلمين والنصارى في شبه الجزيرة الأيبيرية، إلا أن ذلك لم يمنع الأندلسيين من احترام غيرهم. غير أن بعض الشعراء البروفنسيين لما نظموا هذا النوع من الشعر لم ينسوا أحقادهم تجاه الإسلام والمسلمين.

الترجمة في العصور الوسطى د. محمد عباسة  

تتناول هذه الدراسة حركة الترجمة التي ظهرت في أوربا في القرون الوسطى على يد علماء النصارى واليهود والمسلمين، إذ ترجموا أغلب المعارف العربية الإسلامية من فلسفة وعلوم وآداب وتاريخ إلى اللغات الأوربية. أما أهداف الترجمة ومقاصدها فكانت تختلف باختلاف طبقات المجتمع الأوربي ونواياها. وقد خلص البحث إلى أن حركة الترجمة في أوربا قد ازدهرت في كل من شمال إسبانيا وجنوب فرنسا وإيطاليا وجزيرة صقلية، بين القرنين الحادي عشر والثالث عشر للميلاد، في الوقت الذي كان يهاجر فيه العلماء والفلاسفة المسلمون من الأندلس إلى بلاد النصارى، فرارا من المرابطين والموحدين. وكان من نتائج هذه الترجمة أثرها البالغ على النهضة الأوربية.

اللهجات في الموشحات والأزجال الأندلسية د. محمد عباسة  

ظهر الشعر عند العرب لأول مرة في القرن الرابع الميلادي في القبيلة وبلهجتها. وفي نهاية القرن الخامس الميلادي، استطاع فحول الشعراء الجاهليين أن يوحدوا لغة الشعر العربي. لقد ظل الشعر ينظم باللغة الفصحى إلى أن ظهرت الموشحات والأزجال الأندلسية التي لم تلتزم بالفصحى. فالوشّاح سمح لنفسه أن ينظم الخرجة بلهجة عامية أو عجمية، كما تسربت بعض العناصر اللهجية إلى الأجزاء الأخرى من الموشح، أما الزجّال فقد نظم زجله بلغة غير معربة، كما أباح إدخال عناصر فصيحة وأخرى عجمية في ثنايا شعره. غير أن التعدد اللغوي لم يحط من قيمة الموشحات والأزجال، كما أن العناصر العجمية التي وظّفها الشعراء الأندلسيون في موشحاتهم وأزجالهم لا تعني أبدا أن هذا اللون من الشعر المستحدث قد استمد خصائصه من أغنية عجمية، فالموشحات والأزجال أندلسية المنشأ وعربية الأصل وهي بذلك تمثل مرحلة من مراحل تطور الشعر العربي.

التصوف الإسلامي بين التأثر والتأثير د. محمد عباسة  

لقد ظهر التصوف عند المسلمين متأثرا بالزهد الذي اتصف به الرسول الكريم وصحابته، وكان من أهم عوامل انتشار الزهد النصوص القرآنية والأحاديث النبوية الشريفة التي تدعو إلى تزكية النفس والعمل من أجل الآخرة. لكن بعد الفتوحات الإسلامية واختلاط العرب بغيرهم من الشعوب، تسربت إلى الزهد الإسلامي بعض العناصر من الأديان الأخرى. وقد أدى تطور الزهد إلى ظهور التصوف، وهو أسمى من الزهد ويتصل بحب الذات الإلهية. ويرتكز التصوف على عنصرين أساسيين، أولهما العنصر العاطفي وهو النزعة إلى الحب التي تتجلى في العناصر الغزلية عند الشعراء. أما الثاني، فهو العنصر الفكري المتمثل في عفة النفس. ظهر عدة متصوفة عبر العصور الإسلامية في المشرق والمغرب، من أبرزهم الغزالي وابن الفارض ومحي الدين بن عربي، طرحوا أفكارهم من خلال أشعارهم وكتبهم. وفي القرون الوسطى اطلع الأوربيون على تراث العرب المسلمين فتأثروا بعلومهم وفنونهم، وكان مما تأثروا به التصوف الإسلامي الذي تتجلى مظاهره بوضوح في نصوص المدرَسيين (السكولائيين) وغيرهم من الفلاسفة الأوربيين.

الفلسفة العقلانية عند ابن رشد د. محمد عباسة  

نحاول من خلال هذه الدراسة توضيح الحقائق الإيجابية في فلسفة ابن رشد، ونلقي الضوء على الأسباب التي دعت بعض العلماء إلى محاربة العقلانية الرشدية. فأبو الوليد بن رشد يعد أكبر شارح لفلسفة أرسطو، وقد تولى الدفاع عن الفلاسفة معارضا آراء الإمام الغزالي التي تحامل فيها على الفلاسفة المسلمين، مما جعل المتكلمين واللاهوتيين يتهمون ابن رشد بالإلحاد. وكان فيلسوف قرطبة أول من حاول التوفيق بين الشريعة والحكمة. وبفضل الترجمات التي قام بها النصارى واليهود في جنوب أوربا خلال القرون الوسطى درس فلاسفة كثيرون في أوربا كتب ابن رشد، كما ظهر منهم الرشديون. وأما العرب، فقد أهملوا العلوم العقلية بعد وفاة ابن رشد، وكان ذلك من بين العوامل التي أدت إلى انحطاط الحضارة العربية الإسلامية، منذ نهاية القرن الخامس عشر الميلادي إلى غاية النهضة العربية الحديثة.

الحروب الصليبية ونزعة الحب الكورتوازي د. محمد عباسة  

الحروب الصليبية التي شنها الأوربيون على العرب في الأندلس والمشرق لم تمر دون جني ثمارها الثقافية. فالحروب بين العرب والأوربيين هي عامل من العوامل التي أدت إلى انتقال بعض خصائص الحضارة العربية الإسلامية إلى أوربا. والحب الذي طرقه الشعراء العرب بكل موضوعاته يعد من أهم العناصر التي تأثر بها شعراء أوربا عند احتكاكهم بالعرب المسلمين أثناء الحروب وأوقات السلم في القرون الوسطى. نحاول من خلال هذه الدراسة أن نبين غرابة هذا الحب عن مقومات أوربا، وقد استخدمه الشعراء للثورة في وجه الإقطاع. لذلك بذلت الكنيسة قصارى جهدها لمحاربة الشعر الغزلي الذي يمجد المرأة، كما اضطهدت الشعراء الذين تبنوه، ومع ذلك، استطاع هذا الحب أن يغير عادات المجتمع الأوربي وقوانينه.

العلاقات الثقافية بين العرب والإفرنج خلال القرون الوسطى د. محمد عباسة  

كان لاتصال الأوربيين بالعرب في المشرق والأندلس خلال القرون الوسطى أثره البالغ في تطوير الفكر الأوربي. فالأوربيون الذين كانوا يعيشون في عصور مظلمة، بدأوا يهتمون بعلوم العرب منذ احتكاكهم بالأندلسيين. وأهم ما لجأوا إليه، هو تعلم اللغة العربية، والتردد على مدارس العرب بحواضر الأندلس لنهل العلم من شيوخها، وترجمة المعارف العربية الإسلامية من اللغة العربية إلى مختلف اللغات الأوربية. لقد قام علماء أوربا بالإضافة إلى بعض المسلمين واليهود، الذين وظّفهم الحكام الإفرنج في معاهدهم، بدور فعال في نقل علوم العرب إلى البلدان الأوربية. وفي هذه الدراسة، حاولنا تسليط الضوء على العوامل الرئيسية التي مكنت العلماء الأوربيين، في القرون الوسطى، من الاتصال بثقافة العرب ونشرها في البلدان الأوربية. هذه العوامل كانت من الأسباب الرئيسية التي أدت إلى تطوير الفكر الأوربي.

مصادر شعر التروبادور الغنائي د. محمد عباسة  

إذا كان الأوروبيون قد عرفوا الشعر منذ عصر قدماء اليونان، فالشعر الغنائي المقفى لم يظهر عندهم إلا في أوائل القرن الثاني عشر للميلاد في جنوب فرنسا. ويعد الشعراء التروبادور أول من نظم هذا النوع من الشعر الذي انتشر بسرعة مذهلة في أغلب أنحاء أوروبا. فالشعر التروبادوري الأوكسيتاني الذي يتغنى فيه الشاعر الجوال بالمرأة ويمجدها، لا يعكس تقاليد المجتمع الأوروبي في ذلك الوقت، بل هو شعر غريب تماما عن الأوروبيين وأوروبا في القرون الوسطى. هذا الشعر الجديد يشبه إلى حد كبير، في أشكاله ومضامينه الشعر العربي الأندلسي، وبوجه الخصوص الموشحات والأزجال. ولهذه الأسباب خصصنا هذا البحث لدراسة أصول وتشكيل الشعر الأوكسيتاني في العصور الوسطى.

المدرسة العربية في الأدب المقارن د. محمد عباسة  

ظهر الأدب المقارن في أوربا منذ الثلث الأول من القرن التاسع عشر واكتمل في أوائل القرن العشرين على يد رواد المدرسة التاريخية في فرنسا. وظل المنهج التاريخي سائدا وحده لدى المقارنين لأكثر من نصف قرن إلى أن ظهرت أزمة الأدب المقارن في الخمسينيات من القرن الماضي التي فجرها الدارسون الأمريكان، مما أدى إلى بزوغ مدارس أخرى تنافس المدرسة الفرنسية أو تجاورها، منها المدرسة الأمريكية والسلافية والألمانية وغيرها. لكن لا أحد فكر وقتئذ في تأسيس منهج عربي في الدراسات الأدبية المقارنة. وبالرجوع إلى تاريخ الدراسات الأدبية المقارنة عند العرب يتبين لنا أن هؤلاء، وخاصة رواد النهضة، قد سبقوا غيرهم في مثل هذه الدراسات، حتى وإن كانت بعض الأحكام ذاتية. وفي هذا البحث نحاول تحديد ملامح المدرسة العربية في مجال الأدب المقارن.

Bilinguisme et traduction en Andalousie Mohammed Abbassa  

Si l'Europe du Moyen Age, ne connait de l’art romain que peu de choses, elle ne savait absolument rien de celui des Grecs. Par ailleurs, les Arabes avaient traduit presque tous les ouvrages de la philosophie grecque. C’est pourquoi les Européens n’ont pas hésité à visiter souvent les villes andalouses et à y puiser, à la fois, les sciences arabes et la philosophie grecque. Cette étude est consacrée à la traduction des sciences arabes effectuée en Europe au Moyen Age par des savants chrétiens, musulmans et juifs. Un bon nombre d'ouvrages de la philosophie arabe et l'histoire des Musulmans ainsi que des œuvres littéraires ont été traduits de l'arabe aux différentes langues latines.

Les sources de l’amour courtois des troubadours Mohammed Abbassa  

La poésie lyrique et rimée n'apparut qu'au début du XIIe siècle dans le Sud de la France. Les poètes Troubadours étaient les précurseurs de cette nouvelle poésie qui fut rapidement propagée dans toute l'Europe. Cette poésie d'amour chevaleresque dans laquelle le poète idéalise la dame, ne reflète aucunement les traditions de la société européenne à l'époque, mais une poésie qui est tout à fait étrangère. Elle ressemble, en réalité, à la poésie andalouse. C'est pourquoi nous avons consacré cette recherche à l'étude des origines et la formation de la poésie des Troubadours occitans au Moyen Age.

Big or Small? Does Board Size Matter in Times of Financial Distress? Evidence from Kenyan Listed Firms - A panel Approach. Dr. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba Dr. Lydia Muriuki

The study sought to establish the effect of board size on financial distress of listed firms in Kenya. The study used a panel study of a 10 year firm observations from 2004-2013. The study utilized resource dependency theory to underpin the study. Financial distress was measured using Altman Z score. Random effect model was used to achieve the objective of the study. The study findings indicated that board size was positive but insignificant with financial distress of listed firms in Kenya (β=. 0.490>0.05). Board size does not matter in times of financial distress in Kenya. Few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of the board size with financial distress especially in the developing countries. This study contributes to the existing literature by examining such associations and providing updated empirical evidence from a developing country.

Deterministic Half Automata and Boolean Mappings Adrian Atanasiu  

The paper establishes a correspondence between the class of deterministic half automata with at most states and at most input characters, and the class of boolean mappings defined over a basic Boole algebra. In this correspondence all main properties of each concept (boolean mapping and half-automaton respectively) are preserved by the other concept.

Survey on the Family of the Recursive-Rule Extraction Algorithm Yoichi Hayashi Tomohiro Takagi

In this paper, we first review the theoretical and historical backgrounds on rule extraction from neural network ensembles. Because the structures of previous neural network ensembles were quite complicated, research on an efficient rule extraction algorithm from neural network ensembles has been sparse, even though a practical need exists for rule extraction in Big Data datasets. We describe the Recursive-Rule extraction (Re-RX) algorithm, which is an important step toward handling large datasets. Then we survey the family of the Recursive-Rule extraction algorithm, i.e. the Multiple-MLP Ensemble Re-RX algorithm, and present concrete applications in financial and medical domains that require extremely high accuracy for classification rules. Finally, we mention two promising ideas to considerably enhance the accuracy of the Multiple-MLP Ensemble Re-RX algorithm. We also discuss developments in the near future that will make the Multiple-MLP Ensemble Re-RX algorithm much more accurate, concise, and comprehensible rule extraction from mixed datasets.

An Improved All-Pass Filter Design Using Closed-Form Toeplitz-plus-Hankel Matrix Yue-Dar Jou Fu-Kun Chen

The least-squares design of infinite impulse response all-pass filter can be formulated as to solve a system of linear equations without directly computing a matrix inversion. The set of linear equations associated matrix is further expressed as a Toeplitz-plus-Hankel matrix such that the optimal filter coefficients are efficiently solved by employing a robust Cholesky decomposition or the split Levinson technique. This paper proposes closed-form expressions for efficiently computing Toeplitz-plus-Hankel matrix based on trigonometric identities. The closed-form expressions of the Toeplitz-plus-Hankel matrix can be directly evaluated as the passband edges are specified without sampling the frequency band as that of the previous computing-efficiency algorithm. The proposed new and simpler closed-form expressions are indicated from simulation results to accurately improve the design performance as well as achieve computational efficiency.

Simulation and Quantitative Analysis of Branching Patterns of the Plum Tree Ning Xia Aishuang Li

Background and Aims: Pruning fruit tree is undoubtedly a critical cultural practice which leads to sustainable production along with profitability of the trees. Several limitations of classic approaches pertaining to studying pruning techniques based mostly on fruit yields and quality evaluations have kept us from thoroughly understanding the growth habits of branches under field conditions. A simulation model of branching patterns of the plum tree (Prunus salicina cv. Sanhua) introduced in this paper enables both non-professionals and professionals to better understand and predict pruning effects on branching pattern and fruiting habit of the trees. The visual comparison of branching and fruiting characteristic of the prunedparent shootprovides immediate feedback on different pruning intensities at the level of shoots.
Methods: Semi-Markov chains were built with diverse initial probabilities, transition probabilities and occupancy distributions to describe the number of occurrence of girl shoots along the pruned parent shoot. Branching structures were reconstructed using AmapSim computer software with different shoot types, considering topological and geometrical functions.
Key Results: The results demonstrated different branching zones in the pruned parent shoot were found in the same order. Moderate heading back and slight heading back parent shoots differed in short shoot position. Of all pruning intensities, the branching zone in severe heading back parent shoots was shorter than the sylleptic branching zone. The three-dimensional reconstruction images of pruned parent shoots displayed illustrative examples to elucidate proper pruning technique among three pruning intensities.
Conclusions: Severe heading back parent shoot had a strong branching capability. In comparison with moderate heading back, slight heading back parent shoot had a higher proportion of fruiting zones, therefore the latter is usually considered balancing vegetative and reproductive growth in the conventional pruning of plum trees.
The stochastic model could serve as a feasibility groundwork against which quantitative differences in branching structures of prune parent shoot under different pruning systems can be compared.

A Framework for Calculating the Failure Probability of Natural Gas Pipeline Kai Wen Jing Gong

Reliability based design and assessment (RBDA) technique is a developing direction of natural gas pipeline design method. In this paper, a framework for calculating the failure probability of natural gas pipeline is proposed. First, Java reflection mechanism is used in the management of the limit state functions, which enables the separation of the limit state algorithms and the calculations of the failure probability. Under this framework, more newly developed equations can be add into the library of the software readily. Second, a Monte Carlo reliability analysis algorithm capable of incorporating the basic input parameters and limit state functions is used to calculate failure probability of pipelines. Third, a post data processing algorithm is used to improve the efficiency. Finally, an example on natural gas pipeline is presented to illustrate the availability and effectiveness of the software. Experimental results indicate the ability of the proposed framework for pipeline quality control.

Inter-Process Communication for Digital-Human Model Inter-Connectivity Andrew Taylor Tim Marler

Digital human models (DHMs) provide tools for simulating human performance and capabilities, which allow users to evaluate any product or process virtually. As applications for DHMs expand substantially, so does the necessity for more complex and more accurate models. This in turn requires coupling of sometimes co-located sub-models for simulating various aspects of the human. In addition, DHMs are used in conjunction with other types of (non-human) models in order to evaluate products and processes, and this also necessitate integrated systems for seamless concurrent engineering. This level of multi-scale modeling and human systems integration requires a new inter-process communication (IPC) system specifically for DHMs. Thus, this paper provides a new architecture for peer-to-peer IPC. The proposed system uses a TCP/IP protocol for necessary security and for ensuring all data packets are received in order. The system has been designed to facilitate an uninterrupted workflow, which is critical for applications that involve concurrent team-oriented analysis and design. In addition, this new system supports multiple connection mediums and facilitates variations in the number of users. The common issues of blocking and potential lost data have been addressed. Test cases demonstrate superior computational speed.

Techniques and Tools for Web Requirements in NDT, UWE and WebML José Alfonso Aguilar Aníbal Zaldívar-Colado

Requirements Engineering (RE) is one of the serious issues for software construction. In the scientific literature we can find several reasons of this affirmation, is spite of this, most of the development process of new software crash due to wrong requirements phase. Several proposals exist for requirements modelling, analysis and elicitation in Software Engineering (SE), however the current market is focusing on the development of Web and mobile applications, specially using Model-Driven methods, this is the reason why we consider it necessary to know the techniques and tools for requirements modelling, analysis and elicitation applied in Model-Driven Web Engineering in order to know their gaps and current trends to propose new solutions. To do this, the most important methods were selected outside the academic area such as NDT, UWE and WebML. A total of 63 publications from ACM, IEEE, Science Direct, DBLP and World Wide Web had been reviewed.

Metamodel-Driven Design of Database Applications Pave P. Oleynik  

This article describes the unified metamodel of object system which can be used for Metamodel-Driven Design (MMDD) of information system. At the beginning of the work carried out in-depth analysis of existing studies devoted to the organization different metamodels. Metamodel for representing fragments in thefigures presented class diagrams of Unified Modeling Language (UML). The metamodel is realized by the author in own environment of development SharpArchitect RAD Studio. In the beginning of this article provides a general diagram which displays important associations. Next are separately shown metaclasses hierarchy which representing the entity classes of domain. There are also metaclasses to represent different types of class attributes. In addition, there are metaclasses to represent methods validation rules and visualization rules. This allows the system to implement the behavior the need for object-oriented design and allows to configure the graphical user interface. Each hierarchy is described in detail with an indication of abstract and concrete classes and associations in which they participate.
Any database system can be developed in terms of a unified metamodel of object system described in detail in this article. This work provides links to the work that is described in detail the experience of using the described metamodel. As further development of the work the author suggest the development of a formal mathematical apparatus describing applied domains and the development of UML-profile that facilitates the process of logical design of information systems in the framework of the proposed approach.This paper describes a practical experience of the implementation of the authors of information system that automates the activities of a fast food restaurant. We studied in detail the functionality a similar system of the most popular in Russia.

Proposal of a Model for IT Service Continuity Management Wagner Hiroshi Ueno Anderson de Souza Góes

Micro and small companies in the software area now represent more than 90% of organizations in the country and grow 6% annually on average. However, the lack of planning in these companies in business continuity management contributes to their mortality when problems occur, such as disasters and disruption of system services. The implementation of IT Service Continuity Management as a tool for planning would be the solution. This research presents the current level of maturity of these companies in a Micro scenario and Small IT Companies in Paraná, at Londrina and Cascavel region.

Simulation and Visualization of Nectarine Branching and Fruiting Responses to Pruning Using PrungingSim Software Ning Xia Aishuang Li

In this paper, we present a software tool named PruningSim dedicated to dynamic simulation and visualization of plants. The kernel framework provides various classes for event manager to schedule the handling of different types of events. The simulation in PruningSim platform is based on Markov model corresponding to branching processes in plants. Topological and geometrical parameters can be assigned automatically or modified manually in the simple graphical user interface. Visualization and image setting option is also available. Furthermore, we present one case study for simulation nectarine branches' responses to pruning intensities using PruningSim.

An Efficient Heuristic for a Discrete Optimization Problem Nodari Vakhania Elisa Chinos

In this paper we deal with a discrete optimization problem, which, among many other such problems, is computationally intractable. Since the existence of an exact solution algorithm for our problem is highly unlikely, the development of heuristic and approximation algorithms is of a great importance. Here we briefly discuss this issue and describe a robust 2-approximation heuristic that is used for getting an approximation solution for the problem of scheduling jobs with release times and due-dates on a single machine to minimize the maximum job lateness

A Multiple Feature Fusion System for Fingerprint Recognition Franglin Chen Ming Li

A number of different features, besides minutiae, have been used for fingerprint matching. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a fingerprint recognition system can be improved by combining these features with minutiae through a fusion strategy. However, most of these studies extract only a single type of feature for fingerprint recognition, and then fuse it with conventional minutiae-based method to improve performance. In this paper, in order to select the best fusion of fingerprint features, a comparative study of combining multiple features is firstly carried out on several fingerprint databases. All the comparing results show that, generally the more features being used, the better the performance is. However, beyond four features, the performance improvement is negligible. Based on these observations, a multi-feature based fingerprint recognition system using the best combination of the four features is proposed. The experimental results comparing to the-state-of-art algorithm show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

A Short Survey of Image Super Resolution Algorithms Dongdong Huang Heng Liu

Image super resolution is to estimate a high resolution image from a low resolution image or a sequence of low resolution images using image processing and machine learning technology. So far, there have emerged lots of super resolution algorithms. According to the input number of image, these algorithms can usually be divided as single image based algorithm and multiple images based algorithm. And according to technique principle, these algorithms can also be divided into three categories - interpolation based algorithm, reconstruction based algorithm and learning based one. This work mainly addresses the basic principle and different strategy of super resolution algorithms in detail. Then, the evaluation criteria and its application issues of super resolution are also discussed in the end.

Formalism Describing the Object Models for Domains on a Unified Metamodel of Object-Oriented Database Applications Terms Pavel P. Oleynik  

This article presents a formal description of object models in terms of unified object-oriented database applications metamodel. The metamodel was developed by the author and independent of the domain area. The metamodel is realized by the author in own environment of development SharpArchitect RAD (Rapid Application Development) Studio. On the basis of the metamodel we using set theory proposed formal approach to the description of the model application domains.

A Stochastic Model to Describe the Fruit Number and Position on Long Peach (Prunus Persicae) Shoot Ning Xia Aishuang Li

A stochastic model of fruit number and position on a long peach (Prunus persica cv. yingzhui) shoot of 10-year-old tree is presented. In model there are generally 3 states in which state 2 represents that a node with two fruits, state 1 represents that a node with one fruit, state 0 represents that a node without fruit. Parameters of model are estimated using the STAT module of Matlab software. The observed data are sampled from mature trees at two harvest seasons during two years in a row (2013-2014) in Lianping, Guangdong, China. Results indicate that upper nodes usually have one fruit, middle nodes have no more than one to two fruits, and most of basal nodes have zero to one fruit. The total number of fruits increases with the number of remaining nodes after pruning. Occupancy distributions of different states in model demonstrate that pruned long shoots had 5 to 7 fruits, whereas unpruned long shoots averaged more than 10 fruits. The fruit distributions on the shoots follow a well-defined pattern: nodes that bear one or two fruits were significantly higher in the median part of the shoot but lower on the basal and distal nodes. In addition, three-dimensional representations of the fruit position were reconstructed using PruningSim software.

UML-Profile for Metamodel-Driven Design of Database Applications Pavel P. Oleynik Vasyliy I. Gurianov

The article presents a UML profile for a software development environment Sharp Architect RAD Studio. This tool is intended to agile design of object-oriented databases. The main part of the article contains the description of the profile metamodel. There is an example of the profile usage. At the end of the article the authors draw some conclusions and plan future works.

Characterizing Faults on Real-Time Systems Based on Grid Automata Adilson Luiz Bonifacio Gilson Doi

Real-time systems are, in general, critical systems that interact with the environment through input and output events regulated by time constraints. The testing activity on systems of this nature requires rigorous approaches due to their critical aspects. Model-based testing approaches rely on formalisms that provide more reliability to testing activities. However, a model-based testing approach for real-time systems depends on techniques that can deal with continuous evolution of time appropriately. Several testing approaches apply discretization techniques in order to represent continuous behavior of timed models. Test suites can then be extracted from discretized models to support conformance testing between specifications and their respective implementations. Therefore an evaluation of test suites considering a fault coverage is an important task, but rarely addressed by model-based testing approaches for real-time systems. In this work we propose a systematic strategy to identify faults in TIOA models based on their corresponding discretized models. We precisely define a fault model to support model-based testing activities such as coverage analysis and test case generation.

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