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Title Author 1 Author 2 Abstract PDF
The Role of Serum Bio-Markers in Predicting Small Bowel Pathology in Crohn`s Disease Patients Anthea Brincat Neville Azzopardi

Abstract: Background: Computed tomography enterography (CTE) is a useful modality in the evaluation of small bowel
(SB) crohn`s disease (CD) as it can provide assessment of disease activity, extramural abnormalities and SB
complications. This procedure however utilises radiation exposure. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine
the clinical indications and findings on CTE and to determine if serum bio-markers (CRP, ESR, platelet count and
anaemia) can predict significant pathologies.
Method: This was a retrospective analysis where 50 patients above the age of 18 with CD who had CTE between
October 2013 and February 2015 were identified. The clinical indications, serum bio-markers and CTE findings in these
patients were analysed.
Results: The main indications for CTE were abdominal pain/discomfort and/or symptoms suggestive of SB obstruction.
26% of CD patients had active inflammation, 36% had a SB stricture and 4% had active inflammation with stricturing and
fistulating disease. All the patients with a completely normal CTE did not have a raised bio-marker whist 76.9% of
patients with active inflammation had one or more positive bio-markers. Additional findings were active colitis (8%),
splenomegaly (4%), aortitis (2%) and had sacroileitis (2%). In these patients, 75% had a positive bio-marker. In patients
with positive findings, the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was the most common marker of inflammation.
Conclusion: CTE is an important tool in management of patients with CD however, in the presence of normal
biomarkers, clinicians should question the need for CTE and thus decrease exposure of CD patients to ionising radiation.

An Overview of the Genetic Causes of Frontotemporal Degeneration Wanda C. Reygaert  

Abstract: Many neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have been thought to be caused mainly by conditions that were
not controlled by genetic inheritance. Extensive research into these diseases has recently discovered that perhaps a
majority of them have genetic inheritance components. Once thought to be a rare form of NDD, frontotemporal
degeneration (FTD) is now considered to be the main cause of early onset NDD, and the information on genetic causes
and inheritance has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. The main genes that have been found to be involved
in frontotemporal degeneration, MAPT, TARDBP, GRN C9orf72, VCP, FUS, and CHMP2B, have also been found in
related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. This paper is
intended as an updated review of the genetic causes of FTD. This information should aid physicians and scientists in
understanding the current concepts, and encourage even more genetic testing so that a full knowledge of genetic
inheritance in FTD will be soon be forthcoming.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Report of Two Atypical Cases Reza M. Robati Fahimeh Abdollahimajd

Abstract: Multiple and unusual clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) had been reported as hyperkeratotic,
psoriasiform, eczematoid, zosteriform pattern, warty lesions, erysipeloid, and acneiform lesions. The clinical features of
CL primarily depend on the host's cell-mediated response and the species of Leishmania being involved. In this paper
we reported two cases of atypical CL from Iran, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Loghman-e-Hakim hospitals presented with
infiltrative erythematous lesions covering the perioral region and the lower limb, respectively. The diagnosis of cutaneous
leishmaniasis was confirmed with skin smears and biopsies.

The Psychiatric Aspects of Alopecia Areata Gamze Erfan Yakup Albayrak

Abstract: Alopecia areata (AA) refers to noncicatricial hair loss. It is defined as a secondary psychiatric disorder in the
classification of psycho dermatological disorders. Its profound effect on a person’s physical appearance and the resulting
emotional stress have led many researchers to investigate psychiatric aspects of AA in recent decades [1, 2]. This study
presents a review of the literature and highlights psychiatric aspects of AA. The results showed that both pediatric and
adult patients with AA have a high risk of depression and anxiety. Dermatologists should consider a psychiatric
evaluation of female patients under 20 years with AA to detect potential depression and anxiety. As much as alexithymia
also in association of AA and other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),
personality, manic, bipolar, attention deficit, phobic disorders, further investigations are needed. The evaluation of the
psychological status of patients with AA is extremely important to aid the well-being of individuals suffering from this

Clozapine use in Dual Diagnosis Patients Marta Marín-Mayor Jorge López-Álvarez

Abstract: Background: Dual diagnosis (DD), defined as the co-occurrence of a substance use disorder (SUD) and a
severe mental illness (SMI), is associated with several negative outcomes. Typical antipsychotics (TAP) are not of great
value for patients with DD as they are associated with poorer responses and can worsen SUD. Atypical antipsychotics
(AAP) offer several advantages compared to TAP and in DD patients they have been found to be effective in treating
both, psychiatric symptoms and substance use. The aim of this article is to review the use of clozapine (CLO) for treating
DD patients.
Methods: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pubmed was performed in order to identify publications that examined
the use of CLO in the treatment of DD.
Results: There is consistent data in regard to the efficacy of CLO in the treatment of DD patients in both studies with and
without comparison to TAP and other AAP. These positive results have been found for different substances of abuse and
in different SMI. However, there is a lack of randomized, placebo-controlled trials in this field.
Conclusions: CLO has been found to be at least as effective as TAP and other AAP in treating psychiatric symptoms, but
it has shown itself to be more effective in reducing substance use in DD patients. Several hypotheses have been
proposed to explain this effectiveness: 1) amelioration of reward system dysfunction in the dopamine-mediated
mesocorticolimbic circuits; 2) improvement of negative symptoms, and relief of anxiety, depression and dysphoria; 3)
improvement of cognitive dysfunction associated with DD; and 4) reduction of craving. CLO might be considered as a
pharmacological agent for use in patients with DD, although safety issues, such as the risk of agranulocytosis and
seizures must be taken into account. Even though there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the beneficial effects
of CLO in DD patients, further randomized, blind, controlled trials, with larger sample sizes and longer follows-up are

Review of Mipomersen Sodium (Kynamro®) for Familial Hypercholesterolemia Lunawati L. Bennett Megan Chalk

Abstract: Objective: To review the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and
place in therapy of mipomersen sodium (Kynamro®) for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).
Data Sources: A literature search through Pub Med and (1984–May 2014; English language) was
performed using the key words: homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), heterozygous familial
hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), FH, dyslipidemia, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), low density lipoprotein cholesterol
(LDL-C), antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), and ISIS 301012. Searches were limited to published studies in humans.
Study Selection and Data Extraction: All articles in English identified from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical
trials of mipomersen in humans were selected and included.
Data Synthesis: Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro®), an oligonucleotide inhibitor of apoB-100 synthesis, is approved for
reducing apoB-100, LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in HoFH
patients as an adjunctive treatment with other lipid lowering drugs and low fat diet.
Conclusion: Mipomersen is effective in decreasing LDL-C, apoB-100, TC, and non-HDL-C in patients that are refractory
to other lipid lowering drugs. Mipomersen is administered as 200 mg subcutaneous (s.c.) once weekly injection. The
drug is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. The most common adverse reactions
include injection site reaction (ISRs), influenza-like symptoms and increases in serum hepatic transaminase. Kynamro®
is only available through restricted program under Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called Kynamro®

Clinical Significance of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung cancer Serkan Degirmencioglu Erhan Ugurlu

Abstract: Objective: Due to poor prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), new markers and more
effective treatment methods are needed in the monitoring of the disease. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the
clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with advanced NSCLC on
prognosis and survival.
Materials and method: Sixty seven patients (62 men and 5 women) and 20 healthy volunteers (16 men and 4 women)
were included in our study. The demographic and laboratory data and serum VEGF levels of two groups were compared.
Results: A statistically significantly high level of VEGF (p=0.0001) was detected in patients compared to the control
group. The high level of serum VEGF has a statistically significant relationship with the short disease-free survival time
(p=0.05). While the median progression free survival (PFS) time in patients with high VEGF levels was 157 days, the
median PFS time in those with normal VEGF levels reached up to 340 days. This difference was statistically significant
(p=0.003). When overall survival (OS) times was evaluated, it was 472 days in patients with low VEGF levels and 180
days in those with high levels and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001).
Conclusion: In our study, the serum VEGF levels were determined to be statistically significant increased in the NSCLC
patient group compared to the control group. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was discovered between the
serum VEGF level and all survival times in the NSCLC patient group.

Prognostic Value of CEA and CA 19.9 in Gastric Cancer R. Martí-Obiol R. Martí-Fernandez

Abstract: Introduction: Gastric cancer (GC) is still a major health problem due to the majority of patients present with
advanced disease. This considerably reduces the possibility of curative treatment. A critical decision in the treatment of
GC is related to staging, which is mainly assessed by the use of the TNM classification. There are other factors that can
influence in the prognosis during the preoperative period: pathological type, degree of differentiation or tumor markers
level. The most commonly used tumor markers (TM) in GC are CEA and CA 19.9. The aim of the present study is to
analyze the relationship between CEA and CA 19.9 markers with certain characteristics of the patients and tumors and
to evaluate the utility of these TM determined at the time of diagnosis as prognostic factors.
Material and methods: A prospective collection of the data of all pacients operated by GC at our centre. A total of 501
cases were diagnosed. Mean age was 68.2 years. We analyzed age, sex, tumor location, clinical stage, tumor markers
determined in the preoperative period, the use of perioperative chemotherapy and response to chemotherapy, the
pathological characteristics and disease follow-up.
Results: At the time of diagnosis 23,3 % of the patients presented high values of CEA, 32,6 % presented high values of
CA 19.9 and 14,1% presented with both elevated markers. Patients who were diagnosed at an advanced stage and
presented high levels of CEA or CA 19.9 or both TM had worse survival compared to those with normal values.
Conclusion: the presence of an elevated serum level of tumor markers is related to advanced tumor stage and worse
prognosis in terms of overall survival.

Mitochondrial Genome Mutations and Pathological Features of Prostate Cancer: an Update Arnaldo A. Arbini Loredana Moro

Abstract: Mitochondria are organelles involved in a variety of cellular functions that are central to the life and death of a
cell. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the main energy provider of the cell, takes place inside mitochondria and is
known to be altered in carcinogenesis and tumor progression contributing to the “metabolic reprogramming”, one of the
hallmarks of cancer cells. Due to the central role of energy metabolism in cancer cell pathogenesis, mutations in the
mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which encodes for essential components of the OXPHOS pathway, have been
suggested to play a role in many cancers, including prostate cancer. Recent studies provide evidence for increased
levels of mutant mtDNA in prostate cancer patients with higher Gleason grade and relapse, as well as in bone metastatic
sites. In this review, we will provide an overview of recent studies investigating the presence of mtDNA mutations in
prostate cancer cells and their significance in the context of clinical pathological features of prostate cancer.

The Dosimetric Effects of Photon Energy on the Quality of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Leila Tchelebi Doris Chen

Abstract: Purpose: There is little published data on the optimal energy to use to minimize doses to Organs at Risk
(OARs), while maintaining adequate Planning Target Volume (PTV) coverage in lung volumetric-modulated arc therapy
(VMAT) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).
Methods: 35 lung lesions in 33 patients were treated at our institution by VMAT SBRT. Dosimetric plans using 6-
Megavoltage (6-MV) and 10-Megavoltage (10-MV) energies were generated for each lesion. The median dose was
5000cGy delivered over 3-5 daily fractions. Various dosimetric parameters were recorded for both the 6-MV and 10-MV
plans and the patients were stratified according to the tumor to chest wall distance (TCW), the tumor location (central
versus peripheral), patient anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, and the diameter of an equivalent sphere encompassing the
patient's body over the distance of the PTV (ESD).
Results: There was a statistically significant difference between 6-MV and 10-MV with respect to the sum lung dose,
which favored 6-MV plans (p=0.04). For those stratified by TCW, there was a difference in conformity index (CI) for
patients with peripheral tumors (p=0.04). For the group stratified by AP separation, there was a difference in mean sum
lung dose favoring 6-MV (p=0.01). In the group stratified by ESD, there were statistically significant (SS) differences in
the volume of lung receiving at least 13Gy (V13), mean sum lung dose, and CI, all favoring 6-MV plans (p=0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.01). For the cohort overall, and within each subgroup, there was a SS difference in the total number of monitor units (MUs), which consistently favored planning with 10-MV. Conclusion: With the exception of thinner patients, for which 6-MV plans was superior with respect to OARs and conformity index, 10-MV should be considered for use in lung VMAT SBRT. 10-MV plans consistently resulted in fewer total MUs. Fewer MUs results in shorter treatment times, with the potential for improved target accuracy due to less intrafractional tumor motion.

Clinical Features of the Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Giorgio Frega Ingrid Garajová

Abstract: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very heterogeneous cancer in many aspects including epidemiology, risk
factors, clinical presentation and genetics. Medical literature reflects this feature especially in terms of differences of
clinical presentation among the intrahepatic/extrahepatic subtypes and according to related risk factors and geographic
areas. Consequently these tumors are often challenging to diagnose and treat and the prognosis is poor.
This manuscript deals with the clinical presentation and epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma.

Body Image and Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review K.M. Chow K.L. Hung

Abstract: Background: Breast cancer patients tend to suffer from severe body image disturbance which has a great
impact on their quality of life. The effects can be permanent as cancer survivorship is a lifelong process.
Objectives: The objectives of this literature review are to identify, summarise and critically appraise the current literature
investigating the body image and quality of life of breast cancer survivors.
Design: A critical literature review on the body image and quality of life of breast cancer survivors.
Date sources: MEDLINE, the British Nursing Index, CINAHL Plus, PsycI NFO and Google Scholar.
Review methods: A comprehensive search was carried out in the five databases from the period 2005 to 2016 to identify
relevant articles with the following terms and their combinations: “body image”, “quality of life” and “breast cancer”.
Results: A total of 13 studies were included in the literature review, six investigated the impacts of the disease and its
related treatment on body image and seven examined the quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Body image was
found to be disturbed after treatment and associated with the type of surgery a patient had undergone, but the impact
seemed to diminish within two years following surgery. The cosmetic differences caused by different surgical approaches
were found to have no significant impact on body image. Young breast cancer survivors suffered from worse body image
when compared with older women. Regarding the quality of life of breast cancer survivors, this was also found to be
associated with the type of surgery undergone. Patients who received breast-conserving therapy perceived that they had
a better quality of life than those who underwent mastectomy. Age is also identified as a determinant of quality of life,
with younger patients reported to have poorer outcomes. In the long run, an improvement in quality of life among breast
cancer survivors over time was noted. The relevant literature was unable to produce enough evidence of the correlation
between body image and quality of life.
Conclusion: Breast cancer survivors were reported as having a poorer body image and deterioration in their quality of life
after related treatment. Specialist nursing care and appropriate interventions should be developed to address patient
needs. As most of the studies investigating the body image of breast cancer survivors were carried out in Western
countries, implications for research on this issue in different cultural background is suggested.

Malignant Brain Tumors: Death Sentence, No Mercy Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Igor S Bryukhovetskiy

Abstract: The article presents critical analysis of current methodological approaches, the standard and the options of
complex therapy of malignant brain tumors (MBT). Author defines the main reasons for low effectiveness of MBT
therapy. Relying on post-genome innovations (mass-spectrometry proteome mapping and whole transcriptome profiling
of gene expression of cancer cells (CCs), cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tissue-specific stem cells (TSSCs) of the cancer
patient, and their comparative analysis) the author proposes systemic solution for the MBT complex therapy that consists
in a new alternative paradigm of cytoregulatory anti-cancer treatment of the MBT that is aimed at rigid control,
management and regulation of the number of CCs and CSCs in the body. The goal of a new treatment paradigm is to
transfer acute, uncontrollable and mortal process into chronic and non-lethal disease, and, thus, to improve survival
rates and life quality of the patients. The instrument to implement the new paradigm is a sparing algorithm of
conventional therapeutic methods and immune therapy, supplemented with personalized anti-tumor proteome-based cell
therapy. The therapy implies transfusions of transcriptome-modified autologous TSSCs with specified properties to
regulate the reproductive functions of the CSCs. The author proposes the complex therapy of the MBT and shows its
social and economic significance for the society and neuroscience.

Metabolic Disorders in Elderly Patients with Hematologic Malignancies. A Review Angelo Michele Carella Teresa Marinelli

Abstract: Over recent decades, due to the gradual rise in life expectancy and the consequent aging of the population,
the incidence of some hematological malignancies most common in the elderly is expected to increase. In elderly cancer
patients, the older age is an adverse prognostic factor because of specific age-related conditions, such as changes in
cellular biology and reduced functional reserve in multiple organ systems, as well as in consequence of comorbidities.
Some age-related pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, cardiovascular dysfunction, liver disease and other disorders may predispose the elderlies to develop metabolic
abnormalities. In the elderly, the occurrence of hematological malignancies can cause some metabolic disorders or
worsen pre-existing dysmetabolic conditions that increase the outcomes of these patients. Hyperuricemia is the most
common metabolic abnormality; hyperuricemia less commonly may be associated with hyperkalemia,
hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia, in the framework of oncologic emergency that is the Tumor lysis syndrome.
Hypercalcemia is relatively common in patients with multiple myeloma and adult T-cell Lymphoma. Cases of Syndrome of
inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in patients with hematological malignancies have also been
reported. Idiopathic hyperammonemia may occur in oncohematological patients after receiving intensive chemotherapy
or following bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, there is evidence that patients with lymphoma, leukemia and
multiple myeloma can develop Type B lactic acidosis. Non–islet cell tumor hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia are other
potential metabolic abnormalities occurring in patients with hematological malignancies. The pathogenesis of these
metabolic disorders is often unclear and several theories have been postulated; possible mechanisms include: increase
in neoplastic cell turnover and apoptosis, blast crisis, cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy, tumor secretion of hormones,
peptides or cytokines, immune cross-reactivity between malignant and normal tissues, malignancy-induced enzyme
dysfunction. Parenteral nutrition, sarcopenia, cachexia, stress, immune deficiency and infections could contribute.
Although successful treatment of the underlying tumor often improves metabolic disorders, these conditions often worse
prognosis and are associated with poor survival; thus it is important to consider early detection and effective treatment.

BRCA2 Mutations in Prostate Cancer: A Literature Review Arnaldo A. Arbini Loredana Moro

Abstract: Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease and the second
leading cause of cancer mortality in men of the Western world. Despite improved methods for early detection, a large
proportion of patients succumb to metastatic prostate cancer that is resistant to conventional therapies. The
development of novel effective strategies to prevent and treat prostate cancer relies considerably upon increasing our
knowledge of the interplay among various molecular and genetic alterations that lead to onset and progression of
prostate cancer. To date, germline mutations in the cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 represent one of the strongest risk
factor to develop prostate cancer.
Objective: Goal of this review is to summarize current reports investigating the presence of BRCA2 mutations in prostate
Design: A comprehensive analysis of the literature on BRCA2 mutations in prostate cancer. Data source: Pubmed.
Terms included in the search: "BRCA2 mutations", "prostate cancer".
Results: A total of 18 studies were included in the review. The studies focused on the clinical implications of BRCA2
mutations in prostate cancer. The findings indicate that inherited pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 predispose to highly
aggressive prostate cancers and poor survival. Very recent reports also suggest that metastatic castration-resistant
prostate cancers are "enriched" of BRCA2 mutations compared to the primary tumors.
Conclusion: Because BRCA2-mutated tumors are very sensitive to PARP-inhibitors'-based chemotherapy, BRCA2
genomic testing of patients with advanced metastatic prostate disease may enable an effective, personalized,
therapeutic strategy.

Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy for Cancer: A Safe Procedure in Oncological Surgery Fernando Lopez Roberto Martí

Abstract: Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the surgical management of esophageal cancer is now
accepted as a valid technique. The aim of this study is to show our initial experience with this approach.
Material and Methods: Observational study using data collected prospectively from a database, which includes 23
patients operated by MIS. Esophageal dissection was performed by videothoracoscopy, followed by laparotomy or
laparoscopy. An Akiyama gastroplasty was made up, and pulled up through the posterior mediastinum and an side-toside
esophagogastric cervical anastomosis was then performed.
Results: Most of the patients (19) were male and the average age was 63.3 years. Most tumors were located underneath
the carina. 17 were adenocarcinomas and 6 squamous cell type. 19 patients received neoadjuvant therapy. The average
operating time was 377.5 minutes and in 5 patients it was necessary to make a thoracotomy to finish the esophageal
dissection. An average of 18 lymph node were removed and the most frequent pathological stage was the IIA. The
morbidity was 47.8%, 5 patients with respiratory complications and 7 patients presenting a anastomosis leakage or
fistula. 3 patients died postoperatively. The average follow-up was 23.5 months and the estimated 5-year overall survival
was 61.8%.
Conclusion: This study confirms previous reports about MIS which seems to be a valid technique if made by experienced
teams. Our results support a satisfactory oncological outcome and a low rate of respiratory complications.

A Systematic Review of Multimodal Treatment for 1 to 4 Brain Metastases Joel Caballero García Orlando Cruz García

Abstract: Treatment of brain metastases are controversial, being the optimal therapeutic combination still unknown. The
aim of the present work was to determine the outcome differences among Whole Brain Radiation Therapy, Stereotactic
Radiosurgery and Surgical Resection in terms of Overall Survival, Functional Independence, Local Control, Neurological
Death and Neurocognitive Impairment. A systematically review of the pertinent literature was performed by using the
Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL/CCTR), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the ISRCTNR
(International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register) databases. A total amount of 971 articles were
encountered, including 19 Randomized Clinical Trials. High bias risk studies were excluded based on the Cochrane Bias
Risk Tool and 14 RCT with low bias risk were selected. The combination of surgical resection and Whole Brain Radiation
Therapy resulted in longer overall survival than Whole Brain Radiation Therapy alone. The combination of Whole Brain
Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery resulted in better Local Control and Overall Survival than Whole Brain
Radiation Therapy alone. Significative differences were not found in terms of Local Control and Overall Survive between
the combination of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiosurgery alone
but Neurocognition was less affected in patients treated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Current studies that compare
different therapeutic modalities for 1 to 4 brain metastases are not conclusive. The best treatment for patients with 1-4
brain metastases remains controversial.

Effect of Passive Transfer of Anti-Hydatid Cyst Antigen Antisera on Melanoma Tumor Growth in Animal Model Fereshteah Jafaei Nodeh Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi

Abstract: Introduction: Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of Echinococcusgranulosus, a parasite responsible for hydatid
disease in human and livestock. The Effect of different antigens of this parasite in preventing the growth of tumor cells
has been demonstrated in various studies. Therefore, in this work the effect of passive transfer of antisera raised against
different antigens of Hydatid cyst on melanoma cancer growth in animal model has been investigated.
Methods: In this experimental study, antisera against different antigens of hydatid cyst raised in rabbits. C57/black mice
were injected with melanoma cells and then they received anti hydatid cyst antigen antisera. Control mice received
normal rabbit serum or saline. Tumor size in the case and control groups was measured. Then, the data were analyzed
using SPSS software and one-way Anova test.
Findings: The mean tumor area in mice that received antisera against hydatidcyst fluid, protoscolices crude antigen,
excretory-secretory antigens of protoscolices and cuticular layer was not significantly different from tumor area of control
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that injection of antisera against antigens of hydatid cyst had no significant
effect on melanoma tumor growth. So it is recommended that effect of transfer of immune cells is investigated in future

The Best Management of Portal Neoplastic Thrombosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Giovanni Brandi Stefania De Lorenzo

Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth commonest cancer worldwide. Vascular invasion of the portal vein
is one of the most important prognostic factors for survival in HCC patients and the prognosis is generally poor. The
optimal treatment for patients with HCC and portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) remains controversial. Although many
therapeutic options have been proposed, surgical resection is the only hope of cure for such patients.
We present the case of a 74-year-old man diagnosed with a single HCC nodule with portal thrombosis in the right
hepatic lobe in the setting of HCV-related liver cirrhosis. After a first approach with a loco-regional treatment not tolerated
by the patient, a right hepatectomy proved the best option. One year later the patient is still free from disease.

Sexual Functioning of Gynecological Cancer Patients: A Literature Review K.M. Chow C.Y. Wong

Abstract: Background: According to the World Health Organization, cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers were the third,
sixth and eighth most common cancers in women worldwide. Unlike other physiological side effects of cancer treatment,
sexual problems in gynecological cancer survivors do not tend to resolve after first few years of cancer treatment.
However, women who experience sexual dysfunction do not discuss the problem openly with their healthcare
Objective: The objectives of this literature review are to identify, summarize and critically appraise current literatures
investigating the sexual functioning and sexual health needs of gynecological cancer patients, as well as to identify the
communication between gynecological cancer patients and healthcare professionals.
Design: A thorough analysis of the literatures on the topic of sexual functioning of gynecological cancer patients.
Data sources: EBSCO host (Medline, CINAL Plus and Academic Search Alumni Edition) and Ovid Technology (British
Nursing Index).
Review methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in the named data sources from 2003 to 2014 to identify
English articles with the keywords “ovarian cancer”, “uterine cancer”, “cervical cancer”, “gynecological cancer”, “sexual
functioning”, “sexuality” and “sexual health needs”. Two authors assessed all identified articles independently for
inclusion in the review.
Results: A total of eight studies were included in the review. All studies focused on the sexual functioning of
gynecological cancer patients. Four of them assessed their sexual health needs and one evaluated the communication
between the patients and healthcare professionals. The findings indicated that gynecological cancer patients
experienced sexual dysfunction after the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Uncertainty of the side-effects of
cancer treatment on bodily functions led to misunderstanding and misconceptions on sexual functioning.
Communication, in general, was found to be insufficient between gynecological cancer patients and healthcare
Conclusion: Sexual functioning after the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological cancer requires special attention and
care. Appropriate interventions should be developed to meet the patients’ needs. As most of the studies investigating the
sexual functioning of gynecological cancer patients were carried out in Western countries, implications for research on
this issue in different cultural background is suggested.

Removal of Mercury from Shark Using Sodium Borohydride and Product Characterization Alfredo Tenuta-Filh Luciene Fagundes Lauer Macedo

Abstracts: Predatory fish, such as shark, can accumulate mercury (Hg) at levels that are incompatible in relation to
consumption. Fish containing Hg can be decontaminated and potentially used as food. It was studied a procedure for the
removal of Hg from shark using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and characterized the product obtained from shark (POS).
The Hg was reduced to Hgo and eliminated by shaking. The efficiency of Hg removal was high (> 86 %) and the residual
levels of Hg in POS were compatible with human consumption. Physical appearance, color, no fish odour, texturing
capacity shown by POS were potentially compatible with its use as food. The process used did not significantly affect the
POS protein, except for the partial reduction (24.5 %) of bioavailable lysine. Although significant, the reduction of lysine
still kept its quantitative nutritional attractiveness. The NaBH4 performed strong potential decontaminant in relation to Hg,
but his use requires more studies.

The Effectiveness of Konjac Flour on the Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of the Myofibrillar Proteins of the Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Jingjing Diao Hongsheng Chen

Abstract: The effects of konjac flour (KF) on the emulsifying properties, turbidity, rheological properties, gel strength, gel
water-binding capacity (WBC), and gel microstructure of the myofibrillar protein (MP) of the common carp (Cyprinus
carpio) were investigated. The results showed that the emulsifying activities and gel strength of MP increased first and
then decreased with increasing KF concentrations, achieving the highest values at 0.1% KF (P<0.05). Increased KF concentrations were accompanied by an enhanced gel WBC and increased susceptibility to thermal aggregation (P<0.05). The addition of KF markedly enhanced G' over the entire heating temperature range, and the “peak” G􀀁 values of the 2.0% KF sample were 3.6 times than those of the control samples. The reduced G􀀁􀀁/G􀀁 at the end of the heating process (80°C) revealed that KF addition improved the gel elastic quality and increased the gelling ability of MP. It was determined by observing the gel microstructure that addition of KF reduced empty spaces and produced a more compact and homogeneous MP gel network structure. Overall, these results suggest that KF addition offers an effective approach for improving the MP gel formation ability of the common carp muscle.

Hyperspectral Imaging for Beef Tenderness Assessment F. Saadatian, L. Liu

Abstract: Tenderness is one of the principal properties of meat quality. The traditional way to measure tenderness the
beef is time consuming and also destructive, and therefore not appropriate for rapidly identifying quality parameters on
the processing line, with the minimum of human intervention. The objective of the present research was to measure the
tenderness of cooked beef samples obtained from four types of muscles (i.e. infraspinatus (TB), gluteus medius (TS),
psoas major (TL), and longissimus thorasis (RE)) at three different durations of dry aging (Fresh (0 days), 14 days, and
21 days), using near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra (900 nm <􀀁 < 1700 nm) were acquired for a total of 260 beef steak samples with dry-ages of 0, 14 or 21 days. After imaging, samples were cooked and the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), a parameter inversely related to meat tenderness, was measured. After reflectance calibration, a region of interest (ROI) was selected from each acquired hyperspectral image and stepwise regression was applied to the ROI to select wavelengths that were strongly related to cooked meat tenderness. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) calibration models were developed for quantitative evaluation of beef tenderness. The correlation coefficient (R) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were employed to evaluate the calibration model’s predictive ability for each group. The calibration model developed predicted tenderness with R values of 0.89, 0.86, 0.81 and 0.83 for TS, RE, TB, and TL, respectively. The results revealed that the HSI could be used for non-destructive measurement of beef tenderness in beef having undergone three different durations of aging.

Determination of Cold Spot Location for Conduction-Heated Canned Foods Using an Inverse Approach Ibrahim O. Mohamed*  

Abstract: Cold spot location is a focal point in thermal process lethality calculations for conduction heated canned foods.
An inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) approach was used to model heat transfer for canned food with headspace
using a one dimensional heat conduction model. Sequential function specification algorithm was used to solve for heat
fluxes history at the can headspace side using known internal transient temperature measurements. The estimated heat
fluxes were then used to solve the direct heat conduction problem for the temperature profiles in the axial direction
including at the sensor position. Deviations between estimated temperatures and measured temperatures at the sensor
position were calculated using root mean square error. From all the treatments used, a maximum error of 0.29 oC was
obtained for the whole measurement period of the treatment which is well within thermocouple measurement error. The
excellent agreement between the measured and calculated temperatures at the sensor position is an indication of an
accurate estimation of heat fluxes and subsequent location of the cold spot. The results revealed that the cold spot is
located at about 59 % of the model food height from the bottom of the can for the three levels of headspace investigated
(10%, 14% and 20%). The result of this research provides a useful guide for accurate location of cold spot when
collecting heat penetration data for conduction heated foods with headspace predominantly occupied by water vapor.
This will aid in assuring the safety of canned foods based on accurate calculation of thermal process lethality.

Obtaining a Concentrated Fresh Product of Capsicum Annuum by Reverse Osmosis Process and Analysis of Its Bioactive Constituents and Mineral Composition Oulaï Casimir Ayamaé Amian Brice Benjamain Kassi

Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of fresh extract product of bell pepper Capsicum annuum
obtained by reverse osmosis in terms of bioactive compounds and mineral composition. Quantitative analysis of this
product showed the presence of total alkaloids, total polyphenols and vitamin C at contents of 14.42 ± 0.23 %, 69.65 ±
0.43 g/LGA equivalent and 157.48 mg/100g, respectively, indicating the preservation of these bioactive compounds after
the application of this membrane technology. Regarding mineral composition, the contents were estimated to
61.68±0.41, 16.66±2.66, 20.69±5.31 and 11.52±0.7 mg/100g, respectively for potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron,
also indicating the preservation of these minerals in the fresh concentrated product.
The bioactive compounds of fresh concentrated product were analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
(GC-MS). Thirty four compounds were identified of which 4-Hydroxyphenylethanol. di-TMS; Benzoic acid 4-methoxy-3-
(trimethylsilyl) oxy-. methyl ester; Bis(trimethylsilyl)isovanillate. Benzoic acid. 3.4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-. trimethylsilyl
ester. Vanillylpropionic acid bis(trimethylsilyl) - are phenolic compounds and cis-4-Trimethylsilyloxy-cyclohexyl
(trimethylsilyl) carboxylate is one derived fatty acid. The presence of these various bioactive compounds in the fresh
concentrated product demonstrated that the application of membrane technology by reverse osmosis could constitute a
good alternative for obtaining the viable finished product of Capsicum fruits.

Moisture Dependent Physical Properties of Anise Seeds R.K. Singh M.K. Vishal

Abstract: A study on the anise seeds (Ajmer Anise-1) was performed to investigate the effect of seeds moisture content
on their physical properties as these are very important to design post harvest equipments. The physical properties of
the anise were evaluated as a function of moisture contents in the range of 4.85 % to 24.81% dry basis (d.b.). Seed
geometric parameters such as average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, volume, sphericity and
surface area increased with the increase in seed moisture. The 1000-seed mass increased linearly with increase in
moisture. Bulk density and true density of anise decreased when seed moisture content was raised while the porosity of
anise increased. The angle of repose and coefficients of static friction on four different surfaces (plywood, mild steel,
galvanized iron and glass) and terminal velocity increased with increase in seed moisture.

Minimal Processing and Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Carrot Discs: Effects of Packaging Film and Product Weight Okan Esturk Zehra Ayhan

Abstract: Carrot (Daucus carota L.) discs were prepared and packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags with or
without aluminium silicate under passive modified atmosphere, and then stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The effects of
modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatments on oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the headspace,
color, texture, mass loss, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), 􀀃-carotene content and sensory quality of packaged carrot
discs were determined. Oxygen levels decreased and carbon dioxide levels increased significantly within 7 days and
stayed stable for the rest of the storage time. While L* and WI values increased, a* and b* values decreased at the end
of the storage. Storage time was the most significant factor affecting physiological, physicochemical and sensory
attributes. 􀀃-carotene content was 5.89 g kg􀀁1 fresh tissue right after processing and decreased in all applications during
storage. The shelf-life was determined as 14 days for minimally processed carrot discs for all applications.

Novel Approach to Control Microbial Contamination of Germinated Wheat Sprouts: Photoactivatedchlorophillin-Chitosan Complex I. Buchovec Z. Luksiene

Abstract: High resistance of bacteria and fungi to antimicrobial treatments has led to the development of innovative and
alternative antimicrobial technologies. It is well-known that chitosan itself is an antimicrobial agent, and chlorophyllin is
water-soluble food additive (E140) and food component which in the presence of light exerts antimicrobial properties.
Complex of these two antimicrobials can be background for the development of edible active biodegradable coating.
The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial efficiency of photoactivated chlorophyllin-chitosan complex against
food pathogens and fungi on the surface of germinated wheat seeds. Obtained data indicate that chlorophyllin-chitosan
complex in the presence of visible light (400nm) exhibits strong antimicrobial activity which can be used for
decontamination of sprouts.

Flavour Quality and Stability of an Encapsulated Meat-Like Process Flavouring Prepared from Soybean Based Acid Hydrolyzed Protein Hoda H.M. Fadel A. Abdel Samad

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to produce meat-like process flavouring by using a model mixture based
on acid hydrolyzed soybean protein (a-HVP) in addition to xylose, thiamine, cysteine and taurine . Glutamic was the
major amino acid in a-HVP followed by aspartic, glycine and alanine. The meat –like process flavour was encapsulated
in gum Arabic and stored at room temperature for 6 months. The changes in quality and flavour stability were followed
during storage. The results revealed that the roasty and savoury notes were increased whereas chickeny, beefy and
grilled meat notes showed significant (P< 0.05) decrease during storage. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, the main contributor to beefy note, was the major identified compound in the fresh sample. It showed remarkable decrease after storage for 6 months. The pyrazines and thiazoles showed an opposite trend. A quite agreement was found between the results of the odour profile analysis and those of GC-MS analysis. The results of the present study give important information to the flavourists who are working in field of process flavours, especially meat-like process flavour.

Application of Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence Techniques in Somatic Cell Analysis of Raw Milk Merve Pelvan Sevcan Unluturk

Abstract: Monitoring the quality and safety of milk requires careful analysis of somatic cell count (SCC). High level of
SCC is a signal of diseases such as mastitis. Mastitis can be detected not only by measuring the inflammatory
components and pathogens but also evaluating the SCC in milk. In this study, somatic cells are counted with direct
microscopy and flow cytometry. For SCC analyses, a centrifugal lipid clearing process is applied. Cleared samples are
stained with two fluorescent dyes acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EtBr), which have different binding
mechanism to cell. These two dyes and their different applications are investigated to reveal the effect on somatic cell
count. The results are also compared with direct microscopy method. The results of flow cytometry counting method are
well correlated with the ones obtained by direct microscopy technique. In conclusion, AO can be an alternative chemical
dye for EtBr to be used in enumeration of SCC by flow cytometry technique.

Pulsed Electrical Technologies Assisted Polyphenols Extraction from Agricultural Plants and Bioresources: A Review Nadia Boussetta Nabil Grimi

Abstract: The application of pulsed electrical technologies such as high voltage electrical discharges (HVED) and
pulsed electric fields (PEF) have been currently proposed for promoting biocompounds extraction. Even if their principles
of action are different, both of these techniques have shown to be efficient for the enhancement of polyphenols
extraction from different raw materials as compared to control extraction. Depending on the product, the energy
consumption, the cell disruption, the polyphenols composition, the extraction and purification steps are different when
applying PEF or HVED. This paper thus reviews the current status of research on the application of HVED and PEF for
extraction and purification of polyphenols from plants.

Antioxidant activity of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) Skin Extract: Application in Soybean and Mustard Oil D.N. Yadav K. Yogesh

Abstract: Total phenolics of peanut skin obtained by different methods were estimated; the effect of different solvents on
extractability of total phenolic compounds has also been evaluated. The effect of peanut skin extract, possessing highest
phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity, was evaluated by schaal oven test in the soybean oil, while oxidative
stability of mustard oil was evaluated by Rancimat method. Total phenolics were obtained highest (76.0 ± 2.12 to 101.7 ±
5.54 mg/g GAE dw) in the roasted samples, followed by the dry samples (54.7 ± 1.78 to 89.1 ± 3.78 mg/g GAE dw), and
lowest (14.5 ± 0.95 to 21.6 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dw) in the blanched samples; 80% methanol extraction provided better
extractability of phenolic compounds than the aqueous and 80% ethanol extraction method. The peroxide value and
induction period of different oils was also evaluated in the present study, which clearly showed that peanut skin extract
offered significantly (P < 0.05) better or at least similar protection against oxidation in the oils; than the synthetic antioxidant (BHT). Thus, peanut skin may be a good source of natural antioxidants for stabilization of various vegetable oils, during harsh processing and unavoidable storage conditions.

Antioxidant Effect of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Seed Extract on Raw Ground Chicken Meat Stored at 4 ± 1 °C K. Yogesh Tanbir Ahmad

Abstract: In this study, total phenolics (TP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reducing power (RP) and 2,
2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (SA) were estimated in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) seed
extracts (LSE). The antioxidant potential of the LSE in raw chicken ground meat (GM) during refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C)
storage was also evaluated. In the LSE, TP and TEAC were 7.30 ± 0.06 mg TAE/gdw and 42.26 ± 0.28 mg TE/gdw
respectively. The LSE also showed remarkable SA (56.07 ± 0.51%) and RP. Addition of LSE to GM significantly altered
the cooking losses, water holding capacity and pH of GM. During storage (4 °C), the thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances (TBARS) values were observed significantly (P < 0.01) more (1.32 ± 0.03 mg malonaldehyde/kg) in the control than the treated samples; and the antioxidant efficacy was more in vacuum packaged than aerobically packaged GM samples. Thus, LSE prevents lipid oxidation in meat, and could be used in place of synthetic antioxidants, which have been proved for their negative health implications.

Corn Starch Incorporated Gomatofu: Textural and Sensory Quality Deep N. Yadav Jyotsana Dhasmana

Abstract: Gomatofu is a traditional Japanese food and is one of the mixed gels consisting of kudzu (arrowroot) starch
and sesame. In this study, an attempt has been made to replace the kudzu starch with corn starch. Central composite
rotatable design (CCRD) of response surface methodology was used to optimize the level of independent variables viz.,
sesame oil (1.5-3.5g/100 ml sesame milk), corn starch (90–110g/100g defatted sesame flour) and water content (330-
350 ml/100g defatted sesame flour). Five responses, i.e. hardness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness and overall
acceptability were evaluated. Hardness of gomatofu ranged between 0.85 to 3.62 N, springiness, 0.45 -1.82 mm,
gumminess 0.26 -2.48 N and chewiness from 0.16 to 4.52 Nmm. Overall acceptability of gomatofu samples ranged
between 5.3- 8.5. The effect of all the independent factors was significant on all the responses. Both oil and water
content inversely correlated with all the responses while, the effect of corn starch was positive. The interaction effect of
oil and corn starch was positive on hardness and overall acceptability, while negative on springiness, gumminess and
chewiness. The optimized formulation contained sesame oil 2.2 ml/100 ml sesame milk, corn starch 99.9 g/100g
defatted sesame flour and water 1001.3 ml/ 100g defatted sesame flour. Corn starch incorporated optimized gomatofu
had protein 7.5, fat 10.9, ash 1.1 and carbohydrate 80.53 % (db).

Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder Supplementation on the Micronutrient and Toxicant Contents of Maize – Soybean – Peanut Complementary Food Formulations D. Shiriki M.A. Igyor

Abstract: The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation on the micronutrient and toxicant composition of
maize – soybean – peanut food formulations was determined. Maize, soybeans and peanut (MSP) flours were blended
in a ratio of 60:30:10 (through material balancing to give 16g protein/100g) food as recommended by the protein advisory
group (PAG) for infant diets. While one part was used unfortified as control food sample (MSPA), the remaining three
parts were fortified with 5% (125g), 10% (250g) and 15% (375g) Moringa oleifera powder, giving samples MSPB, MSPC
and MSPD respectively. Standard methods of analysis were then used to determine the content of some representative
vitamins, amino acids, minerals and antinutritional factors in the food formulations. There was significantly increase (p < 0.05) in Vitamins A (􀀁-Carotene) and C as well as amino acids lysine and tryptophan with increase in Moringa oleifera powder, with values ranging from 2.40 to 5.43mg/100g, 2.00 to 3.80mg/100g, 34 to 145mg/100g and 13 to 45mg/100g for 􀀁-Carotene, Vitamin C, Lysine and Tryptophan respectively. Supplementation also significantly (p <0.05) increased the contents of all the mineral elements with values ranging from 498.90 to 631.72mg/100g, 81.10 to 110.94mg/100g 1.40 to 5.48mg/100g, 39.20 to 356.67mg/100g and 38.70 to 77.60mg/100g and 1.59 to 2.38mg/100g for potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, phosphorus and zinc respectively; while oxalates, phytates and phenols contents increased significantly (p <0.05) with increase in Moringa oleifera leaf powder addition, with values ranging from 70.42 to 84.80mg/100g, 68.00 to 90.04mg/100g and 80.00 to 83.40mg/100g respectively.

Direct Determination of Heavy Metals in Honey by Potentiometric Stripping Analysis Jaroslava 􀀅varc-Gaji Zorica Stojanovic

Abstract: Honey is a valuable nutritious food rich in simple sugars, aminoacids, proteins and minerals. In addition, this
food product contains natural phenols and flavonoids, responsible for some bioactive properties. Due to known health
benefits of honey and its exquisite flavour this foodstuff is readily consumed by children and wide population imposing
necessity of strict quality control. One of quality criteria is the content of heavy metals. Elevated content of heavy metals
in honey may result from environmental or processing contamination, or may originate from soil or plant species that
honey is derived from.
In this work twenty five samples of honey from Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina were analysed in
respect to zinc, cadmium, lead and copper content. Honey samples were analysed directly, without sample preparation,
by applying potentiometric stripping analysis. Zinc, cadmium and lead were quantitated by using indium as an internal
standard, whereas copper was determined by standard addition method. Method accuracy was confirmed by blind
analysis of standard samples and with good recovery results which, for analysed samples, were in the range 91-101%.
In all analysed sampled determined metals contents were in the range permitted by Serbian regulations. Cadmium was
not detected in any of the analysed samples, whereas the content of other metals were in the range of 0.01-3.6 μg/g for
zinc, 0.02-0.8 μg/g for lead and 0.1-2.4 μg/g for copper, respectively.

Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria of Caprine Products from Chaco – Argentina F.P. Rivas M.P. Castro

Abstract: The microbiota of artisanal caprine products is essential for the manufacture of fermented products, such as
cheeses and dry sausages, conferring them particular and distinctive flavors and generating high value-added products.
Many of the bacteria comprising this microbiota are able to produce bacteriocins and antimicrobial substances. The
finding of bacteriocinogenic strains within this microbiota could be the first step to introduce biopreservation into these
products. Hence, ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (6 Lactobacillus paracasei, 2 Lactococcus lactis, 1 Leuconostoc
mesenteroides and 1 Lactobacillus rhamnosus) isolated from artisanal caprine products from Chaco (Argentina) were
screened for antagonistic activity against other LAB and some spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria
innocua (in lieu of Listeria monocytogenes), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The final goal was to
investigate LAB antibacterial activity within this unexplored ecological niche and to select interesting strains for the role
of bio-preservatives. Bacteriocin-like substances (BLIS) produced by the isolated strains inhibited three species of S.
aureus, L. innocua and Brochothrix thermosphacta. Titles of these antibacterial substances were within the range 100-
200 AU.mL-1. BLIS produced by the isolated strains were heat stable and effective after refrigerated storage and
freeze/thaw cycles. Moreover, BLIS activity was higher at acidic pH values, showing a decrease when these values were
closer to neutrality or they become alkaline. BLIS did not adsorb to the producer cells which is expected for future
production and application on food systems. The results presented in this study could contribute to characterize the
antimicrobial activity of the indigenous flora of artisanal caprine products manufactured in the province of Chaco,
Argentina. The isolated bacteriocinogenic strains showed a regular production of BLIS in culture broth, which offers
promising applications for the biopreservation of these products.

Production and Quality Assessment of Protein–Rich Biscuits from Blends of Wheat and Defatted Sesame Flours D.I. Gernah K. Anyam

Abstract: The effect of wheat flour supplementation with sesame flour on the quality of biscuits was determined. Biscuits
were produced from various blends of wheat and defatted sesame flour (90:10, 80:20 and 70:30), with 100% wheat flour
serving as control. Physico-chemical and sensory properties were then determined using standard methods of analysis.
Protein, fat, fiber and ash contents increased, while carbohydrate content decreased significantly (p < 0.05) ranging from 10.20 to 16.84 %, 2.08 to 5.23%, 1.20 to 2.66%, 1.37 to 2.03 and 76.45 to 63.53% respectively from control to the sample with 30% defatted sesame substitution. While there was no significant increase (p > 0.05) in weight (9.35 to
9.86g), there was significant (p < 0.05) increase in diameter and spread ratio of biscuits with values ranging from 4.30 to 4.83 and 30.07 to 58.19, respectively. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in thickness between the control (100% wheat) and other samples changing from 1.43 to 0.83cm. Mean sensory scores showed an increase in appearance, aroma and texture of biscuits though there was a decline at the highest level (30%) of substitution. The 10% defatted sesame sample gave the highest scores for taste and acceptability. The study shows that acceptable and nutritious biscuits could be produced from composite blends of wheat flour and defatted sesame flour.

Hominy Feed Value for Bioethanol and Bakery Functional Ingredient Mara L. Pereira Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

Abstract: To increase the value of hominy feed, a by-product from corn milling, its potential for oil extraction and
fermentation to produce ethanol was study. The novelty of the work was to study the use of the fermentation residue as
an enhancing ingredient in bakery products. The fermentation was conducted by simultaneous saccharification and
fermentation as well as saccharification followed by fermentation. After 48 h of fermentation of 30 % (w/ v) defatted
hominy feed aqueous solution, ethanol concentration varied from 7.8 to 12.5 % (v/ v). The post-fermentation residue
showed an increase in protein and fiber contents, from 10 % to 30 % and 14 % to 26 %, respectively, when compared
with the source material. This residue presented a significant level of antioxidants, around 620 􀀁mol/ 100g. When this
residue was incorporated into bread, rolls and cookies at levels of 7%, an increment of 23% of protein content can be
reached and up to 50% of total fiber as well. This fiber increment corresponded to 47% of soluble and 19% of insoluble
fibers. However, a negative impact onbread volume was observed: a reduction of 1.5% of diameter, 17 – 19% of volume,
18 – 24% of height, 9 – 12% of porosity and 6–11% of elasticity. But surprisingly, the bread life time increased 100%,
i.e., the rolls looked as fresh as just baked, the day after.

Hominy Feed Value for Bioethanol and Bakery Functional Ingredient Mara L. Pereira Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira

Abstract: To increase the value of hominy feed, a by-product from corn milling, its potential for oil extraction and
fermentation to produce ethanol was study. The novelty of the work was to study the use of the fermentation residue as
an enhancing ingredient in bakery products. The fermentation was conducted by simultaneous saccharification and
fermentation as well as saccharification followed by fermentation. After 48 h of fermentation of 30 % (w/ v) defatted
hominy feed aqueous solution, ethanol concentration varied from 7.8 to 12.5 % (v/ v). The post-fermentation residue
showed an increase in protein and fiber contents, from 10 % to 30 % and 14 % to 26 %, respectively, when compared
with the source material. This residue presented a significant level of antioxidants, around 620 􀀁mol/ 100g. When this
residue was incorporated into bread, rolls and cookies at levels of 7%, an increment of 23% of protein content can be
reached and up to 50% of total fiber as well. This fiber increment corresponded to 47% of soluble and 19% of insoluble
fibers. However, a negative impact onbread volume was observed: a reduction of 1.5% of diameter, 17 – 19% of volume,
18 – 24% of height, 9 – 12% of porosity and 6–11% of elasticity. But surprisingly, the bread life time increased 100%,
i.e., the rolls looked as fresh as just baked, the day after.

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