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A Demand Generation Model to Stimulate Tourists Purchase Intent in Zimbambwe Mandina Siphiwe P. Masere Victoria S .

Zimbabwe is host to one of the natural wonders of the world; the Victoria Falls, thus tourism is one of the four pillars anchoring the revival of the economy of Zimbabwe. Tourism has played a very significant role in the development of the national economy taking advantage of its most diversified tourism resource base. Focus of this study is on Micro, Small and Medium enterprises (MSMEs) lodges in Victoria Falls. The crux of this paper is to stimulate demand for hotel services from both international and local tourists in line with social services and poverty eradication for MSME lodges, which in turn may reduce joblessness in the country’s MSME lodges. Hotel services are perishable therefore inevitably lead to demand and supply challenges for managers. The study seeks to encompass demand management strategies from a marketing and economics perspective. The researchers therefore propose a demand generation model for stimulating tourist purchase intent

A Prison to School Pipeline: College Students with Criminal Records & Their Transitions into Higher Education Terrence S. McTier Jr, Arizona State University, USA Stephen Santa-Ramirez, Arizona State University, USA

Very little is known about the experiences of college students with criminal records (CSCR), an underrepresented and minoritized student population. This study utilized a constructivist qualitative methodology to understand the experiences of four CSCRs pursuing higher education. The participant perspectives yielded three noteworthy findings that contribute to limited literature on the experiences of CSCRs. The findings highlight CSCRs’ introduction to higher education, their initial feelings prior to pursuing postsecondary education, and background checks that pose as barriers. Based upon these findings, we are able to understand why supportive networks, specialized resources, and academic assistance are needed for CSCRs.

African American Students in the Community College Classroom with White Teachers Denise Erskine-Meusa  

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine African American student pedagogical experiences in classrooms with White teachers at a community college in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The intent of the study was two-fold: (a) to search for evidence of how culture shapes African American students’ view of themselves, and (b) to explore how African American student pedagogical experiences with White teachers shape their attitude about school. The results of this study revealed that many of the White teachers experienced by the research participants demonstrated some aspect of colorblindness in their pedagogical practices. The results also found that the African American community college students in this study valued the use of culturally responsive pedagogy in the classroom.

Assessment of Livelihood Coping Challenges and Viable Solutions available to Small - sca le Farmers Aimed at Enhancing their Resilience to Rainfall Variability in Bunyala Sub - county , Kenya James Ojigo DR. Grace Cheserek

Farmers in Bunyala sub-county depend on rain fed agriculture and over the years frequent floods and droughts, crop failures and water shortages have become common. Research has shown that small-scale farmers in the developing countries are more vulnerable to rainfall variability due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture and poor adaptive capacity. However, most studies so far have concentrated on climate-driven coping capacity in flood prone areas and arid and semi-arid areas and have not considered the challenges experienced by small scale farmers in the wake of these coping strategies and opportunities and innovations that can be explored to enhance the coping capacity to rainfall variability. The objective of this study was to establish the coping challenges and identify viable solutions through opportunities and innovations to enhance small scale farmers’ resilience to rainfall variability. Data was collected through use of questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and field observation. Bunyala Sub-County has about 15,245 households in six locations. Proportionate str

Call for Institutional Action: Bridging the Gap between Access and Persistence in Higher Education in the Caribbean Saran Stewart University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica Nicola Paterson, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica

Currently, Caribbean higher education institutions benefit from relatively high retention rates among students, however they have seen a rise in low on-time, graduation rates. Given this context, this study applies Tinto’s theoretical framework (1975) for understanding and identifying the causes of low student retention and graduation rates at a regional university in Jamaica. Within a United States context, this institution would be considered a predominantly minority-serving institution such as historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) given its large population of Black students. Analysing data from the university’s Student Experience Survey, the results indicate that, academic performance and financial issues were leading factors to non-returning students and low graduation rates. The findings reflect that full-time status is the strongest predictor of GPA and on-time graduation. To bridge the gap between access and persistence, we suggest strategies to improve issues of inequities and academic engagement at both the individual and institutional level.

Corporate Sustainability Indexes: FTSE - 4good Index Report on Nestle Gulay Keskin Aferina Skeja

Corporate sustainability and economic business activities are focused on the social and environmental impacts. In this sense, the economic activity created by the businesses is to pursue social and environmental impacts, and producing information related to these effects is essential for the formation of structure for a sustainable business.
Sustainability indices are structures edited on first generation sustainability indicators, which are structures constructed in order to share information with consumers and businesses. The most important benefits are improvements in transparency without the need for regulation of the sustainability index, better understanding of the social and environmental impact of companies and the guidance for arrangements to minimize the negative side effects of company activities.
FTSE4Good is a responsible investment index designed to help investors identify companies that meet globally recognised corporate responsibility standards. It is the only index of its kind since it includes specific criteria on the responsible marketing of breast milk substitute

echnical and Visual Aid Services as Determinants to Academic Progress of Learners with Learning Impairments in Early Childhood Pamella Lugasi Kayere Sammy K. Chumba

The requirement by the Kenyan government to have equity in provision of education services has led to a paradigm shift towards inclusive education. Existing evidence however tends to suggest that children with HI, on average are not socially or emotionally comfortable in mainstream settings. Besides, although progress in the teaching and learning of children with HI exist, other evidence still emerges of the relative lack of academic improvement among this group of children. This study therefore aimed at establishing the effect of support services offered to children with HI in the inclusive context on their academic progress. It specifically sought to establish the effect of technical support and use of visual aids on academic progress of this category of learners. The study was conducted in Turbo Sub-county of Uasin Gishu County in Kenya and adopted casual comparative research design. Both stratified random and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 117 ECDE teachers and 59 head-teachers from the 76 ECDE centers in the sub-county. Mean response scores tog

ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FISCAL PERFORMANCE IN KENYA Absolom O . Nyang’au Joseph Abuga Orayo

Improving fiscal performance by reducing budget deficits has for long been at the heart of many governments in developing countries. Budget deficit in all cases whether monetized or not, tends to generate inflationary pressures triggering uncertain crisis in an economic system. Majority of the developing nations, Kenya inclusive have had a dismal performance by attracting negative budget balances over the years. To contain fiscal vulnerabilities, there is need to understand factors behind fiscal performance in Kenya. The objectives of this study are to establish the trends and extent to which these factors determine fiscal performance in Kenya. The study employed unrestricted Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model in estimating how macro-economic, political and institutional factors affect fiscal balance using longitudinal data collected, consolidated and analysed for the period 1963 to 2013. In the short run, both the first and the second lags of fiscal balance, Treasury bill, Tax revenue and inflation significantly influenced fiscal balance. On the other hand, only the first lags of rea

Effect of Different Management Practices on the Control of Rhizome Rot, Yield and Best Economic Return of Ginger Md. Ashikul Islam Tahmina Mostarina

A field trial was conducted at the Spices Research Center, BARI, Shibganj, Bogra during 2009-10 to study the effect of different management practices to control of rhizome rot and best economic return on the growth and yield of ginger. Ginger cv. BARI Ada-1 was planted 1st week of April. Six treatments were used viz., C1 (solarization of soil), C2 (burning of soil by rice straw), C3 (burning of soil by saw dust), C4 (neem cake), C5 (mustard oil cake) and C6 (control). The treatment was arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design using with three replications. The results reveled that C4 (neem cake) showed early emergence, highest plant height, number of leaves plant-1, number of tillers plant-1 with maximum weight of primary rhizome and secondary rhizome, highest dry matter % and weight of old mother rhizome tha-1. The highest yield of rhizome (18.02 tha-1) and best benefit cost ratio (2.25) was also recorded in the C4 (neem cake). From the results, it can be concluded that C4 (neem cake 2.0 tha-1) treatment produced higher yield and best benefit cost ratio for ginger cultivation in

Effect of Fund Management Practices on Performance of Public Universities in Kenya Prof Nyangosi Richard Hellen Araka

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Fund management practices on performance of public universities in Kenya. Taking a case study of Kisii University, the study sampled 126 employees, however only 109 questionnaires were found usable to be included in the analysis. After Data collection, spreadsheet was prepared on SPSS and simple descriptive statistics was applied after which inferential statistics was applied to test the hypothesis. The Findings indicated that the fund management practice at Kisii University was very regular and well managed. Mechanisms are put in place for internal controls like auditing and all expenditures are authorized. It was concluded that the government allocates funds to all public universities and this funds are distributed to all needy departments as per their requirements and university’ performance is effective as it has performed well in terms of development.
Key Words: Fund Management practices, Performance, University, Self-Sponsored Students, Kenya

Effect Of Resistance Training With Two Different Volumes On Serum Myonectin Levels In Rats Fed With Sucrose Solution Majid Adigozalpour Alireza Safarzade

ackground. Moyenctin, is a new identified myokine and belongs to the CTRPs family which plays role in lipid and glucose metabolism. There is limited information available regarding the effects of exercise training on serum myonectin levels.
Objectives. he aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sucrose solution intake and resistance training (RT) with two different volumes on serum myonectin levels and HOMA-IR in rats.
Methods. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups; Control (C), Low volume RT (L), High Volume RT (H), Sucrose Control (SC), Sucrose Low volume RT (SL) and Sucrose High volume RT (SH). The RT groups were subjected to a resistance training program with the use of a ladder (3 days/week, for 8 weeks). Body weight and serum levels of myonectin, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR were measured.
Results. The results two way ANOVA showed that interaction between RT and sucrose solution significantly increased serum levels of insulin (P=0.007) and HOMAL-IR (P=0.002). Consumption of sucrose solution, significantly reduced se

EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF LISTED FIRMS IN COMMERCIAL AND SERVICE SECTOR IN KENYA: CORPORATE BOARDS, DO THEY MATTER? Joseph Abuga Dr. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba

Corporate boards are tasked with overall financial performance of firms under commercial and service sector which have for decades been at the centre of driving the economies of the developing nations as evidenced through the tremendous growth in the private sector credit over time. Unfortunately, commercial and service sector in Kenya has been witnessing a slow growth for the last five years topping the list of firms selling off their assets to cater for operational expenses. To realize better and improved financial performance however, it is vital to understand the nature and composition of these boards that have shown great interest in shifting towards asset-light business models to remain afloat. These actions have left shareholders with some of the worst wealth destruction experience ever seen at Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). Therefore, this study aimed at establishing the empirical relationship between board characteristics and financial performance of commercial and service sector in Kenya. The study used the base data collected from the NSE reports which has all the annu

Entrance and Persistence in U.S. Academe for Individuals with Multiple Outsider Identities: A Critical Race Theory Analysis Mustafa Icel, University of Missouri of Saint Louis, USA Matthew Davis, University of Missouri of Saint Louis, USA

This study examines the experience of African-American academics with racial microaggressions, racism, and stereotypes. Exploring this subtle racism allows for an understanding of Turkish ethnic students’ ability to adapt to doctoral programs at U.S. institutions of higher education. Using critical race theory as a framework, researchers determined that Turkish International students have a challenge for adjustment, access to the U.S. job market, and the transition into a new culture. Five subjects were selected to participate in a self-recorded interview to support this study. The interview questions based Turkish ethnic students’ adjustment in U.S higher education institutions on three stages: 1. Before the Ph.D program, 2. During the Ph.D. program, 3. After the Ph.D. program. The second and third stages also focus on students’ entry into an academic job setting and survival in academia.

Environmental Effects of Coping Strategies Employed by Small Scale Farmers to Mitigate for Rainfall Variability in Bunyala Sub-County James Ojigo D r. Grace Cheserek

Farmers in Bunyala sub-county depend on rain fed agriculture and over the years frequent floods and droughts, crop failures and water shortages have become common. Research has shown that small-scale farmers in the developing countries are more vulnerable to rainfall variability due to their high reliance on rainfed agriculture and poor coping capacity. However most studies so far have concentrated on climate-driven adaptive capacity in flood prone areas and arid and semi-arid areas and have not considered the effects on livelihoods and coping strategies to this climate driven changes, especially in areas with both floods and drought regimes like Bunyala sub-county. It is against this background that this study sought to examine the environmental effects of coping strategies employed by smallscale farmers to mitigate for rainfall variability in Bunyala sub-county, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to identify the environmental effects resulting from the coping strategies employed by small scale farmers in Bunyala sub-county to counter the effects of rainfall variability. Househol

Evaluation Of Diuretic Activity Of Putranjiva Roxburghii Wall. (Putranjiva) Seed Extracts Sangram Keshari Panda Lingaraj Nayak

Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. is an important medicinal plant used in the traditional Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine.The leaves and seeds is extensively used as, analgesic, anti pyretic , anti-inflammatory, gynaecological , diuretic,anti ulcer and aphrodisiac.In the present study is an attempt to explore and confirm the diuretic activity of different seed extracts of the plant P. roxburghii using ethanol, ethyl acetate and n-butanol as solvents.The diuretic effect was found out by Lipschitz et al . method and evaluated by determining urine volume, urine pH and electrolyte (Na+) concentration in male Wistar rats at a single dose of 400 mg/Kg, b.w.(Furosemide 100mg/kg) was used as reference standard drug and normal saline water was (25ml/kg, p.o.) used as normal control. The extracts were found to be nontoxic. Urine volume was significantly increased by all the extracts in comparison to normal and standard control groups. The excretion of sodium was alsoincreased by all the extracts. There was no significant change in the pH of urine after administration of the P. roxburg

Evaluation of Kosovo Primary Education Programs in Terms of Cultural Diversity Serdan Kervan  

Communities that have lived together for a long time have used the same language and created a number of common values. All of these common values constitute the cult of that community. Culture is a complex phenomenon that reflects the ways in which a nation solves its problems, the ways in which it interacts with each other and with others, and the way they think (Naylor, 1996). This research was conducted by teachers 1-5. the structure of the class curricula and their impact on student achievement is determined by a semi-structured interview form, so it is a qualitative research based on the cause-and-effect relationship. The universe of this research is the class teachers who work in the primary schools in the cities where different mother-tongue education is provided in Kosovo.
According to the teachers 'views, the influences of the programs applied for different cultures on the students' success were determined as meaningful differences in the age, education level, teaching language of the teachers and whether or not they were educated in different mother tongues in the same sc

Experiences of Latino Community College Students in Overcoming Barriers to Persist Tamara Wilkerson Dias  

While the number of Latino students taking advantage of higher education opportunities has steadily increased, the completion of degree programs does not mirror this increase (Radford, Berkner, Wheeless, & Shepard, 2010). Prior research has focused on the barriers faced by Latino college students (Garza, 2011; Hernandez, 2002; Radovic, 2012). However, there is limited research on the journeys of Latino community college students and the strategies they use to achieve success. This study utilized Padilla’s (1999) Model for Student Success to explore the barriers faced by Latino students at a community college and the strategies used by students to overcome them. Twelve students identified eleven barriers in the categories of personal, financial, coursework, learning, institutional, and student support. These students used experiential, institutional, knowledge about study skills, procedural, relational, and motivational knowledge to address their barriers. They also took strategic, pragmatic, persuasive, and supportive actions. Students emphasized the importance of building relationsh

Framing Culture and Diversity Today: Cultural Hegemony Benjamin H. Welsh  

We should be alarmed (but not surprised) that Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937), Marxist, journalist, politician, and political philosopher, bore witness to a similar political movement in Italy in the early decades of the 20th century. Gramsci was active in Socialist and Communist circles circa 1912, at the same time as Benito Mussolini. Then, after Mussolini rejected socialism, embraced nationalism and strong-armed his way into power in 1922, Gramsci witnessed Italy collapse into a one-party fascist dictatorship almost overnight. In five years or less, Mussolini dismantled liberal Italy by re-writing the Constitution, undermining the opposition parties, and closing democratic institutions. Then, in 1926, Mussolini imprisoned Gramsci under false pretense. Eleven years later, at the age of 46, Gramsci died from illnesses complicated by his imprisonment. While in prison, Gramsci produced writings that remain relevant today. In them, he critiqued Marxism, capitalism and fascism, among many other topics in over 3000 pages—writings that became known as his Prison Notebooks (Gramsci, 1971/1999)

he role of County Government on Service Provision in Early Childhood Development Education Centres in Elgeyo Marakwet County a Case Dynaline Jebiwott Kibet Moses Kapkiai

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the county government on service provision in Early Childhood development Education Centres in Elgeyo Marakwet County: Keiyo South Sub-County Kenya. To achieve this study sought to establish the extent to which devolution has enhanced availability of instructional materials in ECDE centres and to examine the influence of devolved government on infrastructural development. The study used an exploratory descriptive survey design. The entire Sub-County has 136 public ECDE centers thus the population comprised of 1 DICECE Program Officer, 136 head teachers and 408 ECDE teachers. The sample size population was 151respondents. The sample size comprised of 1 DICECE Program Officer, 14 Head teachers, and 136 ECDE1 parent representatives. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical method. Data collected was both quantitative and qualitative. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the quantitative data obtained. Qualitative data was analyzed by arranging the responses them

HRM Practices and Employee Performance in Agricultural Sector Haron M.Mutua Paul Geteni Makori

The purpose of this study was to evaluate HRM practices affecting employees in the Agricultural Sector. The study specifically sought to establish how HRM practices are integrated in Kenya Agriculture Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) – Katumani in Machakos County. It also examined the benefits of HRM practices in the agriculture sector as well as the challenges facing the managers when employing HRM practices. The study was guided by the theory of HRM as proposed.The target population was 220 employees and the management staff drawn from the four departments namely; Human resource, ICT, Research and production and field services. To obtain employees who participated in the study from each department, simple random sampling was applied to select 80 employees out of 220 Purposive sampling was used in order to include the managers or Heads of Departments while simple random sampling was applied to select the employees who participated in the research study. The researcher used questionnaire, and interview methods to collect data. Further, data analysis was done using descriptive

Influence of Financial Literacy on Performance of Small and Medium Entreprises A Case of Butere Sub County ,Kakamega County, Kenya Francis Mukatia Asakania  

The desire by governments all over the world to improve the standard of living of their citizens has led to growth in the number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In Kenya, economic growth forms one of the pillars to attaining vision 2030 whose aim is to enhance the quality of living standards of Kenyans. However, the success of the SMEs is dependent upon a number of factors. A key ingredient in ensuring sound performance of SMEs is the level of financial literacy of the business people. The study aimed at assessing the influence of financial literacy on performance of small and medium enterprises. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the influence of budgeting skills, record keeping skills, credit management skills and tax compliance skills on performance of small and medium enterprises. The target population of the study was 3,916 consisting of the SMEs business community in Butere sub county, Kakamega County, Kenya. A sample of 390 was used in the study. The study employed a descriptive research design. Stratified random sampling was used in identifying the responden

Jump for Social Justice! Uttam Gaulee  

The Journal of Underrepresented and Minority Progress (JUMP), a scholarly refereed journal, is founded against the backdrop of colossal political upheavals further marginalizing the lives of minorities around the world. United States, on the cusp of being a nation of many minorities is troubled with tensions about whether it respects and welcomes minorities and immigrants at all. The 28th annual world report by the Human Rights Watch (HRW) warned that the surge of authoritarian populists worldwide seems increasingly inevitable, with the United Kingdom preoccupied by Brexit and United States led "by a president who displays a disturbing fondness for rights-trampling strongmen." The report warned against the tendency of demagogues who rose to power by “demonizing unpopular minorities, attacking human rights principles, and fueling distrust of democratic institutions” (HRW, 2018, p. 15). We are truly at a precarious juncture of human civilization because the US and the UK, so far looked upon as the “defenders of human rights” globally have been beleaguered by nationalism.

Knowledge Implementation and Employee Performance Evidence from Kenya. Dr . Caroline Sitienei Koech  

Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to examine the interaction effect of employee engagement on the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance in Technical Institutions in Kenya. The study therefore, sought to establish the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance and the moderating effect of employee engagement on the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance.
Methodology– The paper adopts regression model and Baron and Kenny approach to test for moderation effects.
Findings –The study findings revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance (β =.083, p<.05). The study further revealed that employee engagement moderates the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance (β =-.142, p<.01). Research Limitations/implications– Given that the study looked at knowledge implementation, employee engagement and employee performance at one point in time, longitudinal time span research is recommended to p

MEASURING EFFICIENCY AND BENCHMARKING CLASSIFIED TWO - FIVE STAR HOTELS IN NAIROBI AND MOMBASA, KENYA Methuselah Bichage Gesage Diana Mukwate Muchai

The purpose of this study was to measure the relative efficiency of the hotels in Nairobi and Mombasa using Data Envelopment Analysis. The study was a longitudinal survey in which data are collected for periods; 2007, 2008 and. The study was limited to two-five star hotels. The study sample consisted of 36 hotels. The results revealed that technical inefficiencies of the hotels were mainly due to the pure technical inefficiencies rather than the scale inefficiencies.
Key words: Bench marking; Data Envelopment Analysis; Decision Making Unit; Efficiency; Returns to Scale

Organization al Restruc turi ng Effect on Competitive Advantage of Catholic Mission Hospitals in Nyeri Cou nty, Kenya . Masayi, B. Nyongesa  

In the recent years, the health sector has experienced escalating health care costs which have made the health care service providers seek for ways of continuously staying competitive to provide quality services to its customers. Traditionally, this is a sector that requires high level of professionalism, sophisticated equipments and advanced technology in order to stay ahead of others. Catholic mission hospitals have not been an exception to this experience. Despite the efforts, several draw backs have been noticed in the hospitals. It’s against this background that this study specifically aimed to establish the effect of investigate whether establishing whether human resource alignment had any effect on competitiveness of Catholic Mission Hospitals in Nyeri County. The target population for the study was 226 staff and a sample size of 68 was selected. The researcher used descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaires. The data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis and presente

Penetration strategies of Turkish corporations in Kosovo’s market LUAN VARDARI DENA ARAPI

Rapid developments and increasing competition in recent years have prevented companies from producing and selling only in domestic markets, but also causing their foreign resources and investments to be directed to foreign markets. In this case, once businesses decide to join a particular market, they have to decide which is the best way to penetrate there. Turkish multinational corporations, which have been spreading all over the world with their investments, have conquered world markets with their exports, initiatives and acquisitions, they have entered in foreign markets in various forms and have a significant share in world trade volume with their successful investments. From this point of view, this study examines the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets especially in Kosovo and the impact that those companies have had in the development of the Kosovo economy and the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets.

Personal Therapy: Towards Sustainability and Capacity Building among Workers in Organisations in Kenya Prisca Tarus Enos Mwirotsi

The growth and success of all organizations, depend on the health of their workers; both the physical and mental health. The counselor plays a great role in ensuring that workers enjoy good mental health through facilitation of their self awareness and life skill acquisition. However, counselor may sometimes be overwhelmed with his/her own personal concerns to the extent his/her functioning is curtailed. By becoming clients themselves, counselors gain an inner steadiness that increases their ability to help others. In learning self-acceptance and patience through personal therapy, counselors will find it easier to be patient with clients and to respect each individual’s unique process and pacing. Personal therapy helps counselors learn patience and calmness in the unpredictable waters of an organization. Without personal therapy, counselors are more susceptible to acting prematurely and subverting the difficult and fallow periods so crucial to therapeutic progress. Personal therapy is a core component of counselor self-care, which is another means of preventing client harm and enhanc

PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN KENYA COOPERATIVE CREAMERIES Masaba Job Masayi B. Nyongesa

Although some few studies have been done on the relationship between product differentiation strategies for competitive advantage, information on the strategies used in Kenya is ostensibly missing in the literature. This study therefore sought to determine the role of product differentiation strategy in New Kenya Corporative Creameries for competitive advantage. Specifically the study sought to determine effect of product support service, branding, packaging and labeling on competitive advantage of KCC. The study employed a descriptive research design. The study targeted a total population of 10822, comprising of 2 Marketing managers, 10 regional managers and 10 route managers from New KCC and 10800 customers buying New KCC products. The sample size was 407. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from the participants. The study established that the major product differentiation strategies used at New KCC include branding, labeling, packaging, product quality and total change in product characteristics. The study has enhanced understanding of how product differentiat

Relationships between age, gender and Financial Growth of Listed Firms in Kenya Nyandema Daniel  

The study sought to determine the relationships between board of directors’ age, gender and financial growth of companies listed in Kenya. The study was guided by the agency theory, contingency theory and stewardship theory. The study used correlational research design and the target population for this study was board of directors of 60 listed companies in the Nairobi Securities Exchange and the sample size of 18 boards of directors of listed companies was used being representative of all the sectors. Data was sourced from NSE annual reports and annually published financial statements of listed companies. In order to answer the research questions the study used cross tabulation and to determine the strength of relationship between board directors’ age, gender and firm’s financial growth, coefficient of correlation was computed. Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. The study found that there is a negative relationship between the age and the financial growth of companies listed in NSE. Gender has a positive association with profits and a negative association with EPS and DPS.

Responsible Journalism Vincent Mukangayi Achando  

The advent of new media has completely revolutionalised journalism in the world and particularly in Kenya, with regard to sourcing dissemination and consumption of information is concerned. This is pegged on the advancement in technology through the internet that enables journalist and bloggers to publish, share news and events as well as receive feedback from the public. This scenario has changed the media landscape in Kenya in the recent years. The emergence of citizen media has been enabled by technologies such as mobile phones, blogs, micro-bloggers and video sharing platforms. Blogs have become authoritative channel through which people share ideas, news, advice and analyses on different happenings in the society. The practice has recently turned out to be journalistic, with a good number of bloggers running authoritative and influential blogs, where thousands of people flock for information. Kenya has the highest number of active bloggers in Africa and in the world. This study aims to establish roles of bloggers in responsible journalism in Kenya. The study was guided by the fo

Stock Market Volatility At The Nairobi Securities Exchange Joseph Abuga Orayo  

Herding is an important factor in determining equity returns during periods of price fluctuations in the market. Increased herding behaviour among investors as a result of uncertainty causes unnecessary volatility. Therefore, this paper investigates whether herding behaviour contributes to stock market volatility at the Nairobi Securities Exchanges (NSE). First, the study evaluates whether herding behaviour exists at the NSE and the extent of such behaviour. Secondly, it explores its attributed implication on the stock market indicators demonstrating volatility. The study has utilized monthly data from firms listed in the NSE from January 2009 to December 2015. Cross Sectional Standard Deviation (CSSD) has been mainly employed as testing methodology. Panel data on individual variables was used to estimate the non- linear model of both binary and continuous nature. Coefficients by the model have statistical significant influence on CSSD confirming the presence of significant herding patterns at the NSE which influence volatility as demonstrated in the graphical analysis and consequent

Strategies Adopted by Commercial Banks in Kenya for Competetive Advantage a Case of Equity Bank Philip Bii Job Masaba

A company’s strategy is a management game plan for growing the business, starting out a market position, attracting customers, competing successfully, conducting operations and achieving targeted objectives. The main purpose of the study was to find out the strategies adopted by commercial banks in Kenya for competitive advantage, a case study of Equity bank. Thus the study sought to achieve the following objectives; to establish the strategies adopted by Equity bank for its quest for competitive advantage and to establish the role played by competitive strategies in the growth of Equity bank. The study employed survey research design and the target population comprised 28 employees of Equity bank. Face to face interviews and structured questionnaires was applied to the management and general staff to collect primary data. The generated data comprised of primary (field survey) and secondary (period survey) sources. The data was analyzed through use of quantitive and qualitative methods and the obtained findings were presented in tables and figures. The study identified the strategies

Systematic Review of Research on the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer International Students Hoa Nguyen Erika Grafsky

Research evidenced a significant gap in understanding the experiences of international students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ). The purpose of this systematic review is to explore what we currently know about the experiences of LGBQ international students by synthesizing the peer-reviewed and gray literature that focused on this intersection of sexual and cultural diversity. A total of 11 records met the inclusion criteria and were examined. Out of these 11 records, 6 were qualitative studies. Findings from this analysis highlighted the salience of: (a) identity formation and coming out within transnational narratives, (b) the double barriers of being both an international student and LGBQ, and (c) multi-layered discrimination and heteronormativity. Future directions and implications are provided.

The current trend of globalization and rapid working environment change has become a challenge for organizational management of change. The purpose of the study therefore was to investigate the relationships between organizational culture and change management at Kakamega provincial hospital. The sp Kevin Agata  

The current trend of globalization and rapid working environment change has become a challenge for organizational management of change. The purpose of the study therefore was to investigate the relationships between organizational culture and change management at Kakamega provincial hospital. The specific objectives of the study was to establish the relationship between institutional leadership and management of change and to find out the role of training and development in managing change at the KPGH using organizational culture. The data for this study was collected from primary and secondary sources. The study adopted Hofstede’s organizational culture theory framework to understand the relationship between organizational culture and change management. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The research instruments were questionnaire and documentary analysis. The study population comprises of senior, middle management staff, general employees, and subordinates staffs. The sample of one hundred and eighty eight respondents was selected for the study using stratified an

The Effects of Metacognitive Learning Strategy in Writing Enhancement of English Students Nazli Tyfekci Erenik Dujaka

This study investigates the effectiveness of metacognitive learning strategy in writing enhancement of English language and literature students in Kosovo. The research examined students’ metacognitive knowledge and regulation about their priorities regarding drafting, planning, organizing, summarizing, composing, reviewing and later on evaluation. Divided into two phases to first measure their awareness towards metacognition, and then to evaluate their capability in composition through learning strategies, the results of the research suggest that, contrary to the traditional view, in Kosovo, that places its importance on the teacher and not the student, the experimental participants proved that by utilizing metacognitive learning strategy enhances their writing efficiency and effectiveness. Findings also suggest that students’ attitude towards new and modern learning strategies is potently positive and welcoming.

The Role of University Education A Perspective of Youth Empowerment in Kenya. Stephen Kipkorir Rotich  

The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which University Education contributes to youth empowerment in Kenya. What motivates the researcher is the increasing number of youths pursuing a second degree, thinking that what they lack is education to get a job. What remains predicament is the fact that quite a number of youths still possess a mindset of permanent and pensionable job. Unemployment rate in Kenya has been increasing from 12.7% (2006) to 40% (2011). The research analyses three scenarios: university programmes, pedagogy and business attitudes of graduates. The study employed descriptive survey research design to explore the business attitudes and skills of graduates. The target population was university graduates who engage in business with a total of 75 respondents. Purposive and Snowball sampling were used to obtain 25 respondents from each county of Kericho, Bomet and Narok. The graduates who engaged in business in towns were identified and ask to identify others in turn, until the required sample was obtained. Primary data was collected using observation, int

The State Of Stakeholder Engagement In Major Private Higher Education Instituions In Botswana Ushe Makambe  

This study
sought to discover the extent of internal stakeholder collaboration in
private higher education
(PHE)
institutions in Botswana by determining the existence
or absence
of engagement of academic staff associations and
Student Representative Councils (SRCs).
The study adopted a multimethod research approach leading to
methodological triangulation whereby
quantitative and qualitative data were obtained through a questionnaire and
face
-
to
-
face interviews
respectively
.
The research participants comprised 132 memb
ers of academic staff from five
PHE insti
tu
tions covered in this study. The probabilistic sampling procedure was used to select respondents to the
questionnaire, while purposeful sampling was used to select respondents to the in
-
depth interviews.
The resul
ts of
the study revealed the absence of
effective
stakeholder engagement in the selected PHE institutions as virtually all
the institutions did not have academic staff associations, while SRCs were n

The Success and Failures of ICT Governance in Enterprises MR. JAMES NAMBUSI MAKHULO  

Most enterprises are struggling with risky surroundings and constant technological changes in order to achieve the highly expected results. ICT governance considers many types of technologies touching on various areas of interest in enterprises. A number of times we hear of negative and positive happenings in organisations due to failure or success of ICT of which the blame or praises go to ICT management or system being used and not the governance of the ICT in place. The key agenda of ICT governance include the assurance that there are positive returns on ICT investments, tone down the risks that are associated with ICT among others; Governance plays the big role and not the management. Governance being about who makes decisions unlike management which is about making and implementing the decisions. This presentation about the ICT governance; what contributes to the success of ICT governance and its possible failures that make the system in the enterprise not to achieve its objectives. It looks at the issues that contribute to effective / sustainable and ineffective / non-sustainab

Women in institutional boards and board effectivess in Kisii county, Kenya. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba Jackline Omuya

In this study it shows that female directors have a significant impact on board inputs and educational institution’s outcomes. From the literature, we find that female directors have better attendance records than male directors, male directors have fewer attendance problems the more gender-diverse the board is, and women are more likely to join monitoring committees. In this paper we open the “black box” of board behavior by drawing upon theories of gender differences and group effectiveness. The results suggest that gender-diverse boards allocate more effort to monitoring, women directors is positively associated with board strategic control. In addition, there are positive effects of women directors on board effectiveness as mediated through increased board development activities and decreased level of conflict.
Policy Implications: Women’s ability to make a contribution to the board may be attributable to their different leadership styles. Their presence seems to increase board effectiveness through reducing the level of conflict and ensuring high quality of board development ac

Women in the Labor Market and Decision Making in Kosovo Dena Arapi Luan Vardari

Gender equality is defined as a prerequisite for European integration and as such the Action Plan for European Partnership is listed on Political Criteria. The Government of Kosovo in April 2008 approved the Kosovo Program for Gender Equality GENERAL six goals and eight specific objectives. With this objective case for women in the labor market and decision- making requires a greater commitment of all stakeholders.
This study provides an overview of the rough that evaluates the legal framework and cross- sectoral policies and positioning of women in conformity with their school preparation in decision-making positions. Economic independence remains as one of the main key to the realization of the equal right to decision-making positions. Although Kosovo with gender representation in decision-making level of the seventeenth in the world counted in the labor market situation remains a challenge that requires a great commitment to the local factor and even international.
Therefore, the research enables the opening of discussions, improving the working environment and the implementation

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