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Numerical Ways to Characterize the Deterioration of Nanofiltration Membranes S. Déon P. Dutournié

Abstract: In this study, a transport model is used to characterize structural and physico-chemical changes in a
nanofiltration membrane during the filtration of ionic mixtures. The membrane state is analyzed by a set of four model
parameters identified from glucose and salts filtration: the membrane water permeability (Lp), the mean pore radius (rp),
the membrane charge density (Xd), and the dielectric constant of the solution inside pores (􀀁p). The study of these
structural and physico-chemical properties allows us to determine if deterioration or fouling occurred during filtration. Two
distinct identification procedures from filtration of synthetic solutions are investigated in this paper. One is based on the
filtration of single salt solutions, whereas the other lies in parameters identification from mixtures containing at least three
ions. These methods are applied here to characterize influence of fouling deposit formation and membrane cleaning.

The Technology in the Programs of Life Sciences in Turkey and Sachunterricht in Germany Tuba Keskin  

The purpose of this study is to compare the gains of the Life Sciences program in Turkey and the Life sciences program (Sachunterricht) used in the state of Niedersachsen in Germany. The study aiming to compare the technology-related acquisitions in Life sciences program in Turkey and Germany is a comparative education research that used qualitative method and descriptive approach. In the study, the Sachunterricht (Life sciences) course’s technology acquisitions and the use of technology in Germany were briefly mentioned and then the differences were evaluated by comparing to the usage of Life sciences course technology in Turkey. It was found that, the acquisition groups in Germany focus on technical perception and solving of the problems, describing the use of simple materials, having basic knowledge about transportation of wastes, having knowledge about the assembly, being well-informed about the effects of technical inventions, and becoming familiar with the energy and water supply. When the related gains were examined, the gains in the production area were observed to remain superficial in the Life sciences program according to the Sachunterricht program. The students in the Life sciences program only have a role to observe production, while the students are performing the production itself in the Sachunterricht program.

Analyzing The Elementary Social Studies Book in terms of Graphic Design Principles Kahraman Kılıç  

The aim of this study is to examine the social study book in terms of graphic design principles. This research is a qualitative study. Qualitative research is a type of research in which perception, events or circumstances are revealed in a realistic and totalitarian way. In this study, Document Analyses Technique is used as a data collection tool. In this respect, graphic principles criterions are determined firstly and then the images that are used (506 images) in the elementary school social study book are examined. The results show that social study books are found to be of a very low level, in terms of graphic design principles. It turned out that all parts of the social study book show a lack of implementation of graphic design principles. While the most used graphic design principles are: integrity, emphasis and balance, the least adopted ones are: alignment, line spacing, blanks and kerning. In the context of the research, these suggestions are brought forward: a social study lesson book should be made more interesting and should be according to graphic design principles. Priority should be given especially to the chapters where there is a lack of use of graphic design principles. Graphic design principles that are used the least such as line and measurement should be implemented more.

Use of Games in Education: GeoGuessr in Geography Course Mustafa Girgin  

Almost all of the studies which are about the learning effects of the games emphasize as if, they have all agreed on all hands that the games contribute to the child’s spiritual and educational development. No matter at which age group it is, to claim that game derived gains couldn’t be gained by no other way, wouldn’t be exaggeration indeed. The ones who spend their time playing games are known to be ahead from the ones who don’t in a lot of areas like 3D thinking, reasoning and having responsibilities aside from having fun. When units and gains observed in geography courses, it is seen that there is no reference to gaming. In fact, gaming affects all students’ learning performance of all ages positively. The geography game “Geography Prediction” spread on the internet with the slogan “Discover the World” named GeoGuessr, takes its players to many places from Australia’s play the game in which one has to figure out a location based on five randomly given pictures by using various geographical indicators, players put a mark on the World map and gain point according to the proximity of their mark to the location. It is looked for an answer to the question of “Which geographical indicators used by the students in this GeoGuessr exercise?”. It was asked to play this game from a group of 140 first grade Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University, Faculty of Education students. They all have encountered the game for the first time and have never played before, they are asked 6 questions like how many times they have played the game, the reason they got low points, the highest point they got, which indicators they have used and the place of the game in teaching geography. All of the participants shared the highest point they got on their own blog and made evaluations about the game

On triple sequence spaces of sliding window rough λ-statistical convergence for measurable function of probability defined by Musielak-Orlicz function Ayhan Esi Subramanian Nagarajan

We introduced the triple sequence spaces of sliding window rough λ-statistical convergence for measurable function of probability defined by Musielak-Orlicz function and discuss general properties of among these sequence spaces.

Pilomatrix carcinoma of face; a case report Hayat AL-Khasawneh  

Pilomatrix carcinoma is an exceedingly rare malignant tumor derived from hair follicle. Although it has been described at various anatomical sites, fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the face and scalp. The diagnosis of pilomatrix carcinoma is based on histological examination of skin biopsy. . We report a case of pilomatrix carcinoma in an 85 year old male patient presented with cheek nodule.

Case report: A 27 years old woman with brain metastases of synovial sarcoma Nosrati Anahita  

A 27- year old lady with severe headache, nausea, vomiting and impaired cerebellar function. She had a history of a left arm synovial sarcoma and she was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that shows a gadolinium enhanced mass measuring about 7 mm in diameter with both solid and cystic portions in left cerebellar hemisphere causing mass effect. Histologic evaluation confirmed poorly differentiated type synovial sarcoma composed of tumor cells containing pleomorphic round to oval hyper chromatic to vesicular nuclei with coarse chromatin and a little light eosinophilic cytoplasm. The IHC stain is done and showed EMA, CK and vimentin positivity in tumor cells. The patient was treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the follow up study at 6 month post chemotherapy evaluation computed tomography (CT scan) showed pulmonary metastases and transthoracic biopsy revealed the same pathologic feature. According to our patient, brain metastasis could occur even in extremities synovial sarcoma and so CNS imaging as screening may be introduced in follow up plan of these patients.

Evaluation of Self-Immolation Suicide attempt in Sari City (north of Iran) between 2011 to 2014 Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini  

Objective: Self-immolation is one of the terrible way of suicide. Lack of data about suicide by Self-immolation method in Sari city (north of Iran) caused we designed this study to evaluation of self-immolation suicide attempt in Sari City (north of Iran) between 2011 to 2014.
Methods: In a retrospective study we review the medical record of 74 cases that attempt to suicide by self-immolation between 2011 and 2014 in Sari City (North of Iran). The medical record of all these patients included age, sex, marital status, residency in urban or rural, the season in which they attempt suicide, length of hospital stay, history of psychiatric diseases, history of underling disease, history of addiction and results of suicide attempt were collected. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18.
Results: 74 patients included 52 females (70.3%) were attempt suicide by self-immolation method. The female to male ratio was 2.36. the mean age of all patients was 32.32±12.89 years old (between 12 to 75 years). There was no significant difference between mean age of women and men (32.55±13.64 vs. 31.77±11.20 years respectively, P=0.81). the prevalence of self-immolation was higher in spring (36.5%). Majority of the cases were married (59.5%). 19 patients (25.7%) was addicted to drugs included 16 opium addiction (84.2%) and 5 crack addiction (15.8%). 25 cases (33.8%) had history of psychiatric disease and 13 cases (17.6%) had history of seizure. Finally, 68 cases (91.9%) from 74 patents were die.
Conclusion: The prevalence of self-immolation was higher in women, spring, between drug user and in married patients. Suicide by self-immolation was associated with high rate of mortality.

Compare the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional radiography in diagnosis of distal radius injury before skeletal maturity Seyyed Mehran Razavipour  

Objective: Physeal injuries in childhood may produce irreversible damage to the growing cells, resulting in growth disturbance. The aim of this study is compare conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of distal radius epiphyseal and physeal injury.
Methods: 31 cases with distal radius trauma were examined with conventional radiography and MRI. One blinded experienced radiologists and one blinded experienced specialist in orthopedics separately evaluated the results.
Results: The main age of our patient was 11.74±2.98 years. The results of MRI showed 90.32% injury in all patients whiles conventional radiography showed 64.51% injuries (P=0.014). In survey the physeal injury by conventional radiography we have 6 Salter–Harris II fractures. Meanwhile, the MRI showed 9 physeal injuries that included 6 Salter–Harris II fracture and 3 other fracture with physeal injury (all of them had distal radius microfracture with mild physeal injury) (P>0.05). In patients that conventional radiography showed they were normally, MRI showed 4 Bone Bruising and 4 microfracture. The other results were similar. The sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value, negative predictive value and total accuracy of conventional radiography in diagnosis of physeal injury were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 88%, 90.32%.
Conclusion: our study showed MRI and conventional radiography had almost similar power to diagnosis growth plate injuries in distal radius trauma. When we considering high cost of MRI, it’s seems that conventional radiography was beneficial than MRI to use in distal radius injury.

The Effect of Music Therapy on the Vital Signs of Patients in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit Seyhan Çıtlık Sarıtaş  

Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of musicotherapy on the vital signs of patients in a surgical intensive care unit.
Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted at Inonu University Turgut Ozal Medical Center General Surgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The study population consisted of patients who had been hospitalized in the ICU during the last 24 hours, who remained at least one day in the ICU, and who agreed to participate in the study. They were over 18 years of age, and their levels of consciousness were 5 or higher according to the Glasgow Coma Scoring System. The sample was collected from 202 patients who were hospitalized at TOTM general surgery ICU after power analysis. Patient identification forms and the registration forms containing vital signs before and after the intervention were used for data collection. Information from patient identification forms and registration forms indicating vital signs (pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation level) before music therapy was recorded on the second day after admission to general surgery ICU. This information about the patients was recorded again after music therapy. The data were evaluated with descriptive statistics and a paired t test.
Results: Pulse rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowered by music therapy, and low oxygen saturations were raised by music therapy.
Conclusion: The results show that music therapy is effective.

Histopathologic discrepancy between prostatic core biopsy and open radical prostatectomy specimens in clinically localized prostatic cancer Abdullah Rababaah  

Objective: 1. To assess the histopathologic discrepancy between prostatic needle biopsy and open radical prostatectomy specimens in terms of Gleason score upgrading and bilaterality
2. To evaluate the impact of this discrepancy on the surgical margin status of radical prostatectomy specimens Methods: This study was conducted at Prince Hussein Urology Center, Amman, Jordan. Between May 2010 and August 2015, 74 patients underwent open radical prostatectomy for localized prostatic cancer diagnosed by prostatic needle biopsy based on high PSA level. We compared histopathologic findings regarding Gleason score and bilaterality between prostatic biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, and then we evaluated the impact discrepancy between them on the surgical margin status of radical prostatectomy specimens.
Results: 52 patients (70%) had upgrade in Gleason score with mean increase by one. All 34 patients who had bilateral disease on prostatic biopsy had bilateral disease on radical prostatectomy, but of the remaining 40 patients with unilateral disease 18 patients (45%) had bilateral disease on radical prostatectomy specimen. Surgical margin was involved in 3 patients (4%), all of them had Gleason score > 7 and bilateral disease on both biopsy and surgical specimens.
Conclusion: In spite of the significant histopathologic discrepancy between prostatic needle biopsy and open radical prostatectomy specimens, however in clinically localized prostatic cancer this discrepancy has no impact on surgical margin status.

Illness behaviour: normal to abnormal- a selective systematic review of research from india Geetha Desai  

Objective: Illness behaviour is an important concept studied across various medical conditions. It determines the ways person respond and react to their health status and has significant impact on the health systems and individual. However, there are no systematic reviews on this important topic. To do a selective systematic review of researches done in India on illness behaviours across different health conditions.
Methods: Journal articles were identified through search on the PubMed, Medline, PsychInfo electronic databases from 1970 to 2015 with the search terms (Illness behaviour, India, Abnormal illness behaviour). The full articles were reviewed to identify measures used and important findings were extracted and summarised.
Results: There were 15 studies which were based on patients and two review articles (non-systematic). The studies on illness behaviour focused on somatoform disorders, tuberculosis and stroke. Scales used for assessment included Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ), Illness Behaviour Assessment Schedule (IBAS) and Screening for Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (SIBQ). No studies were found on intervention for abnormal illness behaviour.
Conclusion: Illness behaviours are an important aspect of somatoform disorders. It is difficult to draw conclusions due to relatively small number of studies. More studies including randomised control designs are needed to understand patterns of illness behaviour across disorders.

Controversy Concerning Constitutional Cancer: Historical Review Wilson I. B. Onuigbo  

Objective: The general pathology of cancer was long in turmoil over the two extremes of constitutionalism and localism. Therefore, my mini-Library of historical works was searched so as to obtain a good idea as to the ultimate development.
Methods: Many different literatures on the subject matter were reviewed and used.
Results: Two major issues were delineated. The constitutional theory saw cancer being a whole body affair with some local manifestations whereas the localists believed in a focal origin which may go on to manifest widely. Naturally, there was the midway group called the dualists who managed to hold both concepts
Conclusion: The controversy that reigned in the history of these concepts are deemed to be worthy of documentation. By 1900, the localists gained the upper hand principally on the principle of embolism.

Bloody diarrhea: A rare chief complain of leptospirosis Narges Najafi  

Objective: Leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonosis diseases that presents by involvement of different systems. This infectious disease ranges from mild to very severe but bloody diarrhea is not a known clinical primary manifestation of the illness.
Case Presentation: We describe a patient with leptospirosis who was admitted because of bloody diarrhea in the beginning. The patient admitted as a probable shigellosis case. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed based on result of Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT). After 7 days treatment he made a complete recovery and was discharged.
Conclusion: Although leptospirosis with presentation of bloody diarrhea is an unusual report. Leptospirosis should be considered in all febrile patients particularly in farmers endemic area.

Dysphagia in an elderly patient suffering from long-lasting rheumatoid arthritis. Manzo Ciro  

idiopathic esophageal achalasia (IEA) is a rare motor disorder whose initial manifestation is dysphagia, sometimes versus liquids. IEA can be an uncommon manifestation of some rheumatic inflammatory diseases such as Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, sclerodermia, rheumatoid arthritis. IEA is considered a precancerous condition and the possibility that it represents a risk factor for development of esophageal carcinoma (EC) has been more and more descripted. These same rheumatic diseases - when long-standing and/or aggressive - can give an esophageal amyloidosis (EA) with AA amyloid deposits . EA is very rarely descripted as unique manifestation of systemic amyloidosis during these diseases. IEA has a typical manometric pattern whereas in EA the anarchic arrangement of amyloid can produce unforeseen and uncharacteristc motility patterns different from the idiopathic one. Both IEA and EA are very rare conditions. For IEA, it has been extimated an annual incidence of 2/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 10/100,000 with a peak incidence between 30 and 60 years of age. The prevalence and incidence of EA are uncertain. The surgical experiences in esophageal pseudoachalasia are aneddhotic. We describe the clinical case of an elderly woman suffering from long-lasting rheumatoid arthritis in which an EA overlapped an IEA, causing the sharp worsening of dysphagia and poor prognosis despite surgical approaches. According to our knowledge, this overlap has been never descripted.

Improvement of sperm parameters after varicocelectomy: a single center study during six years Ayoub Barzgarnezhad  

Objective: One of the causes of male infertility is varicocele that has negative effects on sperm parameters.By doing varicocelectomy that it is an effective method for the treatment, there will be significant recovery in sperm parameters. The aim of this study is to evaluate sperm parameters before and after Varicocelectomy and a pregnancy rate in patients.
Methods: This cross-sectional study has been performed on patients with primary and secondary infertility who underwent varicocelectomy during 2009-2014 in hospitals of Sari, north of Iran. Demographic data has been extracted from hospital records and necessary information about spermogram has been gathered according to a checklist designed for this purpose. We used a questionnaire that contained demographic characteristics of patients and values of variables before and after varicocelectomy. Finally all data have been analyzed statistically using SPSS ver.20.The significance level was set at 0.05.
Results: of51 studied cases with the mean age of 37.3 years 50.98 percentswere above 40 years of old. 24 patients had varicocele grade II and 27 ones had grade three. Bilateral varicocelewas the dominant type in patients. The final finding represented that sperm indexes improved significantly after the varicocelectomy (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Results of our study showed that varicocelectomy leads to significant differences in sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology), while the fertility rate also significantly increased.

Mycosis Fungoides Skin Wound Management With Skin Graft Post Ultraviolet Radiation therapy. Shefaa almashagbeh  

Objective : To assess the survival rate of skin graft management in skin lesions of mycosis fungoides patients after therapy with ultraviolet radiation.
Methods : Between February. 2011 and June 2015, 89 [8- 81 yrs. ] mycosis fungoides patients were followed up at dermatology clinic, the initial investigations were skin biopsy and the most common used therapy is photo therapy with ultraviolet radiation ( according to stage in the histopathologic reports )
Results : Of the 89 patients that we followed , 90% treated with phototherapy (80 patients ), 35% of them ( 28patients ) of these patients were managed by skin grafts of skin lesions and ulcers , 10% of them ( 3patients ) the skin graft didn’t survive without previous therapy with ultraviolet radiation , 90% (25patients ) of them the grafted areas survived after phototherapy of UVA ,UVB radiation to the potential donor site, the other 65% (52patients ) of the followed pts were managed without skin graft for the ulcerated skin lesions , 38% of them healed spontaneously , others didn’t healed for a long time and need skin graft.
Conclusion: Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T lymphoma, pts who received phototherapy to the potential donor site has proven beneficial for skin graft survival , since ultraviolet radiation A,B ,decrease the cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and decrease inflammatory cells in both graft and donor tissues , with decrease in the antigen presenting cells expression, which leads to decrease in the delayed type hyper sensitivity reaction and increase graft uptake.

The Effect of MMP9 in the Development of Colorectal Cancer Progression Anahita Nosrati1 Omid Emadian2

Objective: Matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9) is a group of proteolytic enzymes that mediate breaking down the components of the fibrillar extracellular matrix during tissue rearrangement,physical,biological and pathological conditions such as growth, wound healing, inflammation and tumor progression. To investigate the association of these markers with clinicopathologic features and survival of colorectal cancers(CRC),we examined its expression in colorectal cancer tissues.
Methods: The expression of MMP9 in 91 paraffin embedded specimens of colorectal cancer and normal tissue adjacent to the tumor of patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari,Iran was studied immunohistochemically and the relationship between the clinical data and pathological features were considered,too.
Result: 91 samples (43 women and 48 men) were studied including 6 mucinous carcinoma and 88 adenocarcinoma. MMP9 expression was negative and positive in 31 and 66 cases respectively. Expression of MMP9 in normal tissue around the tumor was 5.5%. Our finding revealed that the MMP9 correlated significantly with tumor depth (p-value: 0.033) and metastasis to lymph node (p-value: 0.007). The association of MMP9 expression with the other clinicopathologic factors was not statistically significant (p-value> 0.05).
Conclusion: According to this study,the relationship between the expression of MMP9 with lymph node metastasis and depth of tumor was observed. To confirm the result, vast studies with more samples and also with the other matrix metalloproteinase proteases is recommended.

Impetigo in children in sector Gaza ThaerAlmomani  

Objective: To present a profile of impetigo in children in sector Gaza.
Methods: All patients that were seen in the outpatient clinic in Jordanian hospital in Gaza between 25/11/2010 and 24/01/2011and presented with skin rash were examined for impetigo. Patients were divided into three age groups: group I: 0-5 years, group II: 5-9 years and group III: 9-14 years.
Results: A total of 6530 children were seen in outpatient clinic for various diseases and conditions during study period. 165 cases of impetigo were reported with 108 males and 57 females. Impetigo was higher in age group II: age 5-9 years, followed by group III: 9-14 years. The incidence of impetigo among children seen in clinic was 0.02% and was higher in males. Commonest manifestation was blisters or sores on the face, neck, hands, and diaper area.
Conclusion: Impetigo is a common disease among children in Gaza. Major contributing factors to this disease are: crowding, poor hygiene, scarce water supplies, low socio-economic class, warm weather and presence of already irritated skin by problems such as eczema and insect bites.

Formulation and physiochemical evaluation of honey-containing gel mask, PVA, and total hydro-alcoholic extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss for the healing of minor wound Mohammad Ali Shatalebi  

Objective: One of the aims of medicine is to heal wounds in a shorter time and with fewer complications. In the studies on the effect of Scrophularia striata Boiss on the probability of mitigation of infection, reduction of the wound healing period, inflammation and scar remaining from the wound have been shown. Gel mask formulation, enjoying PVA polymer, creates a natural scaffold on wounds, causing the cells to migrate in an organized fashion towards the wound's bed and proliferate. By introducing the plant's extract in this base, its effect on reduction of the healing time and mitigation of the scar remaining from the wound becomes predictable.
Methods: The total plant was extracted through percolation using ethanol 70%. The plant's standardization was done through determination of the total polyphenols' percentage using folin-ciocalteu reagent. The extract was then concentrated and the amount of the dry extract per each 100 g of the plant's powder was calculated. Next, different formulations with different percentages of PVA, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol, and glycerin and other substances available in the base were prepared and then evaluated in terms of formation of medicinal film, drying time, pH, and other physiochemical parameters. Thereafter, drug diffusion was investigated using Franz cell and drug diffusion kinetics from the base.
Results: The amount of the plant's polyphenols was 25.1% and the amount of the plant's dry extract was 12.5%. The optimal formulation is a clear gel that forms a medicinal film after application of wound and following 10 minutes of use. It contains 7.5% pva, 15% alcohol, 10% isopropyl alcohol, 0.5% xantam, and 3% glycerin. The pH of the formulation was 5.65 and had the stability required in physiochemical evaluations and stability experiments. Drug release was done within 35 min as much as 90%, with the drug's release model following Higuichi model.
Conclusion;The optimal gel mask formulation containing 10% the extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss plant indicated a desirable stability in physiochemical evaluation. Considering the synergistic effect of the base and the extract in shortening the wound healing period and mitigation of remaining scar, clinical studies should be conducted.

Survey the complications of femoral neck fracture Masoud ShayestehAzar  

Objective:Femoral neck fracture is associated with several complications and poor prognosis. This study design to survey the complications of femoral neck fracture.
Methods: We design a descriptive analytical study. All patients with femoral neck fracture from March 2012 to March 2014 who referred to Imam-Khomeini Hospital of Mazandaran University of medical sciences at Sari city were enrolled to this study. Patients were follow for 12 months. Patient’s demographic data, radiologic data, type of treatment (surgery or supportive Therapy) and type of complication were recorded.
Results: from 72 patients how referred to our center, 50 patients (28 men) with mean age of 58.43±6.73 years complete the study. There was not significant difference between men and women age (56.5±21.17 vs. 59.72±16.38 years, P=0.55). 22 cases (40%) (7 men) by arthroplasty, 13 cases (26%) (10 men) by cannulated screw fixation and 15 cases (30%) (11) by dynamic hip screw (DHS) were treated. 14 patients (28%) including 4 men and 10 women were afoul complications that included avascular necrosis (3 patients), dislocation of prosthesis (2 patients), pulmonary embolism (one patient), intraoperative femoral shaft fracture (one patient), relocation of screw and shortening of the femoral neck (2 patients) and death in 5 patients who all of them were women (mean age of 79.35±5.81 years) and surgery by arthroplasty technique. morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in women (p=0.007)
Conclusion: morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in women. arthroplasty associated with high rate of complication and death, especially in older patients.

Apt Acknowledgements Arose During the Development of Pathology in the 19th Century Wilson I. B. Onuigbo  

Objective: There are different aspects of the history of pathology which are rewarding. Therefore, my mini-Library of historical works was searched so as to obtain a good idea as to the ultimate development.
Methods: Different aspects of the literature on this subject matter were reviewed and used.
Results: There were apt acknowledgements of certain themes which are worthy of documentation.
Conclusion: The harvest included the co-authorship of pathologists, the quotations being used to eliminate the suspicious of plagiarism, the contribution of microscopy and illustrative plates, as well as the watching of postmortems, the receiving of research grants, and, finally, the pleasure of working under the Director of the Laboratories Committee of the Conjoint College in England.

The role of Technology in health care of aging people with Cognitive disorder: a narrative review Hamideh Azimi lolaty  

Cognitive function plays an important role in everyone’s life and the prevalence of cognitive impairment increases with age. According to the statistics, this disease is so common in Iran and the worldwide. Nowadays, technology has helped people with cognitive impairment and their careers in different aspects. This study aimed to review the role of technology in health care status of aging people with cognitive disorder.
We searched Google scholar, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, ProQues, Ovid, Iranmedex, SID and Magiran. We searched for terms such as "elderly", "aging", "technology", "cognitive impairment", "care giver", "virtual", "Alzheimer", " Dementia", "Telecare", "sensor", "information and communication", "memory training"," assistive device ","smart phone", "Web Base Education" and "Web Based Learning". 1977 related articles from the period of 2005- 2015were found, We checked the reference lists of all papers of included studies for further potentially eligible studies. eventually 17 relevant papers were studied.
Reviewing the obtained articles, showed the positive role of technology in assessing cognitive impairment in early-stages, helping caregivers, improving the quality of health care and memory enhancement in people with Alzheimer's disease. It is suggested to provide Support Services for the elderly with improving infrastructures, such as a careful program planning for responsible organizations, setting the necessary funds, development of interdisciplinary communication, appropriate culture building practices and providing appropriate training in the community and developing communication systems in the country.

Brucellosis seroprevalence in the normal and high-risk individuals in Iran : A systematic review and meta-analysis Maryam Ghajar  

Objective: Brucellosis is an zeonotic disease and it is a health and economic problem in many parts of the world, including Iran. The disease is endemic in Iran and the reported cases increased, however, disease outbreaks are not clear. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in normal and high-risk population in Iran.
Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in article about Brucellosis in Iran. Systematic search was conducted in the databases, include: Pubmed, Scopus, SID (as a local database) until August 2015. Finally we have 454 article after deleting duplicating material by Endnote software. Data extraction form contains author, publication year, sample size, laboratory test, study population in normal person and high risk person and seroprevalence. Finally, Data were analyzed by STATA 11.1 and random effect.
Results: Finally, we enrolled 11 studies and 7688 person in high risk group and 13858 person in normal group were studied. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in normal population was 0.12 (CI95%: 0.08 - 0.17). The seroprevalence of brucellosis in High-risk population was 13.07(CI95%: 12.3 - 13.7).
Conclusion: The prevalence of brucellosis in high-risk occupations was high in comparison with normal population and it seems that control of livestock diseases should be considered more.

Brain Metastases in Melanomas: Historical Highlights Wilson I. B. Onuigbo  

There is a recent study of the history of the pigmentary tumors. However, it does not mention brain metastases. Accordingly, extensive search of the Transactions of the Pathological Society of London, which I have in my mini-Library, was undertaken. Consequently, the findings are analysed here. They range not only from observing the brain in its “natural” state but also to abstracting useful data. In this context, some eponymous giants were exemplified in terms of anatomical exactitude. Even the concept of “emboli” appeared.

Brucellosis seropositivity among adults in al rass city, qassim province, saudi arabia Reham Alhoshani  

Introduction: Brucellosis constitutes a major health and economic problem in many parts of the world, including countries Middle East and the Arabian Gulf. Epidemiological investigations conducted in the Middle East, demonstrated a wide spread distribution of brucellosis in the region, with Saudi Arabia having the highest prevalence of brucellosis.Thus the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of brucellosis in Al-Rass city, Qassim region of Saudi Arabia and to determine its associated factors.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in March 2013 with a random consecutive sample of 40 subjects visiting Aljreef dispensary, in Al-Rass city, Qassim region, K.S.A. The blood samples obtained from the study subjects were analyzed in two steps namely: (1) Slide agglutination test; and (2) Standard tube agglutination test.
Results: The prevalence of brucellosis in this study sample was 15% predominantly in the age group of 34 to 46 years. The two predisposing factors associated with brucellosis prevalence were consumption of raw milk and daily direct contact with animals.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is a high prevalence of Brucellosis in Al-Rass city, Qassim region. The prevalence of Brucellosis is significantly associated with drinking raw milk and direct contact with animals. An improved healthcare system with outreach programs to educate farmers on Brucellosis preventive measures is needed to minimize the prevalence.

Comparison of training and leanings environment in educational hospitals with Ministry of Health and Medical Education standards Hojjat Derakhshanfar  

Backgrounds: teaching and learning environments are subject of different investigations and many researchers in medical education are working on it. Therefore in this study we examined the clinical skills labs equipment with Ministry of Health and Medical Education standards in different educational hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.
Material and methods: The study population involved 15 attending physicians and 40 emergency medicine residents in the three hospitals, Imam Hussein, Lughman Hakim and shohadaye Tajrish of the Department of Emergency Medicine of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2015 to 2016. Self-made questionnaire was used to compare the Ministry of Health and medical education standards with the clinical skills labs in these centers.
Results: Clinical Skills Centers with the facilities of examination skills, communication skills and procedures, Evaluation the performance of students in each training session under the supervision of clinical faculty members had the highest scores.
Conclusion: we concluded that that learning environment is very important in the quality of learning and most of the participants proved it. Educational centers must provide the well-equipped environment to achieve in high quality in teaching and learning.

Relationship between Religious Attitude and General Health of Medical Science Students in Different Regions in Iran Reza Alipoor  

Background: Religion and religiosity have important effect on physical and mental aspects of human, and thus religious study is nowadays a new and attractive field of study. The role of religion in general health of students stimulated the conduction of this study.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 1,900 students of Lorestan, Fasa, Shiraz, Golestan, Kerman, and Shahrekord Universities of Medical Sciences were selected for evaluation, using stratified random sampling. The demographic questionnaire, Khodayarifard's religious attitude questionnaire, and general health inventory were distributed among students. Data was analyzed with descriptive tests, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient, using SPSS.
Results: The mean and standard deviation of age, general health score, and religious attitude score of students, on a scale of 100, were 22.18±3.24 years, 23.17±8.14, and 82.4±10.35, respectively. Among the students, 13% had medium religious attitude and 87% (1,653) had strong religious attitude. A positive relationship was observed between religious attitude and mental health. A significant direct correlation was also observed between religious attitude and general health (p<0.05). Conclusion: Results indicated that the majority of medical science students had strong religious attitude. A positive significant correlation was observed between religious attitude and general health. Since more than half of the students demanded the holding of religious question and answer sessions and marriage workshops, the necessity of holding such courses was further sensed.

The Pre Analytical Phase: Precautions in Specimen Collection and Patient Preparation for Trace and Ultra Trace Elements Analysis Mehri Aliasgharpour  

Pre analytical factors are probably the most important causes of erroneous trace element reference data in biological matrices today and the development of sensitive , specific, and accurate analytical technology at an acceptable cost has moved determination of trace and ultra trace elements from research facilities into a wide range of clinical laboratories. Besides, expanding knowledge of trace element nutrition and toxicity has increased clinical demand for these assays. However, with increased sensitivity and lower limits of detection the problem of specimen contamination with the element of interest has been magnified. It is vital that the accurately determined trace element concentration to reflect the condition of the patient and not contamination introduced during collection and handling. In the following paper, the concept of pre analytical factors that can contribute to trace and ultra trace elements concentration are discussed. In addition, specific percussions for collecting different sample types and special considerations in patient preparations and sample types for specific Trace and Ultra Trace Elements analysis are addressed.

Foniculum vulgare: review of pharmaceutical features Hossein Zarei Amand  

Human kind has used the herbal plants to treat lots of diseases since a long time ago and there was always a very close connection between people and plants due to the development of all the societies and they were used to treat different diseases in eastern Asia ,India , China and Iran since a thousand years ago .This plant height is one to two meters and has some leaves with separated and narrow laminas .This plant has some estrogenic ,anti inflammatory and antioxidant effects and traditionally is used to treat infertile women .Its specific combinations are Anethole, limonene and fenchone .it’s properties are :pharmaceutical effect on the treatment of the initial dysmenorrhea ,testis growth , excretion channel and Prostate glands , mammary gland weight gain, fallopian tubes, ovaries, endometrium, myometrium protective effect on the liver by reducing Liver enzymes and bilirubin, have estrogenic effects in increasing the milk secretion, early periods, ease at birth and increased libido and anti hyper tension effects through the diuretic and natriuretic effects .


Kualitas merupakan faktor yang dapat meningkatkan daya saing suatu produk. Dengan peningkatan kualitas maka biaya produksi akan semakin kecil sehingga mengurangi pemborosan. Kegagalan suatu produk terjadi akibat beberapa faktor pada proses produksi, bahan baku, mesin, peralatan, manusia dan lingkungan. Untuk menjaga kualitas produk yang dihasilkan dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan pasar, maka perlu dilakukan pengendalian kualitas (Quality Control) atas aktivitas proses yang dijalani. Pengendalian kualitas dengan menggunakan peta control (control chart) dapat digunakan untuk mencapai suatu keadaan terkendali atau berada dalam batas-batas pengendalian sehingga menunjukkan bahwa proses tersebut konsisten. Selain itu, pengendalian kualitas dengan menggunakan peta kontrol dapat digunakan sebagai alat perbaikan kualitas, sehingga dapat meningkatkan kualitas produk yang dihasilkan dan memberikan keuntungan karena produk yang dihasilkan mempunyai kualitas yang baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengendalian kualitas dari produk tempe dengan menggunakan metode seven tools. Untuk mendapatkan data yang sesuai dengan penelitian, maka perlu dilakukan pengamatan dari suatu produk yang tidak sesuai spesifikasi (rusak), selanjutnya dilakukan perhitungan dengan menggunakan metode check sheet, flow charts, histogram, pareto chart, control chart, scatter Diagram, dan fishbone diagram untuk hasil produk. Dari analisa hasil terhadap perhitungan dengan peta control yang dilakukan, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa selama 20 kali pengamatan, nilai garis tengah (central line) adalah 3, nilai batas kontrol atas (UCL) adalah 5.6, dan nilai batas kontrol bawah (LCL) adalah 0.32. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut maka dapat diketahui tidak adanya variasi proses yang berada diluar batas pengendalian (Out of Control) atau proses masih berada dalam batas pengendalian (In Control). Keadaan lingkungan juga menentukan jumlah produk cacat pada produksi tempe.


This study was conducted to obtain Integrated Information System(IIS)in Politeknik LP3I Medan (PLM), Analysis of the cost of an integrated information system design and integrate information systems in the campus environment. The subjects of the study a total of 336 samples. Cronbach Alpha reliability test values obtained 0.753 or reliable (reliability) is high. Correlation Test Double (R) of 0.247 or lower of a relationship between the independent variable on the independent variable. Test R2 (R Square) of 0.61 or (61%). F calculated > F Table (2,663> 1.9667), then H1 is accepted, it means There is significant effect between 8 independent variables together to SIT (dependent). T test showed 2 independen variabels rejected H0 means academic documentation process speed and sophistication of communication tools, collaboration and coordination between units in PLM partly no significant effect on the integrated information system. Using cost-benefit ratio analysis (Benefit Cost Ratio, BCR) then the total benefit greater than the total cost of 1 is 4.66 to SIT investment can be applied, and further integration of the SI strategy is applied. Scheme design of information systems will be easier to implement with a top-down and bottom-up, carried out in stages, starting from planning, analysis, design, preparation of DFD, design arsitekktur SIT.


Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh Sistem Informasi Terpadu (SIT) di Perguruan Tinggi Swasta. Analisis biaya desain Sistem Informasi yang terintegrasi dan mengintegrasikan sistem
informasi di lingkungan kampus. Subyek penelitian sebanyak 108 PTS di Medan. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh Cronbach Alpha nilai uji reliabilitas sebesar 0,825 atau dapat diandalkan (reliability) sangat tinggi. Uji Korelasi Ganda (R) dari 0,303 atau lebih rendah dari hubungan antara variabel independen terhadap variabel independen. Uji R2 sebesar 0,92 atau (92%). Sedangkan nilai F hitung


CV. Sanggar Putra Kalingga adalah perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang Furniture yang bahan utamanya adalah Kayu Jati. Perusahaan ini akan melakukan produksi jika mendapat
pesanan/orderan dari pelanggan. Hal utama yang diprioritaskan oleh setiap perusahaan manufactur adalah waktu yang tepat untuk memenuhi permintaan pelanggan. Waktu Standar adalah waktu
yang dibutuhkan untuk menyelesaikan suatu siklus pekerjaan yang dilakukan menurut metode kerja dan kecepatan normal dengan pertimbangan faktor penyesuaian ditambah kelonggaran waktu untuk keperluan pribadi dan lain-lainya yang tidak terduga. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis data deskriptif kuantitatif. Dari hasil penelitian yang dilakukan diperoleh hasil waktu standar pada proses pemotongan kayu sebesar 49,28 menit. Pada proses penghalusan kayu didapat waktu standar sebesar 50,51 menit. Pada proses perakitan didapat waktu standar sebesar 317 menit. Pada proses pewarnaan/finishing didapat standar sebesar 155 menit.


Persaingan industri roti sekarang ini semakin meningkat dalam memenuhi permintaan pasar. Para usaha kecil menengah mereka berlomba untuk memenuhi permintaan pasar tersebut. Dari segi proses pembuatannya, Mitra IbM (Iptek bagi Masyarakat) tidak menggunakan bahan tambahan agar harga jual roti dapat menjadi murah dan terjangkau. Ditemukan beberapa permasalahan dalam peningkatan produktivitas pada mitra antara lain: kelemahan dalam penyusunan anggaran biaya operasional sehingga sulit menentukan perencanaan anggaran dan laporan keuangan secara cepat. Permasalah persediaan bahan baku yang tidak tepat karena mengandalkan make to order sering stock bahan baku habis atau terbatas sehingga permintaan konsumen dan pelanggan jadi terganggu, permasalahan selanjutnya adalah rancangan fasilitas kerja pada stasiun kerja pembentukan (terdiri dari pengerjaan pengadukan, penipisan adonan, pengisian, pembentukan) yang tidak ergonomis, dengan metode kerja yang tidak efektif yang mengakibatkan para pekerja sering kelelahan dalam memproduksi roti sehingga produktivitas menurun. Permasalahan lainnya yang ditemui adalah rancangan alat bantu untuk mengurangi musculoskeletal dibagian pemanggangan akibat aktivitas angkat angkut yang dilakukan secara manual, permasalahan selanjutnya yang ditemui adalah lemahnya motivasi kerja para pekerja, lemahnya strategi bauran promosi dibandingkan kompetitor kecil dan besar lainnya. Berdasarkan uraian diatas untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi kelompok usaha roti ’nenot-nenot’ perlunya usaha peningkatan produktivitas dari berbagai lini produksi sampai bauran promosi Mitra. Untuk itu melalui program IbM maka dirancang dan dibuat teknologi tepat guna serta pelatihan untuk membantu kelompok usaha roti agar adanya peningkatan aspek produksi dan manajemen usaha yang baik. Hasil pelaksanaan IbM menunjukkan Pemilik usaha roti dan pekerja Mengetahui peran ergonomi dan teknik tata cara kerja dalam mengevaluasi dan merancang suatu sistem kerja yang terdiri dari manusia dan mesin. Pemilik usaha roti dapat mempertahankan stabilitas atau kelancaran kegiatan operasi bakery, sehingga bakery masih dapat memenuhi permintaan pasar serta mampu melakukan perbaikan terhadap postur kerja operator yang salah atau kurang ergonomis dan keberhasilan juga terlihat dengan Meningkatnya produktivitas dan penampilan kerja.

Association of coronary artery disease with psoriasis in a group of patients in queen alia heart institute (qahi) in jordan Ramzi a .hiary  

Objective: The aim of our study is to demonstrate the association between psoriasis and CAD in a group of patients at QUEEN ALIA HEART INSTITUTE (QAHI)..
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at QUEEN ALIA HEART INSTITUTE from April 2012 to August 2016. 167 psoriatic patients (with moderate to severe psoriasis) and 197 non-psoriatic patients (control group) were matched by sex, age and risk factors of CAD. All patients underwent coronary angiography, and the incidence of coronary artery disease was compared between the two groups.
Results: After analysis, the p-value of CAD risk factors in both groups (psoriasis and controls) were: age (41.3 year, 35.4 ,0.04) , male (67% , 64% ,0.06), smoking (60.5% , 56% , 0.4) , HTN (40.5 % , 43% , 0.29 ) ,DM (37.5% ,36.3% ,0.3), hyperlipidemia (20.3% , 17.8% , 0.41), family history (36.1% ,34..4 ,0.05). After matching for all these risk factors, the rate of CAD in psoriasis patients was (8.2%) and (2.1%) in non-psoriatic patients with p-value less than 0.001.
Conclusion: Psoriasis (moderate and severe) is an independent risk factor for increasing the risk of coronary artery disease in (sex, age, and other risk factor for CAD) matched patients.

Comparing between varicocele surgery and embolization , our experience in King Hussein medical center Mohannad Al-Naser  

ObjectiveOur objective was to compare between endovascular varicocele embolization Vs varicocele surgery , for the treatment of varicocele . varicocele is considered the most common surgical cause of male infertility .
Methods : Retrospective review of the prince Hussein Medical Center varicocele database . We reviewed a total of 265 patients , All of the patients in the database had clinical varicoceles confirmed by scrotal ultrasonography , a total 45 patients underwent unilateral varicocele embolization, and a total 220 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral varicocele surgery in Prince Hussein Center of Urology and Organ transplantation , between January 2015 and March 2017 . Patients have been followed up at the urology outpatient clinic , and by their semen fluid analysis to assess the results .
Results : In patients who underwent varicocele embolization , the failure rate was 3 % , and the recurrence rate were 3 % , sperm motility improved in all patients , with no complications related to the procedure . In the other hand , in patients who underwent varicocele surgery , the recurrence rate was 7 % , sperm motility improved in all patients too , and there are no documented complications in all patients .
Conclusion : Both methods , have similar result regarding semen fluid analysis improvement , and recurrence rate ( in the international studies . recurrence rate between 5 and 10 % ) . but the surgical option is is less than embolization

Performance of Nitrogen Phosphorus compound fertilizer in Boro rice Mosud Iqbal  

Objective: Evaluation of new nutrient sources plays an important role in crop production. A field experiment was conducted at BRRI, Gazipur and at BRRI regional station, Sonagazi, Feni during Boro season of 2014-15. A new fertilizer, NP compound (NPC) was evaluated and compared the performances with di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Test crop was BRRI dhan29. At Gazipur site, phosphorus (P) control plot produced only 1.97 t ha-1 grain yield that increased with added P along with two N rates. At lower N doses, application of P either from DAP or NPC produced similar grain yield. It was observed that 30% less N produced statistically similar grain yield to 100% N, irrespective of P sources. It can be inferred that 30% N could be saved without significant reduction of rice yield. At Sonagazi site, application of P either from DAP or NPC could not increase rice grain yields compared to P control plot. From the results of both sites it can be concluded that NPC and DAP performed equally either with 100% N or 30% less N rates.

The Occurrence of Calcaneal Spurs In Plantar Fasciitis Patients Raad Jaradat  

Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the occurrence of calcaneal spurs in plantar fasciitis patients.
Methods: Patients with planter fasciitis were diagnosed in the rheumatology clinic at Prince Rashed Hospital and Prince Hashem Hospital. Only 140 eligible patients were exposed to careful examination and hind foot lateral radiographs. All patients were observed in regards to their age, weight and calcaneous bone X-Ray. For calcaneal spurs occurrence, the patients were divided into two groups; (present, absent). Data analysis was done based on simple statistical methods and Chi-squares tests.
Results: Planter fasciitis occurrence increase with the increase in age and weight (80%, 76% respectively) (Ps < 0.05). 98 patients out of 140 of patients with planter fasciitis were diagnosed with calcaneal spurs (70%) (Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that there is a positive relation between calcaneal spurs and planter fasciitis.

Aggressive Ulcerating Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising In Old Burn Scar: A Case Report Masoud Shayesteh Azar  

Carcinoma arising in posttraumatic ulcers and chronic wounds was first described by Jean- Nicholas Marjolin in 1828. Marjolin’s ulcers are malignant neoplasms that originate from chronic irritation such as burn wounds, venous stasis ulcers, traumatic wounds, osteomyelitis, fistulas, and lacerations, Burn wounds are the most frequent underlying etiology of Marjolin’s ulcers. We reported Marjolin’s ulcer that arising from very old burn scar in foot.

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