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Title Author 1 Author 2 Abstract PDF
Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance of State Corporation in Kenya. Ogolla Judith Atieno Dr. Eng. Thomas A. Senaji

Leadership is vital in the overall performance of any organization. The leadership chosen is dependent on various contingent factors. The environment influences the link between leadership and performance. The combination of the various factors contributes to the leadership selected which influences the performance of the organization. Over the past three decades, transformational leadership has emerged as one of the predominant paradigms to understand leadership efficacy. Transformational leadership theory is based on the concept that certain leader behaviors transform followers' values, needs, preferences, and aspirations, and motivate them, “to perform above and beyond the call of duty”. Transformational leadership has gained extensive attention in the literature research because of its potential proposition for the performance of the organizations. Research indicates that this type of leadership can collectively influence workforce performance and loyalty leading to improvements in the workers motivation and creativity. In consideration to the past decades research findings and strength this forms the foundation for this study research on the importance of transformational leadership through its four constructs; idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration and their influence on organizational performance in fifty five state corporation in Kenya with commercial and strategic functions. A total of 257 surveys instrument questionnaires were distributed with 235 retuned and 215 were suitable for use. The data was analyzed using multiple regressions method with a significance level of p < 0.05. The measurement instrument used was on five likert scale ranging from strongly disagree as 1 to strongly agree as 5. The results indicate that while transformational leadership and three of its constructs; inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration contributed to 78.6 percent of the variation in organizational performance; idealized influence was moderately a significant factor contributing to the study outcomes. Top Leadership management may need to focus on these constructs of transformational leadership to improve performance of the organizations understudy

Maarif Mektepleri-International Journal of Educational Sciences Davut Sarıtaş  

MM-IJES is an international, peer-reviewed, non-profit, professional scientific journal. MM-IJES is a journal that accepts manuscripts related to educational sciences. The journal is published online two times in a year. The article being submitted should be either in Turkish or English. MM-IJES publishes research employing a variety of qualitative and/or quantitative methods and approaches in all areas of the education field. MM-IJES welcomes articles from different institutions and countries.

The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Disaster Management: A Case study of Bam Earthquake, Iran Saeed Fallah Jhila Hosseini nejad

Introduction: On December 26, 2003, a devastating earthquake jolted historic city of Bam in Iran. About 26000 people were killed and more than 30000 were injured. The historic monuments including the 2500 year old Arg-e Bam were destroyed severely. Since the scale of the disaster and the number of human casualties was high, management of the crisis became more complicated. Thus, people who were affiliated with different Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) helped the government to rescue the affected people.
Methods: In the present case study, by interviewing experts and NGOs, their contribution and activities in Bam earthquake were investigated.
Results: A few hours after the earthquake, the local and international NGOs started their rescue activities spontaneously and continued their help even during the reconstruction period. Their activities included relief and rescue, food support, sanitation, treatments, emergency settlement, as well as providing physiological treatment and training. It was shown that the affected people were satisfied with NGOs’ activities while governmental organizations could not coordinate well with them.
Conclusion: Well organized civilian and religious groups can be helpful for governmental organizations in assisting people affected by the earthquake. Therefore, different techniques were proposed to improve the process of preparedness and response during disasters and to have a better communication and coordination between governmental organizations (that are in charge of the crisis situations) and NGOs.
Keywords: Disasters, Earthquakes, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Bam, Iran

Terrorist Shooting to Responders’ Cars in Tehran Terrorist Attack in 2017: A Case Report Ahad Heydari  

No Abstract

A Study of the Change in Housewives’ Knowledge and Attitude toward Household Emergency Kit in Yazd, 2015-2016 Azadeh Fatehpanah  

Introduction: The occurrence of natural disasters and their consequences cannot be eliminated. The earthquake is one of the characteristics of our planet, which alone has killed thousands of people, worldwide.
Considering the seismicity of Iran and the necessity of preparedness and education of people about the appropriate and timely approach to this event, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the changes in housewives’ knowledge and attitude toward household emergency kit in Yazd in 2015-2016.
Methods: To achieve the purpose of this study, a valid and reliable questionnaire which asked about the demographics, knowledge, and attitude, was delivered. After completion of the questionnaire by the individuals, a training pamphlet that covered information about the earthquake, the importance of earthquake protection, and the items, provision, and maintenance of emergency kit was provided to each participant. After that, the participants were asked to fill out a similar questionnaire to the one that she had already completed.
Results: According to the findings the mean scores of knowledge before and after education were significantly different (P<0.05), that is, education increased knowledge of the women. In all age populations, the mean attitude score increased but the increase was not significant (P>0.05). There was no significant difference among different education levels (P>0.05), in other words, people from the baseline had a high positive attitude toward learning and gaining information about earthquake and emergency kit. No significant difference was observed in the attitude change with respect to the type of house ownership (P>0.05). In overall, the mean scores of attitude before and after education were not significantly different. In other words, people from the first had a high positive attitude toward education and learning about earthquake and emergency kit.
Conclusion: The present study confirms that the people of the community have understood the importance of obtaining necessary information and earthquake preparedness. Therefore, they need education and should learn and use the materials about earthquake preparedness. It is thus recommended that training programs be provided in the form of booklets, pamphlets, or short media programs to raise knowledge of the people.

Keywords: Attitude, Earthquake, Emergency kit, Knowledge.

Health and Treatment Network Response to Flood, a Natural Disaster (Case Report) Seyed Akbar Hosseini Fatemeh Taheri

Introduction: Flood is a sudden disaster resulting from snow and rain overflow, breaking dam walls, broken floodgates in a few hours. Flood is more than a normal overflow of water. Such a situation is considered as a disaster if it puts human life in danger. Heavy and consistent rain can cause flood in a very short period of time. This study aimed to investigate the response of Nour city health and treatment network to the 2016 flood of Nour in Mazandaran.
Methods: In this case-descriptive study, data was collected and analyzed using checklist and statistical forms of the Ministry of Health through observation, interviewing and reviewing of existing documentation and in-person visits of healthcare staff experts.
Results: Due to the heavy rainfall and its coincidence with snow melting in Chamestan and Baladeh regions, a severe flood followed. Immediately a rapid health assessment was carried out. Home-to-home care increased. Eighteen kilograms of perchlorine were distributed and 212 cases were tested in terms of chlorine amount. Furthermore, mental health services, non-communicable diseases, and mothers and children health services were provided. None of medical facilities and health centers in the area was evacuated and no population evacuation had taken place.
Conclusion: Considering the importance of intersectional cooperation in disaster management, it is important to consider sensitization of relevant authorities in order to draw their attention to common preventive measures. Beside the proper crisis Management in the health network of Nour, with respect to the high frequency occurrence of floods in the city, in order to keep the healthcare staff prepared, it is necessary to formulate and practice the response program while assessing risks.
Keywords: Disasters, Flood, Nour Health Networks, Response Nour

The Effect of Integrated Management System on Risk Priority Number of Environmental Assessment by FMEA Method in Yazd PersepolisTile Factory Rohollah Fallah Madvari Yousef Mohammadian

Introduction: Considering the increasing trend of implementing integrated management system (IMS) in different industries to improve safety and health standards, environment and quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of IMS system on environmental indicators using FMEA method and risk priority number (RPN). Indicators were compared before and after the IMS implementation.
Methods: This is an interventional research that was carried out in a Persepolis tile factory during the years 2010-2011 (before the intervention) and the years 2012 to 2014 (when IMS system was implemented). First, environmental pollution activities were identified, and then RPN was obtained using the product of the intensity, probability, and detection. Considering the acceptable level for the organization and the Pareto charts (80:20), unacceptable RPNs were identified and corrective actions were taken.
Results: The average RPN decreased from 2010 to 2014. Although activities has increased due to expansion of the production line, the results showed that in 2012 (the beginning of IMS implementation) and 2014, RPN was significantly decreased.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the implementation of the IMS has had a significant effect on the environmental assessment indicators by FMEA method and has improved environmental conditions.
Keywords: Integrated Management System, Risk Assessment, Environment, Risk Priority Number, Tile Industry

Fall Injuries Prevention among Rural Population, with Contribution of Rural Health Workers Mohammadreza Shokouhi  

Introduction: Fall injuries are one of the important health problems in worldwide. Knowledge about fall injuries is limited in low and middle-income countries in general and in Iran in particular. This study aims to document the epidemiology of injuries among rural community and to determine how fall injury is controlled and prevented community health workers, known as Behvarzes.
Methods: The study was a six-month prospective injury data collection that took place in rural area of Toyserkan County, located in Iran, focused on severe injuries. About 100 subjects were investigated and documented by all Behvarzes using the logbook. At the end of data collection Behvarzes were gathered in a number of group sessions to reflect about injury prevention measures and barriers in the community.
Results: A total of 23 severe fall injuries (two fatal) were reported during the follow-up period with an annual estimated incidence rate of 8/10 000 (95% CI: 6-11). The incidence rate of severe falls was significantly higher among males than females (12/10 000 vs. 3/10 000 person-years). Fall injury rate was also higher among people over 65 years (24/10 000 person-years). The injury analyses revealed that Behvarzes often considered that the adoption of safe behaviour/practice could help fall injuries prevention (17 out of 23). Furthermore, barriers or risk factors for fall injury prevention were related mostly to human factors (for all 23 cases) followed by physical environmental factors.
Conclusion: It seems community health workers(known as Behvarzes) are aware and can provide the variety of suggestions and can determine several context- relevant countermeasures for fall injury prevention and even highlight potential barriers to be prevented in their areas.
Keywords: Community Health Workers, Counter Measures for Prevention, Fall Injuries; Middle-income countries, Rural Communities

Surveillance of Foodborne Illnesses in Association with Ecological Conditions in Yazd Province, Iran Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush Mohammad Mehdi Soltandallal

Introduction: The role of surveillance system is to supporting the early identification of diseases by the monitoring of the ecological conditions such as climatic events, natural disasters, and demographic parameters in order to access timely public health functional responses. Food and water supply quality are the essential factors in foodborne illness incidence rates that might be influenced by environmental conditions. So Therefore, that detecting on the unacceptable numbered cases that suffered from foodborne illness in Yazd touristic province of Iran was considered as the main goal of this study.
Methods: The methodology of investigation was In the present study, recognizing the gastrointestinal illness relationships with temporal climatic parameters in geographical scatter parts of the Province during 2012-2016 was done by using multilevel regression analysis model. The analyses were done using Stata software, version 14.
Results: studying the 729 cases of foodborne diseases related to climatic variations in Yazd Providence, 64 cases of Salmonellosis, 68 cases of shigellosis, 91 cases of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and 57 cases of Citrobacter freundii foodborne disease were found. Moreover, the highest incidence rates of foodborne illness were in 2013 and in summer. The output of the analyses indicated that relative humidity, rainfall, and dust suspended condition have been associated with the cases of foodborne illness in different cities of Yazd province by using State 14 statistical software.
Conclusion: The ecological conditions have various roles on in foodborne disease incidence rates in different cities of Yazd province. Therefore, further investigations are needed for detecting the regional climatic impacts and more important epidemiologic factors should be considered for the control of foodborne diseases.
Key words: Climate change, Foodborne Diseases, Epidemiology, Yazd, Iran

Is the Management of Tehran Disaster through Designated Auxiliary Provinces Scientific and Practical? Ali Asgari  

No Abstract


Çalışanların mesleklerine ilişkin bilgi ve becerilerini, görüşlerini örgütlerinde bilinçli olarak ifade etmemeleri durumu olan örgütsel sessizlik, örgütlerin gelişim ve başarıları önündeki önemli bir engel olarak görülmektedir. Öğrencilerin de birey olarak davranışsal sessizlik içinde olmaları mezun olduklarında çalışma ve toplumsal hayatlarında bireysel olarak kuruma ve topluma vereceği katkı, kararlara katılım düzeyi, bu ve benzeri olumlu davranışlardaki istekliliği, yaratıcılığı da mesleki başarısı açısından önemli görülmektedir. Davranışların analizi örgütlerin daha etkin yönetilebilmeleri için önemli görülmektedir. Bireylerin gösterdikleri davranışlar gelişimin başarısı için önemlidir. Bu çerçevede sessizlik davranışı örgütlerin, toplumların ve nihayetinde ülkelerin gelişmesini engelleyici bir unsur olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu çalışma, meslek yüksekokulunda okuyan 189 katılımcı öğrencinin davranışsal sessizliğini incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Örneklemde cinsiyet ve medeni durum farkına ilişkin istatistiki anlamlılıkta bir fark olup olmadığına bakılmıştır. Araştırma; literatürel anlamda çalışılmadığı düşünülen “öğrencilerin örgütsel sessizliği” veya bu makale de adlandırılan “davranışsal sessizlik” konusunda farkındalık yaratmayı hedef almaktadır.


İnsanlığın ilk zamanlarına kadar uzanan evlilik müessesi, tarihin her döneminde neredeyse bütün toplumlarda önemli bir müessese olarak kabul edilmiştir. Toplumun temelini teşkil eden böylesine önemli bir müessese için dinler birtakım ilkeler ortaya koymuştur. Evlilikte önemli hususlardan birisi olan kefâet (denklik) de birçok din ve toplumlarda farklı şekillerde uygulanmakla beraber İslâm Aile Hukukunda bu konu üzerinde önemle durulmuştur. İslâm hukuku evlilikle ilgili prensipler koyarken, evliliğin kalıcılığını sağlama yönüyle eşler arasındaki uyumun ve denkliğin önemine dikkat çekmiştir. Bu uyum ve denklik ise evlenecek kişiler arasında nesep (soy), baba ve dedenin Müslüman olması, dindarlık, hürriyet, meslek, mal ve zenginliğin bulunması, fiziki kusurların bulunmaması gibi birçok hususlarda uyum ve denkliğin olması ile gerçekleşmektedir. Evlilik sosyal ve dinî bir yükümlülük olduğundan Kur’an-ı Kerim onu ağır ve önemli bir sözleşme (misâk-ı galiz) olarak vasıflandırmıştır.

İslâm, fıtrata uygun bir din olma özelliği ile insanoğlunun fıtrî duygularının meşru yollardan tatmin edilmesine müsaade etmiş ve ona bunun yollarını göstermiştir. Evlilik, fıtrî duygulardan birçoğunun tatmin edilmesinde önemli bir kurumdur. Doyumlu bir evlilik yaşantısı, eşlerin birbirine ne kadar uygun olduklarıyla doğrudan ilişkilidir. Ailenin huzurlu olmasının ilk koşulu eşler arasındaki uyum ve anlaşmadır. Uyumlu beraberliklerin hayatı kolaylaştıracağı, güzelleştireceği ve zenginleştireceği söylenir. Eş seçmede, evlenecek kişilerin benzer yönlerinin çok olmasının, evlilikte başarı şansını artıracağına inanılır. Eşler arasındaki benzerlikler evlilik hayatını kolaylaştıracağı gibi, farklılıklar da zorlaştırabilir. Bu yüzden evlilikte ekonomik durum, dini inanç, ırk, eğitim, yaş, sosyal değerler acısından eşlerin önemli ölçüde birbirlerine yakın ve benzer olmaları istenir. Bu itibarla İslâm Aile hukukunun, sonradan olabilecek olaylar için, önceden tedbir olarak denklik (kefâet) ilkesine dikkat çekmesi, kişinin en sağlıklı evliliği ancak kendine denk bir eşle devam ettirebileceği düşüncesinden ileri gelmektedir. İslâm’da kadın, kendisine denk olan birisini seçtiği sürece istediğiyle evlenmekte serbesttir. İstemediği biriyle zorla evlendirilmesi söz konusu değildir. Küçükken velisi tarafından yapılmış nikâhı da bozma hakkına sahiptir. Eş seçimi konusunda babaların söz sahibi olduğu bir dönemde, kadına tanınan bu serbestlik İslâm’ın kadına verdiği değer bakımından dikkat çekicidir. İslâm hukukuna göre evlilikte kefâet şartı kadında değil erkekte aranmaktadır. Diğer bir ifadeyle erkeğin zikredilen hususlarda en az kadının seviyesinde veya ondan üstün olması gerekir. Kadın evlenmekle erkeğin ailesine intisab edeceği için erkeğin kendisine denk olmayan bir kadınla evlenebileceği, kadının ise kendine denk olmayan bir erkekle evlenemeyeceği belirtilmiştir. Böylece, velisinin izni ve bilgisi dışında evlenen kadının hakları korunmaya ve kadının evlendikten sonra baba ocağına gör


Türkiye, gelişmekte olan ülkeler kategorisinde bir ülkedir. Gelişmekte olan ülkeler henüz gelişmelerini tamamlayamadıkları için bölgeler arasında coğrafi şekiller, iklim, nüfus yapısı, kültür ve bilgi düzeyi gibi çeşitli sebeplerden dolayı bölgeler arası kalkınma ve gelişmişlik düzeyinde farklılıklar görülmektedir. Bu farklılıkların görülmesi gayet normal karşılanmakla birlikte, hükümetlerin bu farklılıkları giderme konusunda yıllardır yaptığı çalışmaların hala bir sonuç vermemiş olması düşündürücüdür.

Türkiye, kurulduğu ilk günden beri bölgesel kalkınma çalışmalarına uzak kalmış, ulusal ölçekli kalkınmaya ağırlık vermiştir. Ulusal ölçekli kalkınmanın tek istisnası Doğu Anadolu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu bölgeleri olmuş, bu bölgelere zaman zaman popülist amaçlarla da olsa pozitif ayrımcılık yapılmıştır.

Bölgesel seviyede altyapı yatırımları cumhuriyetin kurulmasıyla hız kazanmış, bu anlamda yerel yönetimlerin büyük etkisi olmuştur. Bazı yatırımlar için yapılan arazi tahsisleri, organize sanayi bölgeleri ve sanayi siteleri oluşturulması, çiftçi ve sanayicinin kredi ve teşviklerle desteklenmesi ile ilerlemeler sağlanmıştır fakat çalışmalar bunlarla sınırlı kalmıştır.

Oysa bölgesel planlama, bazı meziyetler gerektirmekle birlikte, olumlu sonuçlar doğurması devlet ve hükümet destekleri ile söz konusudur. Bu destekler tek başına yeterli olmamakla birlikte, çeşitli alanlarda uzmanlaşmış kadrolar, çağdaş bir dünya görüşü ve yaratıcılık da içermelidir.


Türkiye büyük Millet Meclisi tarafından saltanatın ilgasına karar verilmiş olması ülkenin her tarafında ve bilhassa İstanbul’da heyecanlı kutlamalarla karşılanmıştı. Bu karardan sonra hiçbir hükmü ve mevkii kalmayan ve esasen gayri meşru olan Tevfik Paşa hükümeti, iki günlük bir tereddütten sonra 4 Kasımda toplanmış, durumu bir daha gözden geçirmiş ve istifaya karar vermişti. Bu arada Mudanya Konferansından sonra, çözümlenecek iki önemli mesele daha kalmıştır. Bunlardan biri sulh konferansına gönderilecek heyet ve bu heyete başkanlık edecek şahsın tayini idi. İkinci husus ise, Şarkı Trakya’nın teslimi meselesi idi. Fevkalade yetki ile bu vazifeye getirilecek kimse, bütün Türkiye’nin ve bilhassa İstanbul’un tanıdığı ve sevdiği olmalıydı. Mustafa Kemal Paşa ile Rauf Bey, Rafet Paşa’yı münasip görmüşlerdi. Meclise arz ederek, meclisin onayını almışlardı. Rafet Paşa, Milli Mücadelede hizmetleri ile şöhret bulmuş bir kumandan idi. Rafet Paşa, İstanbul’daki vazifesi hakkında Mustafa Kemal Paşa’dan bazı hususi talimat da almıştı. Bu sıralarda, Sadrazam Tevfik Paşa’dan sulh konferansına beraberce gidilmesi hakkındaki telgraf Ankara’ya ulaşmıştı. Bu telgraf saltanatın kaldırılmasını belirleyen bir unsur olacaktır. Rafet Paşa bu telgrafı görmüş, İstanbul’da takınacağı tavır, bilhassa saltanat ve Hilafet makamına dair sarf edeceği sözler konusunda Mustafa Kemal Paşa ile anlaşmış ve İstanbul’daki vazifesi hakkında Mustafa Kemal Paşa’dan bazı hususi talimat da almıştı. Bu sıralarda, Sadrazam Tevfik Paşa’dan sulh konferansına beraberce gidilmesi hakkındaki telgraf Ankara’ya ulaşmıştı. Bu telgraf saltanatın kaldırılmasını belirleyen bir unsur olacaktır. Rafet Paşa bu telgrafı görmüş, İstanbul’da takınacağı tavır, bilhassa saltanat ve Hilafet makamına dair sarf edeceği sözler konusunda Mustafa Kemal Paşa ile anlaşmıştı. Refet Paşa İstanbul’a vardığı gün, milli hükümetin ilk mümessili tanınarak karşılaştığı muazzam tezahürattan çok güzel istifade ederek, hala İstanbul da bulunan işgal kuvvetlerine, Babıâli’ye ve Padişaha rağmen bu güzel şehrimizi, Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükümetinin bir vilayeti halinde, anavatana bağlamaya muvaffak oldu. Bu sırada Şarkı Trakya’nın tahliyesi de devam ediyordu. Edirne Valiliğine Şakir Bey (Kesebir) tayin edilmişti. Rafet paşa’ya İstanbul’da yapılan büyük karşılama merasimi ve paşanın fazla heyecana kapılarak sık sık irat ettiği hitabeler, Ankara’da ve bilhassa Büyük Millet Meclisinde bazı mebusların lüzumsuz ve aynı zamanda manasız kıskançlığa sebep olmuştu. Askeri mahdut olmakla beraber bir kısım mebuslar:
-Refet Paşa bu beyanatları hangi salahiyetle yapmaktadır? Büyük Millet Meclisi’nin ve hükümetinin salahiyetine nasıl tecavüz edebilir? Diyorlardı. Bu mebuslardan biri Ali Fuat Paşa’ya da meseleyi açmış:
Öyle değimli paşam, siz de her halde böyle düşünüyorsunuz. Diyecek olmuştu. Ali Fuat Paşa, bu mebusa belki biraz sert fakat susturucu bir cevap vermiştir.


Ülkemizde 15/07/2016 tarihinde yaşanan darbe kalkışması akabinde Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası’nın 120 ve 121. Maddelerinde yer alan düzenlemeler kapsamında ülke genelinde 21/07/2016 tarihli Resmi Gazete’ de yayımlanan Cumhurbaşkanı başkanlığında toplanan Bakanlar Kurulu’nun 2016/9064 Sayılı Kararı ile olağanüstü hal (OHAL) ilan edilmiştir. Hükümet yetkililerin ilk açıklamalarında; darbe girişiminde bulunan terör örgütünün tüm unsurlarıyla ve süratle bertaraf edilebilmesi, ülkede demokrasi, temel hak ve hürriyetleri ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik şiddet hareketlerinin mevcut olması sebepleriyle Milli Güvenlik Kurulu’nun görüşü alınarak OHAL ilan edilmesi kararının alındığı vurgulanmıştır. OHAL ilanının ülkemizde demokrasiye, hukuk devletine, vatandaşların hak ve özgürlüklerine yönelik tehdidi ortadan kaldırmak için gereken adımların en etkin ve hızlı şekilde atılabilmesi gerekliliğinden kaynaklandığı ve bu uygulamanın kesinlikle demokrasiye, hukuka ve özgürlüklere karşı olmadığı, tam tersine bu değerleri koruma ve güçlendirme amacına yönelik olduğu ifade edilmiştir.
Anayasamızda, “Olağanüstü Yönetim Usulleri” başlığı altında düzenlenen OHAL ilanı ile birlikte 121/son fıkrasında öngörülen; “Olağanüstü hal süresince, Cumhurbaşkanının başkanlığında toplanan Bakanlar Kurulu, olağanüstü halin gerekli kıldığı konularda, kanun hükmünde kararnameler çıkarabilir” düzenlemesi kapsamında ülke vatandaşlarını ve gündelik hayatı doğrudan etkileyen kanun hükmünde kararnameler hazırlanarak yürürlüğe konulmuştur. Bu düzenlemelerden biri de 15/08/2016 Tarihli Resmi Gazete’ de yayımlanan “Olağanüstü Hal Kapsamında Bazı Düzenlemeler Yapılması Hakkında 674 Sayılı Kanun Hükmünde Kararname” nin 38, 39 ve 40. maddeleri ile 5393 sayılı Belediye Kanuna ek düzenlemeler ile mahalli idare yapılanması içerisinde yer alan ve organlarının seçimle belirlenmesi Anayasamızca öngörülen belediyelerin başkan, başkan vekili ve meclis üyeliklerine görevlendirme usul ve esasları düzenlenmiştir.
Bu çalışmamızda belediye organları için görevlendirme uygulamasının mevzuat ve pratik uygulaması hakkında bilgi verilmeye çalışılacaktır.


İki kardeş kavim olarak adlandırılan Peçenekler ile Kuman-Kıpçaklar, 582 yılında Göktürk Kağanlığı’nın ikiye ayrılmasından sonra oluşan Batı Göktürk Kağanlığı’na tabi idiler. Kaşgarlı Mahmud tarafından kaleme alınan Divan-ü Lugati’t Türk’e göre yirmi dört Oğuz boyundan birisi olarak ifade edilen Peçenekler’in Kuman-Kıpçaklar ile ilk münasebetleri 751 yılında yapılan Talas Savaşı sonrasında başlamıştır. Bu savaş sonrasında Peçenekler, Karluklar tarafından yenilmiş ve Kuman-Kıpçaklar ile komşu olmuşlardır. Hunlar’dan itibaren bilinen Kuzey göç yollarını takip ederek Karadeniz’in Kuzeyi’ne gelen Peçenekler, Kuzey ve Doğu bölgelerinden tekrar Kuman-Kıpçaklar ile komşu olmuşlardır. Karadeniz’in Kuzeyi’nin bizim için önemi Hunlardan başlayarak Kuman- Kıpçaklar’a kadar Türklüğün filizlendiği stratejik noktalardan birisi olmasıdır. Kaynakların zengin bir kavim olarak belirttiği Peçenekler çevresinde bulunan tüm kavimler ile her zaman mücadele halinde olmuşlardır. Bu mücadelelerin en önemli kısımlarını onların Kuman-Kıpçaklar ve Bizans ile yaptığı mücadeleler oluşturmuştur. Bizans İmparatorluğu kendisine türlü zorluklar çıkartan bu kavmi paralı asker olarak ordusuna almış ve onları Anadolu’da Selçuklular’a karşı kullanmıştır. 1087 yılında Bizans ile Peçenekler arasında gerçekleşen Derster; bir diğer adı ile Silistre Savaşı sonrasında bu iki kardeş kavmin arası açılmaya başlamıştır.
Bu sıralarda Bizans İmparatorluğu; Anadolu’dan Selçuklular, Ege bölgesinden Çaka Bey ve Balkanlardan ise Peçenekler tarafından sıkıştırılmış durumdaydı. Bizans, siyaseti gereği Peçenekler ile arası açılan Kuman-Kıpçakları kullanarak 29 Nisan 1091 yılında Lebunium Savaşı’nda Peçenekler’i ağır bir mağlubiyete uğratmışlardır. Böylece Bizans, Balkanlardaki tehdidi ortadan kaldırmış ve Çaka Bey’in Bizans çevresinde oluşturmaya çalıştığı ittifak zincirini de kırmayı başarmıştır. Lebunium Savaşı sonrasında geriye kalan Peçenek gruplarının bazıları Bizans tarafından Vardar Nehri civarına bazıları Macaristan’da yer alan Peşte ve Fertö’ya yerleştirilmiş, geriye kalanlar ise Uzlar’a ve Kuman-Kıpçaklar’a tabi olarak hayatlarını idame ettirmişlerdir.
Bu makalede Peçeneklerin ortaya çıkışları ve Karadeniz’in Kuzeyi’ne ulaşmalarından, siyasi hayatlarının sona ermesine kadar gelişen süreçte Kuman-Kıpçaklar ve dolaylı yoldan Bizans İmparatorluğu ile gelişen ilişkileri ele alınacaktır.


Osmanlı Devleti’nde, 19. yüzyıl ve sonrasında meydana gelen sistemsel değişikliklerin ardından farklı fikir akımlarına rastlanılmıştır. Devleti ihtişamlı günlerine döndürmek için ortaya konulan bu düşünceler, zaman zaman birbirinin karşısında yer almıştır. Siyasetin yansımasının görüldüğü dallardan biri olan edebiyatta da bu hareketliliğin kendisini hissettirmesi, son derece olağandır. Özellikle II. Meşrutiyet’in ilânından sonra İslâmcılık ve Türkçülük ön plana çıkmış; bu fikirlere bağlı olan sanatçılar, doğal olarak karşı karşıya gelmişlerdir. Bu sebeple farklı düşünce yapısına sahip iki önemli sanatçının farklı akımlar ve bunlara mensup bireyler hakkında ortaya koyduğu söylemler, son derece önem arz etmektedir. Ali Suavi, Ziya Gökalp, Gaspıralı İsmail Bey gibi isimlerle ortaya çıkan Türkçülük-Turancılık mefkûresinin 20. yüzyıldaki en önemli devam ettiricisi, Hüseyin Nihâl Atsız’dır. Tunuslu Hayrettin Paşa, Ahmet Cevdet Paşa, Cemaleddin Efganî gibi aynı fikre mensup isimlerse İslâmcılık düşüncesini savunmuşlar ve Mehmet Âkif Ersoy da bu isimlerle dinî hassasiyetler ve fikirler noktasında bir arada anılmıştır.
Bu çalışmamızda, temelde birbirine zıt iki akım ve isim olan Türkçü Hüseyin Nihâl Atsız’ın, İslâmî yapısıyla bilinen Mehmet Âkif Ersoy ile alakalı fikirlerini saptamak hedeflenmiştir. Böylece Türk edebiyatında önemli yer edinen Âkif’in, Atsız tarafından düşünsel manada nasıl konumlandırıldığı belirlenecek ve bir Türkçü gözünden Mehmet Âkif Ersoy hakkında neler söylendiği ve düşündüğü, kendi söylemleriyle ortaya konacaktır.


В статье рассматриваются методологические подходы к изучению
сельского хозяйства аграрной географии – одного из направлений социально-
экономической географии. Это важное направление географии изучает
закономерности, особенности и формы территориальной организации сельского
хозяйства, с учѐтом природных, производственных и экономических факторов,
определяющих специфику размещения и основного направления данной отрасли.
Исследование территориальных проблем развития отрасли с точки зрения географов
требует применения системного подхода к исследованию взаимоотношений сельского
хозяйства и природной среды. При таком подходе сельское хозяйство или отдельное
сельскохозяйственное предприятие рассматривается как территориальная природно-
хозяйственная система, состоящая из двух подсистем: природной и социально-
экономической. Такой подход позволяет сопряжено решать социально-экономические
и экологические проблемы сельской местности в целях наиболее полного
использования природного потенциала и социально-экономических предпосылок
развития сельскохозяйственных систем. Исследования географов опираются на труды
многих специалистов (аграрников, землеустроителей, почвоведов, климатологов,
экологов и др.) и основываются на применении экономических, математико-
статистических, картографических и других методов. Наряду с традиционными
методами для обработки данных в настоящее время широко применяются
геоинформационные технологии. Информационной базой для географов служат
статистические и картографические данные, проводящиеся на крупномасштабном,
среднемасштабном и мелкомасштабном уровнях.


Іле Алатауы қойнауында орналасқан Алматы қаласы ұлттық
нышандарды сақтап, жаңа сәулетті ғимараттармен қызықтырады. Алматы маңында 90
мың. гектар жерді алып жатқан ғажайып табиғат қорығы бар.
Сонымен бірге "Медеу" мұз алаңы барша әлемге әйгілі. 1972 жылы құрылған ол
1691,2 м.биіктікте орналасқан.Мұз алаңы (10,5 мың. кв.м.)онда конькимен жылдам
жүгіру,доп хоккейі сияқты ӛзге де мұз бетінде ойналатын спорт түрлерінің дамуына
қосқан үлесі зор."Медеу"-де 120-дан астам коньки тебу спортының рекордттары
орнатылған. Алматы маңындағы Шымбұлақ альпинистерді, туристерді, тау
шаңғышыларын қызықтырады. Жылдам тӛмен түсу жолының ұзындығы 3500
м.Техникалық жабдықталу жағынан Шымбұлақ Еуропадағы ең керемет тау
айлақтарынан кем емес,ал сырғанау мүмкіндігі жағынан олардан асып та түседі.
Жалпы Алматы қаласы географиялық тұрғыдан алып қарағанда бірқатар экологиялық
қолайлы орын тепкен. Бұл қаладағы жүздеген мың машинаның қала әуе аймағын улы
түтінмен ластауға мүмкіндік туғызып отыр. Бұл қалада ӛкпе ауруларының ӛршуінің
негізгі факторы болып табылады. Қалада әсіресі желсіз күндері демалу қиын, мұндай
қиыншылықтармен күресу қазір қала билігінің алдында тұрған басты міндеттердің бірі.
Алматы ауасын ластаушы негізгі кӛздердердің бірі- машиналар. Алматы қаласында
570 мың автокӛлік тіркелген, ал қалаға күніне 170 мың автокӛлік келіп кетеді.
Солардың ішінде орташа есеппен 10500 машина тәулік бойы қозғалыста болады және
олардың двигателі 5250 сағат бойы жұмыс істеп тұрады. Осы кезеңде 13125 литр
жанармай жағылып, оған 39375 литр оттегі жұмсалынады (жағылады), ал бұл оттегімен
882-885 адам жыл бойы тыныс алар еді. Жетілген бір емен ағашының фотосинтезі
процесінде жыл бойы шығарылған оттегімен 40-45 адам, ал аршаның шығарған
оттегімен 20-25 адам тыныс алады. Сонымен бірге, емен ағашы 30-40 тонна, ал арша
ағашы- 15-20 тонна шаң-тозаңды залалсыздандырады. Сондықтан аталған ағаштарды
Алматы қаласында кӛптеп ӛсіру керек, оларды үйде, балконда, офистерде,
университеттер және мектептер аудиторияларда ӛсіруге болады.


Дүние жүзіне ең кӛп тараған мәдени дакылдың бірі күріш дақылы. Күріш
— ӛте құнды дақыл болып дүние жүзінің 110-ға жуық елінде 150 млн. га жерге егіліп,
оның 90%-ы Азияда, 4%-ы Америкада, 2%-ы, Африкада, 4%-ы басқа кұрлықтарда
Күріш (лат. Oryza) – астық тұқымдасына жататын бір немесе кӛп жылдық ӛсімдік.
Күріш қолдан б.з.б. 2000 – 3000 жылдары егіле бастаған. Ал Орта Азияда ертеде Күріш
ӛсірілгендігі жӛнінде алғашқы жазба деректер Страбон, Геродот еңбектерінде бар.
Б.з.б. 1 ғасырда қалыптасқан Қытайдан басталатын атақты «Жібек жолы»
Қазақстандағы Сырдарияның жағасындағы ірі мәдениет және сауда орталығы – Отырар
қаласына келіп тірелетін. Ол кезде Отырар қаласы маңындағы халық егіншілікпен, мал
шаруашылығымен айналысқаны белгілі. Бұл деректер Күріштің Сыр бойына ӛте ертеде
келгеніне дәлел бола алады. Қазақстанда аса маңызды азық-түліктік дақыл – екпе
Күріш (satіva) – Қызылорда, Оңтүстік Қазақстан, Алматы облыстарындағы Сырдария,
Іле және Қаратал ӛзендерінің аңғарында егіледі.Күріш егіс кӛлемі жӛнінен бидайдан
кейін екінші, ал ӛнімділігі бойынша бірінші орын алады. Кебегі мал азығына
пайдаланылса, ақұсағынан спирт, крахмал алынып, парфюмерияда қолданылады.
Сабанынан жоғары сортты қағаз, картон, жіп, қап, қалпақ, тӛсеніштер мен тағы басқа
да тұрмысқа қажетті заттар жасалынады. Сонымен қатар тұзданып, батпақтанған
жерлерді жақсартып, ауыл шаруашылық пайдаланымға енгізуде күріштің
агромелиоратиптік маңызы зор.
Қазақстанда күріш Қызылорда, Алматы және Оңтүстік Қазақстан облыстарында
ӛткен ғасырдың тоқсаныншы жылдары 130 мың га кӛлемге дейін егіліп, одан 519 мың
тоннаға дейін жалпы ӛнім алынды. Барлық күріш ӛсірілетін аймақтарда оның, ӛнімін
айтарлықтай тӛмендететін күріш зиянкестері, аурулары және арамшӛптер болып
табылады. Әлемдік деңгейде күріш ӛнімі зиянкестерден 14%-ға тӛмендесе, Қызылорда
облысында зиянкестер мен аурулардың әсерінен бұл кӛрсеткіш 1970-1985жылдары, 8-
10%-га, ал соңғы жылдары 16-18%-ға дейін кӛбейді. Қазақстан Республикасының
Қызылорда облысы күріш ӛсірілетін ең перспективалы аймаққа жатады. Бұл аймақта
күріш егуге жарамды жер ресурстары, қолайлы климат жағдайы, кажетті су қоры
жеткілікті болғандықтан 2006 жылы егіс кӛлемі 70 мың гектардан артты. Алайда күріш
ауыспалы егістігіндегі күріш, бидай, жоңышқа, т.б. дақылдардың ӛнімі зиянкестер мен
аурулар және арамшӛптердің әсерінен тӛмендеуде. Бұл мақалада тұздың ӛсімдіктердің
ӛсуіне тигізетін әсері мен биологиялық ерекшеліктері кӛрсетілген.


Бұл мақалада Cichorium ӛсімдігінің (гүлі, сабағы, жапырағы) компонентті
құрамы анықталған.
Cichorium ӛсімдігі (гүлі, жапырағы, сабағы) рН мәні «И-160 МИ» маркалы рН метрінде
анықталды. Экстрактивтілігі суда және 80% этил спиртінде 2 сағат уақытта жүргізілді.
Cichorium ӛсімдігінің ылғалдылығы мен күлділігі гравиметриялық әдіспен,
қышқылдылығы, аскарбин қышқылы, пектинді заттары титриметриялық әдіспен,
макро-микро элементтердің мӛлшері атом-эмиссионды жартылай сандық спектрлік
анализ әдісімен АAnalyst 400 приборында және атомды-абсорбциялық әдіспен
спектрофотометр «АА 7000» Shimadzu приборында, Cichorium ӛсімдігінің
құрамындағы антоциандар, флаваноидтар, полифенолдар, каротин және қант мӛлшері
фотокалориметрлік әдіспен КФК–2 және КФК–3 маркалы фотокалориметрінде, белок
Къельдаль әдісімен анықталды. Клечатка А.Е. Ермаковтың модификациясы бойынша
салмақтық әдіспен, шикі май мӛлшері Сокслет аппаратының кӛмегімен салмақтық
әдісімен анықталды.
Cichorium ӛсімдігінің (гүлі, сабағы, жапырағы) элементтік мӛлшері анықталды.
Нәтижесінде құрамында мыс, мырыш, марганец, темір, кобальт, кадмий, кальций,
магний, калий, натрий кездесетіндігі кӛрсетілді. Сондай-ақ, зерттеу нәтижесі бойынша
Сichorium ӛсімдігінің құрамында флавоноидтар, белок, пектинді заттар, илегіш заттар,
антоциандар, фенол қышқылдары, каротиндер, полифенолдар, кумариндер кездеседі


Бұл мақалада Cichorium ӛсімдігінің жер үсті бӛлігінен (гүлі, сабағы,
жапырағы) эфир майы бӛліп алынды. Зерттеудің нысаны ретінде 2017-2018жж Алматы
қаласы, Медеу таулы аймағында ӛсетін шашыратқы (Cichorium) ӛсімдігінің гүлі,
сабағы, жапырағы алынды.
Анализ Agilent 6890A/5973N (АҚШ) масс-спектрлі детекторлы газды хромотографта
жүргізілді. Хроматографиялау жағдайы: қозғалмалы фаза – гелий, буландырғыш
температурасы 2500С, ағынды реттеу (Split) 1000:1, колонка термостатының
температурасы, басталуы 400С (1 мин), температураны жоғарылату минутына 50С,
соңы 2000С, осы температурада 1 минут ұсталады, анализдеудің жалпы уақыты 34 мин.
Масс-детектордың ионизация режимі электрондық соққы әдісі: хроматографиялық
колонка HP-5MS, қозғалмайтын фаза – диметилполисилоксан, ұзындығы 30 м, ішкі
диаметрі 0,25 мм, қозғалмайтын фаза қалыңдығы 0,25 мкм. Хроматографиялық әдіспен
бӛлінген заттар масс спектрлері арқылы идентификацияланды, масс-спектрлер NIST08
базасы мәліметтері бойынша интерпретацияланды.
Cichorium ӛсімдігінің гүлінен алынған эфир майының құрамын газды-хромато-масс-
спектрометрия әдісімен зерттегенде 103, Cichorium ӛсімдігінің сабағынан алынған эфир
майының құрамын газды-хромато-масс-спектрометрия әдісімен зерттегенде 123,
Cichorium ӛсімдігінің жапырағынан алынған эфир майы хромато-масс-спектрометрия
әдісімен зерттегенде құрамында 135 компонент бар екені анықталды.
Нәтижесінде алғаш рет шашыратқы ӛсімдігінен бӛлініп алынған эфир майының
шығымы гүлінде-0,98%, сабағында-0,64%, жапырағында-0,58% құрады.


In this article, the essential oil of the Cichorium plant (flower, stalk, leaf) have been isolated.
The object of the research was floral, leaf, leaf of the sprouting plant (Cichorium), grown in
Medeo Mountain area in Almaty city of the years 2017-2018.
The analysis was carried out on the mass spectrometric gas chromatograph Agilent 6890A /
5973N (USA). Chromatography state: moving phase - helium, evaporator temperature 2500 °
C, flow control (Split) 1000: 1, temperature of the column thermostat, start at 400 ° C (1 min),
temperature rise up to 50 ° C at the end, 2000 ° C at the same temperature is kept for 1
minute, min Ionization mode of mass detector electron impact method: HP-5MS
chromatographic column, stationary phase - dimethylpolysiloxane, length 30 m, inner
diameter 0.25 mm, solid phase thickness of 0.25 μm. Chromatographic agents were identified
by mass spectra, and mass spectra were interpreted according to the NIST08 database.
Studying the composition of essential oils derived from Cichorium plant flowers research gaschromatography-
mass spectrometry 103, by investigating the composition of essential oils
derived from Cichorium plant stems identificated gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry
123, by the method of chromatographic mass spectrometry, derived from Cichorium plant leaf
135 components have been.
As a result, for the first time was ditermyred from flow of essential oil the spray plant was
0.98% in the flower, 0.64% in the class, and 0.58% in the leaf.


Изучено влияние возрастающих доз минеральных удобрений на формирование и модификационные
изменения анатомических строений вегетативных органов риса в условиях Казахстанского Приаралья.
При внесений оптимально высокой дозы минеральных удобрений определены анатомические и
морфофизиологические признаки и свойства положительно влияющие на формирование высокой
урожайности: увеличиваются количество мелких, внешных проводящих пучков, а также внутренных
крупных проводящих пучков и их площадь, в центральной жилке листьев повышаются число
проводящих пучков, увеличиваются общая площадь листьев и количество фотосинтезирующих
мезофильных клеток. Это способствует повышению урожайности зерна и его качество. Негативное
влияние высоких доз удобрений: мелкие и крупные проводящие пучки располагаются ближе к
периферии стебля, что приводит к расширению (в некоторой степени) внутренной полости стебля. Это
повышает (в определенной степени) полегаемости стебля риса.

Paternalist Liderlik Tarzının Örgütsel Özdeşleşme Üzerindeki Etkisi Ömer Okan FETTAHLIOĞLU Zahide AKDOĞAN

Bu çalışmada; paternalist liderlik davranışlarının örgütsel özdeşleşme algısı üzerinde olası bir etkinin söz konusu olup
olmadığının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında paternalist liderlik davranışları ve alt boyutlarının,
örgütsel özdeşleşme algısı ve boyutları üzerinde etkisinin olup olmadığını belirlemeye yönelik olduğundan, etkileşimsel
bir model deseni kurgulanarak hareket edilmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, örgütsel özdeşleşme algısı ve alt boyutları ile
paternalist liderlik ve alt boyutları arasındaki ilişki korelasyon analizi ile etkileşim ise regresyon analizi ile tespit edilmeye
Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Kahramanmaraş ve Osmaniye illerinde faaliyet gösteren vergi dairesindeki toplam 460
çalışan arasından ulaşılmış olan 276 adet çalışan oluşturmaktadır. Veri elde etmek amacı ile paternalist liderlik
davranışlarını ölçmek amacı ile Aycan (2001) tarafından geliştirilmiş olan ve toplam 17 soru önermesinden oluşan
“paternalist liderlik ölçeği” ile birlikte Mael ve arkadaşları (1992) tarafından geliştirilen “Örgütsel Özdeşleşme Ölçeği”
kullanılmıştır. Toplanan verilerin istatistiki analizinde ise SPSS 21.0 veri analizi programı kullanılmıştır.
Araştırma sonucu elde edilen bulgulara göre; paternalist liderlik davranışlarına yönelik algılamalar ile örgütsel
özdeşleşme algısı arasında pozitif yönlü bir ilişki söz konusu olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca paternalist liderlik
davranışları ve alt bileşenlerinin, örgütsel özdeşleşme ve alt bileşenleri üzerinde pozitif yönde bir etkisi olduğu sonucuna
ulaşılmıştır. Araştırma modeli içinde yer alan Demografik özelliklerdeki farklılıkların paternalist liderlik davranışlarına
yönelik algılar ve örgütsel özdeşleşme algısı üzerinde farklılık ortaya çıkartmayacağı da elde edilmiş bulgular içerisinde
yer almaktadır.
Genel olarak paternalist liderlik davranışlarının kurum içinde artması, örgütsel özdeşleşme algısına yönelik düşünceleri
de olumlu yönde etkileyeceğini söylemek mümkün olacaktır. Bu nedenle de paternalist lider davranışlarına yönelik
çalışmaların işletmeler içinde yaygınlaştırılması gerektiği olağan bir sonuç olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır.

Effect of Control Environment on Fraud Detection and Prevention at University of Eldoret , Kenya. Caroline Jemeli Koech DR. Kimani E. Maina

Internal controls help the institution to understand the organization’s structure, work, and authority flows. They are designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of operational objectives. Cases of fraud have significantly increased in public universities due to weakness of internal controls functions. This study hinder the growth and ruin the reputation of institutions of higher learning in terms of performance and accountability. The study was conducted in order to determine the effect of control environment on fraud detection and prevention at University of Eldoret, Kenya. This study was founded on contingency theory. Descriptive survey research design was used. Target population was accountants and internal auditors, the accessible population had involve 34 accountants and internal auditors at the University of Eldoret. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The study used primary data which was collected using structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, means, variances, and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results were presented in tables. Findings revealed that Control environment positively and significantly influence fraud detection and prevention in the institution (β = 0.528; p < 0.05). The study further recommends that the governing body, possibly supported by the audit committee, should ensure that the control environment is periodically monitored and evaluated. The study findings will guide the institution to reduce variance in budgets through better reporting and budgetary control measures that reduces cases of fraud. It is expected that the findings will improve on internal controls in the organization.

Effects of Operational Risk Reduction on Service Delivery at Kenya Power Company Limited , Kapseret Sub County ,Uasin- Gishu County, Kenya. Paul Kebenei DR. Geoffrey Kimutai Kiptum

With the current Kenyan government goal of power connectivity to its citizens through Kenya power company limited, there has been an increase in illegal lines, operational accidents, long connectivity time, leakage of company information, and rise in number of complaints from the customers since the adoption of outsourcing. This study sought to establish the effects of operational risks reduction on service delivery at Kenya Power Company limited, Kapseret Sub-County, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study adopted Transaction Cost (TC) Theory. Descriptive survey research design was used. A total population of 1812 and sample size of 317 were used. The study also employed stratified random sampling method done according to the Kenya Power Company limited structure and used the questionnaire and interview as the main research instrument which was tested for validity and reliability after pilot study. The data analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 24. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regressions. These obtained data was presented in form of tables. There was a positive significant relationship between operational risks reduction of projects (β1=0.528) and service delivery at Kenya Power Company limited. Management of Kenya Power Company limited should ensure there is existence of a competent outsourcing team. They should also sensitize its employees on the core and non-core activities of Kenya Power Company limited, the activities outsourced and reasons for outsourcing. For effective implementation of outsourcing there should be an overall clear understanding of what it entails and requires for great performance

Relationship Between Financial Risk Management and Performance of Small and Micro Enterprise in Moiben Constituency Uasin - Gishu County. Noah K. Kiprop DR. Kimani E. Maina

Financial literacy provides knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and the skills, motivation and confidence to apply such knowledge and understanding in order to make effective decisions across a range of financial context and to improve the financial well of SMEs. Research shows that 65.1% of the SMEs in Kenya fail within their first year of operation. This study determined the relationship between financial risk management and the performance of micro and small enterprises in Moiben constituency, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. A total of 1923 registered micro and small enterprises in Moiben Constituency comprised the study population. A sample of 331 micro and small enterprises was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique; purposive sampling and simple random sampling was used to select micro and small enterprises to be used in the study. A pilot study was conducted so as to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Validity of the research instrument was achieved by using of content validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Self-administered questionnaires and a secondary data sheet were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and presented by use of tables, charts and graphs. The result of the study indicates that financial risk management affects the firm’s performance of micro and small enterprises in Moiben Constituency. Performance of small and micro enterprises was found to be significantly affected by financial risk management (t = 8.327; p = 0.041). The study therefore recommends that stakeholders involved should therefore focus on developing programs to educate SMEs on how to assess, monitor and reduce risk of a given business portfolio. The study findings informs all the stakeholders in charge of the SMEs sector as it proves that financial literacy affects the financial performance of the micro and small enterprises

Effects of Strategic plan Resources Allocation on Quality Services Delivery in the Sugar Manufacturing Companies in Western Region, Kenya. Josephat Kiprono Mengich DR. Geoffrey Kimutai Kiptum

Service delivery is an essential function in the relation between companies and citizens. Over the past ten years the realization that citizens are customers has become increasingly important to the way companies think and act. The aim of this study was determine effect of strategic plan resource allocation on quality service delivery in the sugar manufacturing industry. The study was guided by the Vrooms expectancy theory. Accessible population for this study was 734 respondents from Nzoia Sugar Company, Mumias Sugar Company, Chemelil Sugar Company, Kibos Sugar Company, South Nyanza Sugar Company and Soin Sugar Company. Slovin’s Formula was used to get the desired sample size which was 259 employees from the 6 selected sugar companies. The study utilized questionnaires to collect data. Reliability of the instrument was ensured through split-half method. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics was used to analyze data. Data were presented in form of frequency tables and in written report. Study findings also rejected the null hypothesis because there was a statistical significant effect of strategic total rewards on service delivery in the sugar manufacturing industry (p=0.000). The study enabled policy makers obtain knowledge of manufacturing industry dynamics and the appropriate strategies to be applied to enhance performance and therefore obtain guidance from this study in designing appropriate policies that will regulate the industry. To the academicians the study might contribute to the existing literature in the field of strategy implementation and quality service delivery of sugar manufacturing industry

Relationship between Chronic Illiness on School Going Children and Academics Achievements in Ainabkoi County, Kenya. Theresa Wambui (Ph.D)  

Children with chronic illness are at the intersection of the health and education systems. Unfortunately, typical educational programs and policies are not designed to support students battling chronic illness. Therefore understanding their educational needs of pupils affected with chronic illness is important if we are to provide equitable educational opportunities. Chronic illness has an impact on children development, affecting their academic performance, self esteem, social relationship and ability to access the same educational outcomes as healthy peers. This paper seeks to highlight some of the experiences that chronic ill pupils go through that affect their academic performance. The study was descriptive targeted pupils from class 7 and 8 and class teachers from Public primary schools in Ainabkoi constituency. Questionnaires and interview guide formed tools for data collection. Results from the study revealed that children academic performance is affected by other factors caused by chronic illness. The finding also revealed that chronic illness affects intelligence, memory, concentration and self esteem of pupils. Pupils with chronic illness are likely to perform poorly in Languages, and mathematic. The study therefore, recommends modification of curriculum to be able to accommodate this group of pupil. The study also recommends an in-service training that will enable teachers learn how to deal with chronically ill children in schools.

Establishing the Effects of Credit Risk Management Strategies on Sustainability of Table Bankig Groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Patropa Jepkoech Kiptoo DR. Kimani E. Maina

Financial management strategies are crucial determinants of sustainability of table banking groups. The strategies enable groups to set clear goals, efficient utilization of resources, proper decisions in sourcing of finances and dividends decision making. The main purpose of this study therefore was to establish the effect of credit risk management strategies saving strategies, financial regulation strategies and liquidity management strategies on sustainability of table banking groups was assessed. The study was founded on credit risk theory. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The target population were all table bank groups in Kenya. The accessible population was 538 registered table bank groups in Uasin Gishu County. A sample of 230 groups was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique was used to narrow down the sub-counties. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 3 sub-counties out of the six sub-counties in Uasin Gishu, County. Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the actual study. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Findings were presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study found out that credit risk management strategies significantly influence sustainability of table banking groups (β=0.207; p< 0.05). It was concluded that proper credit management strategies could enable table banking groups by enhancing sustainability. The findings of this study are expected to be employed by table banking groups to ensure business success, hence promoting sustainability and economic development. It was also recommended that theories anchored this study should be applied so as to enhance sustainability.

Effect of Communication Strategy on Revenue Collection of Kenya Revenue Authority at North Rift Region. Brockten Chumba DR. Geoffrey Kimutai Kiptum

Despite contributing to the growth of the economy, tax legal policies and processes present difficulties in administering and compliance among KRA and tax payers. Moreover it is this complexity that has created loop holes resulting in significant revenue leakages. The study aimed at determining the effects of Communication Strategy on revenue collection at Kenya Revenue Authority in the North Rift Region. The research was guided by Stewardship Theory. It adopted a cross-sectional survey design which is analytical in nature. The study targeted a population of 386 KRA employees from 3 KRA stations in north rift region. The study sampled 191 respondents using simple random sampling method. Data was collected using questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Descriptive statistics involved the use of frequency, percentages mean and standard deviation. Inferential statistics involved the use of correlation and regression model. The results of the study were presented using tables and figures. The results revealed that there is effect of communication strategy on revenue collection at Kenya Revenue Authority. The study recommended that KRA should adopt appropriate communication strategy in order provides relevant information and adequate motivation to impact on attitudes and behaviors of individuals or groups of people. The study findings would be beneficial to the government in relation to policy making and strategy formulation in line to its expectations from KRA as an institution. The findings of this study would also give KRA management relevant information to help them build and improve their strategic responses in relation to revenue collection. Equally, the findings of this study would enrich existing knowledge and hence would be of interest to both researchers and academicians who seek to explore and carry out further investigatio

Effectiveness of School Management Strategies for Chronically Ill School Going Children in Ainabkoi Sub-County. Theresa Wambui (Ph.D)  

Children with chronic illness are at the intersection of the health and education systems. Unfortunately, typical educational programs and policies are not designed to support them. This paper presents findings on the effectiveness of school management strategies for chronically ill school-going children in Ainbkoi Sub-County. The study employed a descriptive research design. Primary schools in Ainabkoi sub-county, head teachers and head of students’ affairs in schools were informants for the study. Purposive sampling and simple random sampling was used in selecting head teachers, head of students’ affairs and pupils respectively. The study found that schools do not have a clinic for medical attention of the children. When children are attacked in school and taken to the hospital, they are not requested to pay medical fees in school, the schools don’t hold regular check up on children, some children are aware of chronic illnesses, though not sensitized very often about chronic illnesses. This paper recommends in-service training that will enable teachers understand how to manage students with chronic illness. There is also need for a school based care plan that allows effective communication and consultation between the family and school on best ways of managing the sick child, and modification of environment to ensure access to school facilities and activities for chronically ill children

Cilt: XXII, Sayı: 1 (Mart 2018) Türkoloji Dergisi  

Full Text

Ece Ayhan’ın şiirlerinde mitolojik ve masalsı ögeler Erdoğan Kul  

Mitoloji, hem Batı edebiyatında hem de Türk edebiyatında şairlerin yer yer
yöneldikleri bir alandır. Yalnızca klasik şairlerin değil, kimi modern şairlerin de bu
alanın verimlerinden yararlanarak şiirsel anlatımlarına bir tür zenginlik
kazandırdıkları görülür. Kuşkusuz, mitolojik ögeler gibi masalsı ögeler de şiirsel
imgelem için yeni açılım olanakları sunar. Çağdaş Türk şiirinde bu ögeleri şiirlerine
taşıyan adlardan biri olan Ece Ayhan, onları kendine özgü bir tarzda işlemesiyle
dikkati çeker.
Anahtar Kelimeler: şiir, mitoloji, masal, Ece Ayhan, Türk şiiri, İkinci Yeni.
The Mythological and Tale-like Elements in Ece Ayhan’s Poems
Mythology is a field both Western and Turkish poets incline to it in places. It is
occured that not only the classical poets but also the some modern poets get rich
their poetical expressions taking advantage of this area’s harvests. Ece Ayhan, one
of the persons who carry these elements to him poems in contemporary Turkish
literature, attracts attention wherefore to take up them in a distinctive manner.
Keywords: poetry, mythology, tale, Ece Ayhan, Turkish poetry, the Second

Edip Cansever’in “Çağrılmayan Yakup” şiirinde birey algısı Erdoğan Kul  

Drawing attention by making especially the “individual” problematic within
the Second New poem movement, Edip Cansever is a poet who has sustained this
attitude in all his works. From the viewpoint of the poem named “Uninvited Yakup”
in this essay it has been tried to make an evaluation of existence problem of the
modern individual and how he reveals the perception forms that reflect the tragic
state he is in. In this poem of Cansever it is seen that he successfully examines the
“alienation” of the modern individual with the private state of Yakup who is a figure
characterized as “uninvited” and that he reflects the loneliness and tragedy of him
with strong images he bonds in terms of “alienation”.
Key Words: individual, alienation, modernism, Second New, Edip Cansever,
Uninvited Yakup

Halide Edip’in Vurun Kahpeye romanında farklı boyutlarıyla Millî Mücadele’ye yaklaşım Erdoğan Kul  

The period of National Struggle has been discussed and dealt both in a certain
number of novels written in the war years and in the great number of masterpieces
produced in the following years with its various aspects. Halide Edip, who herself
also involved in this struggle by working directly at frontlines, in her novel named
"Vurun Kahpeye", tries to make the reader aware of the fact that the independence
war won against invasion of enemy alone could not be sufficient for an absolute and
permanent victory. According to her point of view, the main/permanent victory will
be won, besides elimination of the bigotry, by designing the degenerated
management mentality and the nonfunctional education system in conformity with
Western models. Thus, the Author reveals a point of view which included into the
process also the more comprehensive and long-term efforts spread over the National
Struggle. In the Novel, the struggle carried out by Tosun Bey, Captain of "Kuva-yı
Milliye" (National Military Forces), at Military Plan and the struggle given by his
fiancée Aliye at the front of education as a teacher have been displayed and
described as the events based on the same intellectual backgound, which are
oriented towards the same purpose, complementary and made each other
meaningful. In this paper, Halide Edip’s approach to the National Struggle which is
different in her novel called “Vurun Kahpeye” will be tried to be evaluated and
studied with the main points.
Key Words: National Struggle, Halide Edip, Novel, Education, Modernization.

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance of State Corporation in Kenya Ogolla Judith Atieno Dr. Eng. Thomas A. Senaji

Leadership is vital in the overall performance of any organization. The leadership chosen is dependent on various contingent factors. The environment influences the link between leadership and performance. The combination of the various factors contributes to the leadership selected which influences the performance of the organization. Over the past three decades, transformational leadership has emerged as one of the predominant paradigms to understand leadership efficacy. Transformational leadership theory is based on the concept that certain leader behaviors transform followers' values, needs, preferences, and aspirations, and motivate them, “to perform above and beyond the call of duty”. Transformational leadership has gained extensive attention in the literature research because of its potential proposition for the performance of the organizations. Research indicates that this type of leadership can collectively influence workforce performance and loyalty leading to improvements in the workers motivation and creativity. In consideration to the past decades research findings and strength this forms the foundation for this study research on the importance of transformational leadership through its four constructs; idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration and their influence on organizational performance in fifty five state corporation in Kenya with commercial and strategic functions. A total of 257 surveys instrument questionnaires were distributed with 235 retuned and 215 were suitable for use. The data was analyzed using multiple regressions method with a significance level of p < 0.05. The measurement instrument used was on five likert scale ranging from strongly disagree as 1 to strongly agree as 5. The results indicate that while transformational leadership and three of its constructs; inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration contributed to 78.6 percent of the variation in organizational performance; idealized influence was moderately a significant factor contributing to the study outcomes. Top Leadership management may need to focus on these constructs of transformational leadership to improve performance of the organizations understudy.

Internal Controlsand Corporate Governance Empirical Evidencefrom Kenya’s Savingsand Credit Co Operative Societies Hillary Maru. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba

Internal controls is part of internal auditing which is an integral part of the corporate governance mosaic in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of internal control on corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County. The study was guided by the Agency and Stewardship theories. This study adopted descriptive research design. The study targeted 45 licensed SACCOS in Nairobi County with a population of 180 respondents who worked for 45 licensed SACCOS by SASRA in Nairobi County. The sample size for the study was 124 respondents. Purposive technique and simple random sampling was used to select a sample size that represented all employees in filling questionnaires. In order to establish the validity and reliability of the instruments, a pilot study was carried out in Eldoret town. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings indicated that there was a statistical significant effect between internal controls and corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi (t=2.412, P<0.05). The study recommended that the SACCOs should improve on the use of internal controls in monitoring their operations in order control consciousness of its employees, they should contact accounting assessment by identifying and analyzing the relevant risks to the achievement of objectives, forming a basis for how the risks should be managed, the policy makers and stakeholders should ensure that the Sacco should comply with rules and regulation of the ministry and taxes payment.

Dynamics and Encounters of Rural Youth Farming; Experiences and Lessons from Kabete Lari Sub- County, Kenya. Peter Gutwa Oino Abigael Asiko Kutwa

Globally, the rural youth are the future of food security and sustainability, yet only a few of them see a future in rural agriculture. Unfortunately, many governments and interventionists have not taken rural youth in farming seriously as they are considered uninterested stakeholders, since majority especially those educated opt for white collar jobs in urban areas. In Kenya, despite concerted efforts by various stakeholders to involve rural youth in agricultural activities, less has been achieved due to lack of interest by the youth themselves, high pressure on arable land, lack of access to credit and many other productive resources necessary for rural farming. This paper focuses on the dynamics and encounters of rural youth farming in Kabete Lari sub-county. The study adopted the sustainable livelihood theoretical framework. The researchers employed a mixed research design method. A sample size of 111 rural youth farmers were selected through simple random sampling. Parent farmers were conveniently sampled for the interviews and focused group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using SPSS version 21.0 while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study found that 70% of the rural youth engaged in farming in the study area. Over 80% of the rural youth engaged in rural farming were able to meet their daily basic needs and save some money in SACCOs for future investment. More so 65% of the rural youth engaged in farming, preferred dairy farming. Despite many achievements, rural youth also faced some constraints in rural farming particularly, during post-production due to unavailability of ready markets for their products. The study concluded that youth farming was offering a wide potential for rural youth by creating employment, encouraging savings, reducing food expenses and encouraged self-reliance among themselves, however not many rural youth engaged in farming activities. The study recommends that government should sensitize, provide financial, technical support and mainstream rural youth in venturing into farming for the realization of substantive sustainable livelihoods.

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