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UML-Profile for Metamodel-Driven Design of Database Applications Pavel P. Oleynik Vasyliy I. Gurianov

The article presents a UML profile for a software development environment Sharp Architect RAD Studio. This tool is intended to agile design of object-oriented databases. The main part of the article contains the description of the profile metamodel. There is an example of the profile usage. At the end of the article the authors draw some conclusions and plan future works.

Characterizing Faults on Real-Time Systems Based on Grid Automata Adilson Luiz Bonifacio Gilson Doi

Real-time systems are, in general, critical systems that interact with the environment through input and output events regulated by time constraints. The testing activity on systems of this nature requires rigorous approaches due to their critical aspects. Model-based testing approaches rely on formalisms that provide more reliability to testing activities. However, a model-based testing approach for real-time systems depends on techniques that can deal with continuous evolution of time appropriately. Several testing approaches apply discretization techniques in order to represent continuous behavior of timed models. Test suites can then be extracted from discretized models to support conformance testing between specifications and their respective implementations. Therefore an evaluation of test suites considering a fault coverage is an important task, but rarely addressed by model-based testing approaches for real-time systems. In this work we propose a systematic strategy to identify faults in TIOA models based on their corresponding discretized models. We precisely define a fault model to support model-based testing activities such as coverage analysis and test case generation.

A Simple Heuristic for Basic Vehicle Routing Problem Nodari Vakhania Jose Alberto Hernandez

The vehicle routing problem is an important real-life transportation problem. We propose a two-phase construction heuristic for the solution of the classical Euclidean (uncapacitated) vehicle routing problem in which the minimum cost distinct vehicle tours are to be formed for the given customer locations. At the first phase we construct a polygon in the 2-dimensional Euclidean space that girds all the given points (customer locations and the depot). The second phase consists of two stages. At the first stage the interior polygon area is partitioned into triangle areas, and at the second stage the tours for each of these areas are constructed.

A Metamodel Proposal for a Web Development Code Generation Tool Cristina Magaña Zuriel Morales

Code generation is an important part of Model-Driven Development as well as the abstract representation of the software functionality. One of the strong deficiencies in this paradigm is the lack of research projects regarding to code generation that uses the terminology applied in the industry. In order to ameliorate this scenario, in this work is presented a metamodel proposal for a Web development code generation tool. This proposal is based on the terminology used in the industry for Web development in the region of Sinaloa, México. This is an extension and updated explanation of our work previously presented in a conference.

Neural Network for Large-Scale Problems, with Application to Human Motion Mohammad Bataineh Timothy Marler

As the potential applications for artificial intelligence, and thus neural networks expand, and as the prevalence of big data increases, the need for improved training in neural networks that leverage data sets efficiently will soon surface. In addition, research in the field of human simulation has led to significant advancements in quality, time, and cost management for products like military and athletic equipment and vehicles. There is, however, a critical need for human simulation models to run in real time, especially those with large-scale problems like motion prediction (a single motion problem involves prediction of between 500-700 outputs). Hence, this work addresses both challenges by introducing a modified training process for an artificial neural network (ANN) that is capable of mitigating memory issues and improving accuracy with large scale problems that involve minimal taring data. The new modified ANN design is successfully tested on two common human-motion tasks, walking and going prone. Through comparison with a benchmark ANN, the results of the new network are shown to be accurate objectively and subjectively.

Recognition for Objects by Relationships Between Attributes Hiroka Horiguchi Kazuo Ikeshiro

Object recognition methods based on attributes have been studied. Conventional methods recognize objects by the presence or absence of attributes. However, the conventional methods have two problems. Firstly, the conventional methods are not able to recognize a target object of which a part of attributes is occluded. Secondly, the conventional methods miss-recognize a target object, which has irrelevant attributes. Therefore, to solve these two problems, we propose the object recognition by relationships between attributes. In this paper, we focus on the face as the recognition object. The proposed method uses relationships as constraints for object recognition using attributes. The proposed method applies two major type constraints. The first constraint is a local constraint, which is applied to a part of attributes. To achieve robust face recognition against occlusion scenes, the proposed method uses the local constraint. And then, the second constraint is a global constraint, which is applied to all attributes. To achieve robust face recognition against irrelevant attributes, the proposed method uses the global constraint. In this paper, to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compared the proposed method with a conventional method. We experimented in normal face, occlusion and irrelevant attributes. We used 2580 images of a face which are changed in scale and rotation. Experimental results showed that the recognition ratio of the proposed method is equal to or more than that of the conventional method in normal face, occlusion, and irrelevant attributes.

GGDML: Icosahedral Models Language Extensions Nabeeh Jumah Julian Kunkel

The optimization opportunities of a code base are not completely exploited by compilers. In fact, there are optimizations that must be done within the source code. Hence, if the code developers skip some details, some performance is lost. Thus, the use of a general-purpose language to develop a performance-demanding software -e.g. climate models- needs more care from the developers. They should take into account hardware details of the target machine.

Besides, writing a high-performance code for one machine will have a lower performance on another one. The developers usually write multiple optimized sections or even code versions for the different target machines. Such codes are complex and hard to maintain.

In this article we introduce a higher-level code development approach, where we develop a set of extensions to the language that is used to write a model’s code. Our extensions form a domain-specific language (DSL) that abstracts domain concepts and leaves the lower level details to a configurable source-to-source translation process.

The purpose of the developed extensions is to support the icosahedral climate/atmospheric model development. We have started with the three icosahedral models: DYNAMICO, ICON, and NICAM. The collaboration with the scientists from the weather/climate sciences enabled agreed-upon extensions. When we have suggested an extension we kept in mind that it represents a higher-level domain-based concept, and that it carries no lower-level details.

The introduced DSL (GGDML- General Grid Definition and Manipulation Language) hides optimization details like memory layout. It reduces code size of a model to less than one third its original size in terms of lines of code. The development costs of a model with GGDML are therefore reduced significantly.


Analyzing the Information Search Behavior and Intentions in Visual Information Systems Kawa Nazemi Dirk Burkhardt

Visual information search systems support different search approaches such as targeted, exploratory or analytical search. Those visual systems deal with the challenge of composing optimal initial result visualization sets that face the search intention and respond to the search behavior of users. The diversity of these kinds of search tasks require different sets of visual layouts and functionalities, e.g. to filter, thrill-down or even analyze concrete data properties. This paper describes a new approach to calculate the probability towards the three mentioned search intentions, derived from users’ behavior. The implementation is realized as a web-service, which is included in a visual environment that is designed to enable various search strategies based on heterogeneous data sources. In fact, based on an entered search query our developed search intention analysis web-service calculates the most probable search task, and our visualization system initially shows the optimal result set of visualizations to solve the task. The main contribution of this paper is a probability-based approach to derive the users’ search intentions based on the search behavior enhanced by the application to a visual system.

A Process Model for Simulation the Growth and Development of Sweet Sorghum Ning Xia Aishuang Li

This paper presents a process model of sweet sorghum growth and development which reconstructs realistic 3D images of sweet sorghum with geometric and topological characteristics, and makes it possible to view actual stalk, spike motion from a variety of angles when necessary. Model can also be rotated and the 3D images can be zoomed in and out at a high level of fidelity. They are also used to generate other plant species for use in analyzing the interplay between stochastic and deterministic processes.

GABA-Ergic Premedication and Hemodynamic Stability during Induction Laryngoscopy Phase of General Anesthesia Tabish Hussain Asifa Anwar Mir

introduction: Gabapentin is a second generation anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. Recent data suggests its perioperative administration for attenuation of the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. The aim of this study was to compare Oral Gabapentin premedication with no premedication in patients undergoing rigid laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation for General Anaesthesia in terms of mean heart rate and mean arterial pressure.
Methods:This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at Anesthesia Department Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi. Total 100 patients were included in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups. In Group-A patients were given 800 mg Gabapentin orally and in Group-B patients were not given Gabapentin orally. Baseline parameters (including heart rate, Mean Arterial Pressure MAP) were recorded 1 hr. before surgery. Drug selected for given patient was given orally with a sip of water. After 1 hr. Data was collected on a standardized Performa and analyzed on SPSS 16 version.
Results:Mean hear rate in Group-A patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was 96.22±11.96, 91.84±11.28, 84.66±10.98 and 82.10±11.47 respectively. While in Group-B mean heart rate in Group-B patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was 105.70±11.95, 100.42±11.58, 92.18±10.56 and 88.40±9.61 respectively. It was observed that at 1st , 3rd , 5th and at 10th minute mean heart rate was statistically different in both treatment groups. Mean arterial pressure in Group-A patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was 103.68±6.55, 100.42±5.63, 96.54±5.72 and 95.04±5.86 respectively. While in Group-B mean arterial pressure in Group-B patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was 112.40±6.93, 106.60±5.98, 100.90±5.95 and 99.16±5.69 respectively. It was observed that at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute mean arterial pressure was statistically different in both treatment groups.

Conclusion:800 mg oral gabapentin given 1 hour before undergoing rigid laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia significantly affects mean heart rate and mean arterial pressure at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute.

Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Male Smokers Having Different Types of Cancers with Reference to Healthy Male Smokers Tasneem Gul Kazi Sham Kumar Wadhwa

Immense epidemiologic studies have been reported about the role of essential trace and toxic elements as risk factors for incidence of different type of cancers in population of developed and developing countries. In present work the levels of carcinogenic, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Nickel (As, Cd and Ni) and anti-carcinogenic, Zinc and Selenium (Zn and Se) elements were measured in blood of male cancer patients (urinary bladder, lung, mouth and esophageal) and healthy referents. The all patients and referents were smoker. The blood samples were analysed with atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave assisted acid digestion. The resulted data indicated that the levels of toxic elements As, Ni and Cd were considerably elevated whereas essential elements, Zn and Se were lower in blood samples of all cancer cases as compared to those values found in noncancerous subjects. As the levels of essential trace elements were low in blood samples of male cancerous patients but difference was highly significant in lung and mouth cancer subjects (p<0.001), whereas sequence of decreasing order was not uniform. The levels of Zn in blood samples of different cancerous patients were found in decreasing order as: esophagus< mouth< urinary bladder

Genetic Variability Within ADA Gene and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Subjects F. Gloria-Bottini M. Banci

The complex relationship between adenosine, obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) prompted us to investigate a possible role of genetic variability within adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene in the susceptibility to T2D in obese subjects. With enzymatic activity ADA contributes to the regulation of adenosine concentration in body fluids and as ecto- enzyme modulates signaling events involving adenosine receptors on cell surface.

Three polymorphic sites within the ADA gene, ADA1 (exon 1), ADA2 (intron 2) and ADA6 (exon6) were examined in 299 subjects from the White population of Rome admitted to the Hospital for cardiovascular diseases. Each site shows two alleles: the alleles with higher frequency are ADA1*1, ADA2*1 and ADA6*2.

Informed consent was obtained by the patients to participate to the study that was approved by the Council of Department.

For the three sites examined the relative risk of T2D in obese subjects (vs non obese) is higher in carriers of the homozygous genotype for the allele with higher frequency. The three loci cooperate to the risk that is low in subjects carrying no homozygous genotype (O.R. 1.25) but it is very high (O.R. 13.240) in subjects carrying the three homozygous genotypes.

From a practical point of view, the study of ADA gene may help to detect obese subjects at high risk of T2D who need active preventive measures. The results point to the importance of further studies on the role of genetic variability within ADA gene on the relationship within obesity and T2D.

An Unusual Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome George M. Weisz  

The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was reported in the literature following numerous traumatic events. Stretching the Brachial plexus, such as in peri-operational positioning, was as yet not found. The author is presenting a recently discovered such case. The clinical presentation is illustrated by a probable mechanism of pathogenesis.

Perceptions and Expectations about Care in Hospitalized Patients over 75 Years of Age Alica Hanzeliková Francisco López-Muñoz

Objective: To know the expectations and perceptions of patients over 75 years of age, regarding the quality of care provided to acutely ill geriatric patients admitted to the Hospital Virgen del Valle de Toledo Spain.

Methods:Design: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study.

Location of study: Geriatric Hospital Virgen del Valle Toledo (Spain).

Subjects: Patients older than 75 years of age admitted to the Acute Treatment Unit at Hospital Virgen del Valle de Toledo.

Sample size: 267 patients (p = 0.5, confidence interval 95%, e = 0.06).

Measures: Validated questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL model to measure the expectations and perceptions of care.

Results: The global assessment of overall satisfaction with the attention and care they received was "moderately good". Higher scores were obtained in the assessment of “care” than in “attention received”, in general. The results highlighted the importance of empathy and information. The theory suggesting that satisfaction with the nursing staff is a good predictor of overall satisfaction with the hospital has found support in this study.

Conclusion: There exists an urgent need, when it comes to caring for older people, to increase the level of knowledge about the patient’s preferences along with understanding their expectations, in order to help develop better care. Knowledge of the deficiencies of care provides professionals with information indicating where they should intervene to make favourable changes with a resultant increase in patient satisfaction.

A Left Temporal Arachnoid Cyst in a Patient with Early Onset Schizophrenia Yakup Albayrak Ece Altındağ

Arachnoid cysts are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. In the literature, some case studies report a probable etiological association between arachnoid cysts and psychiatric disorders. We report an early onset schizophrenia case who had a left temporal arachnoid cyst and who had an inadequate response to antipsychotic treatment. We discuss the potential association between arachnoid cysts and psychiatric disorders in the light of the literature.

The Role of Serum Bio-Markers in Predicting Small Bowel Pathology in Crohn`s Disease Patients Anthea Brincat Neville Azzopardi

Background: Computed tomography enterography (CTE) is a useful modality in the evaluation of small bowel (SB) crohn`s disease (CD) as it can provide assessment of disease activity, extramural abnormalities and SB complications. This procedure however utilises radiation exposure. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical indications and findings on CTE and to determine if serum bio-markers (CRP, ESR, platelet count and anaemia) can predict significant pathologies.
Method: This was a retrospective analysis where 50 patients above the age of 18 with CD who had CTE between October 2013 and February 2015 were identified. The clinical indications, serum bio-markers and CTE findings in these patients were analysed.
Results: The main indications for CTE were abdominal pain/discomfort and/or symptoms suggestive of SB obstruction. 26% of CD patients had active inflammation, 36% had a SB stricture and 4% had active inflammation with stricturing and fistulating disease. All the patients with a completely normal CTE did not have a raised bio-marker whist 76.9% of patients with active inflammation had one or more positive bio-markers. Additional findings were active colitis (8%), splenomegaly (4%), aortitis (2%) and had sacroileitis (2%). In these patients, 75% had a positive bio-marker. In patients with positive findings, the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was the most common marker of inflammation.
Conclusion: CTE is an important tool in management of patients with CD however, in the presence of normal biomarkers, clinicians should question the need for CTE and thus decrease exposure of CD patients to ionising radiation.

An Overview of the Genetic Causes of Frontotemporal Degeneration Wanda C. Reygaert  

Many neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have been thought to be caused mainly by conditions that were not controlled by genetic inheritance. Extensive research into these diseases has recently discovered that perhaps a majority of them have genetic inheritance components. Once thought to be a rare form of NDD, frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is now considered to be the main cause of early onset NDD, and the information on genetic causes and inheritance has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. The main genes that have been found to be involved in frontotemporal degeneration, MAPT, TARDBP, GRN C9orf72, VCP, FUS, and CHMP2B, have also been found in related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. This paper is intended as an updated review of the genetic causes of FTD. This information should aid physicians and scientists in understanding the current concepts, and encourage even more genetic testing so that a full knowledge of genetic inheritance in FTD will be soon be forthcoming.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Report of Two Atypical Cases Reza M. Robati Fahimeh Abdollahimajd

Multiple and unusual clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) had been reported as hyperkeratotic, psoriasiform, eczematoid, zosteri form pattern, warty lesions, erysipeloid, and acneiform lesions. The clinical features of CL primarily depend on the host's cell-mediated response and the species of Leishmania being involved. In this paper we reported two cases of atypical CL from Iran, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Loghman-e-Hakim hospitals presented with infiltrative erythematous lesions covering the perioral region and the lower limb, respectively. The diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was confirmed with skin smears and biopsies.

The Psychiatric Aspects of Alopecia Areata Gamze Erfan Yakup Albayrak

Alopecia areata (AA) refers to noncicatricial hair loss. It is defined as a secondary psychiatric disorder in the classification of psycho dermatological disorders. Its profound effect on a person’s physical appearance and the resulting emotional stress have led many researchers to investigate psychiatric aspects of AA in recent decades [1, 2]. This study presents a review of the literature and highlights psychiatric aspects of AA. The results showed that both pediatric and adult patients with AA have a high risk of depression and anxiety. Dermatologists should consider a psychiatric evaluation of female patients under 20 years with AA to detect potential depression and anxiety. As much as alexithymia also in association of AA and other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), personality, manic, bipolar, attention deficit, phobic disorders, further investigations are needed. The evaluation of the psychological status of patients with AA is extremely important to aid the well-being of individuals suffering from this disease.

Clozapine use in Dual Diagnosis Patients Marta Marín-Mayor Jorge López-Álvarez

Background: Dual diagnosis (DD), defined as the co-occurrence of a substance use disorder (SUD) and a severe mental illness (SMI), is associated with several negative outcomes. Typical antipsychotics (TAP) are not of great value for patients with DD as they are associated with poorer responses and can worsen SUD. Atypical antipsychotics (AAP) offer several advantages compared to TAP and in DD patients they have been found to be effective in treating both, psychiatric symptoms and substance use. The aim of this article is to review the use of clozapine (CLO) for treating DD patients.
Methods: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pubmed was performed in order to identify publications that examined the use of CLO in the treatment of DD.
Results: There is consistent data in regard to the efficacy of CLO in the treatment of DD patients in both studies with and without comparison to TAP and other AAP. These positive results have been found for different substances of abuse and in different SMI. However, there is a lack of randomized, placebo-controlled trials in this field.
Conclusions: CLO has been found to be at least as effective as TAP and other AAP in treating psychiatric symptoms, but it has shown itself to be more effective in reducing substance use in DD patients. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this effectiveness: 1) amelioration of reward system dysfunction in the dopamine-mediated mesocorticolimbic circuits; 2) improvement of negative symptoms, and relief of anxiety, depression and dysphoria; 3) improvement of cognitive dysfunction associated with DD; and 4) reduction of craving. CLO might be considered as a pharmacological agent for use in patients with DD, although safety issues, such as the risk of agranulocytosis and seizures must be taken into account. Even though there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the beneficial effects of CLO in DD patients, further randomized, blind, controlled trials, with larger sample sizes and longer follows-up are needed.

Review of Mipomersen Sodium (Kynamro®) for Familial Hypercholesterolemia Lunawati L. Bennett Megan Chalk

Objective: To review the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of mipomersen sodium (Kynamro®) for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).
Data Sources: A literature search through Pub Med and (1984–May 2014; English language) was performed using the key words: homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), FH, dyslipidemia, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), and ISIS 301012. Searches were limited to published studies in humans.
Study Selection and Data Extraction: All articles in English identified from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of mipomersen in humans were selected and included.
Data Synthesis: Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro®), an oligonucleotide inhibitor of apoB-100 synthesis, is approved for reducing apoB-100, LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in HoFH patients as an adjunctive treatment with other lipid lowering drugs and low fat diet.
Conclusion: Mipomersen is effective in decreasing LDL-C, apoB-100, TC, and non-HDL-C in patients that are refractory to other lipid lowering drugs. Mipomersen is administered as 200 mg subcutaneous (s.c.) once weekly injection. The drug is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. The most common adverse reactions include injection site reaction (ISRs), influenza-like symptoms and increases in serum hepatic transaminase. Kynamro® is only available through restricted program under Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called Kynamro® REMS.

Conventional and Advanced Ocular Formulation and Delivery: A Mini Review Lunawati L Bennett  

Objective: To review available ocular formulation and delivery for the treatment of eye diseases, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the ophthalmic formulation and delivery due to the complexity anatomical of the eye.

Data Sources: A literature search through Pub Med (1984 – December 2016) was performed using the key words: ocular barrier, posterior segment, anterior segment, disease of the eye, peptide delivery, ocular delivery, ophthalmic.

Study Selection and Data Extraction: Articles in English identified from reviews, abstracts, and presentations on eye formulation and delivery were included.

Conclusion: Effective treatment of ocular diseases has been difficult challenges due to the nature of the disease, the presence of the ocular barriers, and the unique structure of the eye. Within the last 2 decades, challenges in drug delivery have been partially met through modification of the ophthalmic formulations using viscosity enhancing polymers, hydrogels; through formulation of novel drugs approach using prodrugs, gene therapy and peptide delivery; and through making the drug particles smaller using nano-formulations techniques which all are aimed to increase the drug’s retention time in the eye, to have the least side effects, and to be minimally invasive. However, there are many more challenges that need to be addressed including: the application from the research bench top using rabbit or cadaver into patients’ specific diseases, decreasing the toxicities of the formulations, and making the ophthalmic formulations and deliveries safe, well-tolerated and cost efficient.

Health Tourism in Clinics Located in Tourist Areas: the Case of Spain Jonay Perera-Gil Rodrigo Chacón-Ferrera

Objective: Knowing the characteristics of health tourism and to develop a theoretical framework exploring empirical evidence the health tourism in Spain studying major competitive methods, the aim is to objectively examine the lines of action being taken by the clinics to then offer a theory of how to compete successfully in the medical tourism business.

Method: Apply a descriptive quantitative approach to analyze data collected through a questionnaire distributed to 148 clinics in 50 provinces, in 2011.

Results: Tourist offers medical services are mainly aimed at German, British and French citizens. 91.46% of the centers surveyed say their services are designed for tourists. There are agreements with hotels / apartments according to 59.52% of the sample, stating that the 66.67% refuse to work with health tourism and wellness, which could offer service centers / clinics in the rest of Spain and abroad.

Conclusions: There is a high demand for health tourism. Tour operators play an important role in the management of these services, as well as in the design of travel packages and medical services adapted to the expectations and needs of tourists. The most popular services include: emergencies, plastic surgery, and clinical analyses.

It is noted that there is a strong presence of marketing and advertising around the sector, as well as efforts by hospitals to train employees to this section of business.

Journal of Translational Proteomics Research (Volume 3) Combinational Synergy of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Peptides Pramod Shah Chien-Sheng Chen

Combination of existing antibiotics have been introduced to increase the efficacy for a long time. Synergistic combinations of antibiotics are most desirable due to reduction of doses, toxicity and side effects of the individual antibiotic as well as prolonging in evolution of antibiotic resistance. Recently, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining attention as viable alternatives to antibiotics due to the broad spectrum of activities and abundantly present in multicellular organisms that act against invading microbes. The combination of AMPs and conventional antibiotics enables to reduce the overall cost and widen the power of synergistic effects. Synergistic combinations are also reported among AMPs. Despite enormous advantages of synergistic combinations and several reports and uses in clinical medicine, only few underlying mechanisms are revealed. In this review, we overviewed the mechanisms of antimicrobial agents’ synergistic combinations and introduced the proteome chip approach for predicting new synergistic combinations and deciphering the synergy mechanisms.

Anti-DNA (“Cationic”) and Ani-Histone (“Anionic”) Auto-Antibodies: Two Sides of One Coin? Yuriy Kit  

The mini review is focused on the analysis of published data and the results obtained by author with co-workers about biological activity of anti-DNA (“cationic”) and anti-histone Н1 (“anionic”) auto-antibodies linked with autoimmunity and oncology. The feathures of anti-DNA and-anti histone auto- antibodies, which might be engaged in regulation of tumor cell progressing, are considered.

Loss of SYK and LYN Tyrosine Kinase Expression Impair Ponatinib-Induced Apoptosis in K562 Cells Valérie Lagarde François-Xavier Mahon

Targeting the tyrosine kinase activity of BCR-ABL is the gold standard strategy in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) for the last decade. Whereas inhibitors of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase are now used in frontline therapy for CML, third generation inhibitors of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase such as ponatinib has been developed for the treatment of BCR-ABL resistant mutants. In the current study, we generated K562 ponatinib resistant cells (KRPO) and investigated its mechanism of resistance. No over expression of BCR-ABL or multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) were found among the investigated mechanisms as verapamil did not overcome resistance. Downregulated expression of both p72 SYK and p53/56 LYN kinases was found in ponatinib K562 resistant cell line. Albeit both mRNA and protein level were decreased in KRPO for SYK only protein level was downregulated for LYN suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism. This mechanism of resistance also prevents imatinib, nilotinib or dasatinib-induced CML cells apoptosis.

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) Protein Profiles Associated with Tumor Response to Treatment Bissan Ahmed Paul Debbage

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by limited therapeutic success and poor outcome. Despite continuous development of novel therapeutic strategies, disease-free survival in patients with advanced HNSCC has not been improved during the last 30 years. Evidently, a deeper understanding is needed of the molecular mechanisms underlying both intrinsic and acquired HNSCC cell resistance to currently existing therapeutic approaches. Proteome analysis is a powerful method which can provide deep insight into the molecular basis underlying HNSCC cell survival despite cytotoxic anti-tumor treatment (chemo-, radiotherapy). Evaluation of the protein profiles of cells obtained from locally recurrent or metastatic tumors can allow researchers to identify key protein players which regulate the HNSCC response to therapy. Additionally, subcellular fractionation and isolation of various cell organelles followed by proteomic analysis can provide data about intracellular protein localization, translocation and function following anti-cancer therapy. This review article discusses the protein patterns in HNSCC cells responsible for the radio- and chemo-resistance of these tumors and which result in the carcinoma cell survival and HNSCC recurrence..

MAPMAKER/EXP Version 3.0b: Though Used Since Time Immemorial Still Difficult for Beginners to Start with Map Construction for the Genetic Studies Rajinder Kaur Neha Sharma

With the advancement of molecular biology, interest in linkage map construction and QTL identification is growing among researchers day by day. Plant genome mapping and QTL analysis allows the identification of genes associated with economically important traits and the use of this information to further improve crops. So, we also attempted to construct a genetic linkage maps in our laboratory using more than one molecular marker systems and to analyze Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) from the constructed linkage map. Every first time user finds many hurdles about the use of the software MAPMAKER. Though the problems were not very big but there was no one to tell us about the start of the software MAPMAKER and one by one commands to follow. So this article is written keeping in mind those beginners who are new to linkage map construction and QTL identification but it’s their desire to find certain genes of interest in their test crop.

A Retrospective Survey of the Incidence of Hypertension in Abia State-Nigeria S. Oladipo Gabriel A. Osunwoke Emeka

Hypertension is becoming more common as urbanization increases and this has been shown in several studies all over the world especially in Africa. This study was carried out to survey the incidence of hypertension in Abia State using Aba metropolis as the case study from 1995 - 2005, so as to make recommendations that would help modify life style of the people, thus helping to reduce the growing incidence of hypertension related complications such as stroke, heart failure, kidney failure, heart attack etc. It was a cross sectional study with data collected from four different hospitals in Aba, Abia State. The data was tabulated, compared and analyzed using percentage. From the result, it was observed that the incidence was higher in men than in women. Also, the incidence appeared to have dropped in 1995 and 1996. All other years recorded increased incidence with 2005 having the highest percentage. The total incidence and percentage incidence were worked out and represented in a bar chart. The result showed an increased incidence from 5.5% in 1995 to 14.7% in 2005, showing an increase of 9.2% over 11 years period, which amounts to an average increase of 0.8% annually. The incidence of Hypertension increases as the year goes by, hence the need for life style modification.

Antibodies Possessing a Catalytic Activity (Natural Abzymes) at Norm and Pathology Severyn Myronovskij Yuriy Kit

The review is focused on the analysis of published data and the results obtained by the authors about the catalytic activity of antibodies (abzymes) at norm and pathology. Potential pathogenic and beneficial role of natural abzymes is discussed.

SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL "BULLETIN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC AND HUMANITARIAN RESEARCH" CHIEF EDITOR: Ershov Bogdan Anatolievich, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Voronezh State Ashmarov Igor Anatolievich, Deputy Chief Editor, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor

Journal "BULLETIN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC AND HUMANITARIAN RESEARCH" publishes articles about the relationship between different state institutions and society. The editorial Board determines the procedure for publication of articles.

The articles are reviewed and accepted only after at least two positive reviews of three reviewers.

The author retains the copyrights to his articles.

Journal is published four times a year, 1 time per quarter (№ 1 - January, February, March, № 2 - April, May, June, № 3 - July, August, September, № 4 - October, November, December).

Scientific direction:

The journal publishes articles in the following scientific areas:

Literary Studies;
Pedagogical Sciences;
Psychological Sciences;
Historical Sciences and Archeology;
Philosophy of Science;
Economic Science;
Political Science;
Legal Science;
Cultural Studies;
Art History.


This research aims to identify the levels of problems that pre-school teachers have experienced
while applying the 2013 pre-school education program. Having a quantitative research design,
the research used screening model. The population of the research holds a total of 600 preschool
teachers working at Kahramanmaras province center in 2015-2016 academic year. The
sample consisted of 284 pre-school teachers who were selected by "simple random sampling"
method. Independent groups t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and LSD
significance test were used during data analysis. Research results have revealed that pre-school
teachers have experienced various problems in implementing the 2013 pre-school education
program at the level of ‘never’. A significant difference has been identified between the levels of
the problems encountered by the pre-school teachers when applying the education program and the, the educational status; whereas no significant difference has been noted in terms of
gender and seniority.

Optimized Production Assessment, Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetric Evaluation of 177Lu- PSMA-617 for Clinical Trials Mehdi Sharifi Hassan Yousefnia

177Lu-PSMA-617 was prepared at the optimized conditions (95°C, 15-18 µg peptide, 35-40 min; solid phase purification) using 177Lu obtained from 176Lu(n, γ)177Lu reaction(>98%, ITLC, HPLC, S.A. 22-24 TBq/mM) followed by stability (up to 48 h), biodistribution studies (up to 168 h), planar imaging, compartmental modeling and dosimetry estimations via Sparks’s extrapolation method in human organs. Kidney is the critical organ with the dose of 0.067 mGy/MBq and the radiopharmaceutical can be safely used in trials considering the human dose

Bifid Pelvis Appearance and Yo-Yo Reflux on Dynamic Renal Scintigraphy: Two Case Reports Mine Araz Derya Cayir

Bifid (two-compound) renal pelvis constitutes 10% of normal renal pelvis. The Yo-Yo reflux is reflux from one ureter to another in incomplete ureteral duplications. The diagnosis of yo-yo reflux is difficult. Technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) is used to evaluate renal function. We present two cases of bifid renal pelvis and yo-yo reflux with Tc-99m DTPA dynamic renal scintigraphy.

Evaluation of Residual Thyroid Tissue with Tc-99m MIBI in Differential Thyroid Carcinoma Patients: A Case Report Derya Cayir Mine Araz

Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy is used in the routine for the evaluation of residual tissue after total thyroidectomy operations in differentiating thyroid carcinoma. Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc99m MIBI) was first developed as a myocardial perfusion agent and is also used for tumor imaging. Tc-99m MIBI is taken up by the functioning thyroid tissue and washed-out fast. We present a case of differentiated thyroid carcinoma where uptake out the thyroid bed was not detectable by Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy but with Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy in the postoperative period.

Radioiodine Therapy of Benign Thyroid Diseases Derya Cayir Mine Araz

Radioiodine-131 (I-131) is used in treatment of benign thyroid diseases with hyperthyroidism; toxic diffuse goiter, toxic nodular goiter and toxic multinodular goiter for long years. Treatment success depends on various factors. The most important factor affecting the success of treatment is the susceptibility to target tissue I-131. This review aims to give information about the physical and biological characteristics of I-131, advantages and disadvantages, indications and contraindications for I-131 therapy, patient preperation and administiration of I-131, dose selection, precautions on possible side effects, evaluation of treatment response and make an overview on the clinical studies about I-131 therapy.

Is Routine Diagnostic Radioiodine Whole-Body Scintigraphy Needed in Patients who Received Ablative doses of Radioiodine for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma? Cigdem Soydal Elgin Ozkan

Aim:The present large-series retrospective sought to assess DWBS findings 6‒12 weeks after RIAT in DTC patients in various risk groups. In addition, the study compared patients’ simultaneous sTg levels.

Material and Methods:The follow-up data of 2879 patients who had received RIAT for DTC between 1998 and 2016 were evaluated for inclusion in the study. The study retrospectively evaluated the following: age at the time of diagnosis; gender; histopathological features of thyroidectomy materials (histological subtype, variant, dimension, multi-focality, thyroid capsule, and vascular invasion of tumors); TNM stage; ATA classification; sTg, suppressed-serum Tg, and antiTg antibody levels; and DWBS findings. Patients were categorized according to sTg level (undetectable, 1‒10 ng/ml, and >10 ng/ml). Then, the DWBS findings were analyzed according to sTg level.

Results: The study analyzed 2184 patients (1805 F, 379 M; mean age: 43.54±12.64). In 2077 (95%) patients, the DWBSs performed 6‒12 months after RIAT had shown no pathological uptake throughout the entire body. Pathological uptake had been detected in the neck and outside the neck in 88 (4%) and 19 (1%) patients, respectively. All patients who had had normal DWBSs also had had undetectable simultaneous sTg levels. In addition, the DWBSs had been normal in 187 (8%) patients who had had simultaneous sTg levels> 1 ng/ml and in 286 (13%) patients who had had levels > 10 ng/ml. In all patients who had pathological uptake in DWBSs, simultaneous sTg levels were > 1ng/ml, and in 47, they were> 10 ng/ml.

Conclusion: Routine DWBS seems to be unnecessary, even in high-risk DTCs. However, in patients who have detectable levels of serum sTg, it could be performed to localize the disease and plan patient management.

Immunoscintigraphy for Therapy Decision Making and Follow-Up of Biological Therapies C. Lauri S. Auletta

With the availability of new biological therapies there is the need of more accurate diagnostic tools to non-invasively assess the presence of their targets. In this scenario nuclear medicine offers many radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT or PET imaging of many pathological conditions. The availability of monoclonal antibodies provides tools to target specific antigens involved in angiogenesis, cell cycle or modulation of the immune systems. The radiolabelling of such therapeutic mAbs is a promising method to evaluate the antigenic status of each cancer lesion or inflamed sites before starting the therapy. It may also allow to perform follow-up of such biological therapies. In the present review we provide an overview of the most studied radiolabelled antibodies for therapy decision making and follow-up of patients affected by cancer and other pathological conditions.

Impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detecting Primary Tumor Focus in Patients with Histopathologically Proven Metastasis Elgin Ozkan Cigdem Soydal

Purpose: To describe the impact of fluorine (18F) - fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in detecting primary tumor focus in our patient population who had histopathologically proven metastasis.

Methods:37 patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT to detect primary tumor focus in our department were included in the study. The results of PET/CT and clinical follow-up data were reviewed retrospectively. PET/CT results were compared with histological analysis and/or clinical follow-up data.

Results:Primary site of malignancy was correctly identified by PET/CT in 16 patients (16/37, 43%). Lung was the most common detected site (7/16). The mean SUV of metastatic tumor was higher than that of primary tumor. False positive and false negative results were obtained in 2 patients, respectively. In the remaining patients (17/37; 46%) the primary tumor was not localized by PET/CT. According to these results, the sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT were calculated as 89% and 90%, respectively. However, PET/CT scan determined additional metastatic focus and therapy management was changed (9/37, 24%). The primary focus was established in 4 of 8 (50%) patients with metastatic cervical adenopathy and in 12 of 29 (41%) patients with extra cervical metastases.

Conclusions:18F-FDG PET/CT can detect the primary tumor focus in about half of all patients with histopathologically proven metastases. In the remaining patients, it may contribute to therapy management by identifying additional foci.

Beta-Minus Emitters Dose Point Kernel Estimation Model Comprising Different Tissues for Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry Applications Pedro Pérez Federico Geser

The use of β-emitters for therapy purposes is one of the most extended procedures for tumor treatments in nuclear medicine practices over the last years. The constantly increasing dose delivery to healthy tissues in this practices, due to their high linear energy transfer and their radiobiological characteristics, might lead to complications in radiosensitive organs/tissues. Research efforts should be conducted to the development of tools and methods devoted to perform precise dosimetric calculations to deal with this issue and assess accurately dosimetric estimations on patients treated regions.
When performing dosimetry at organ level it is usual to assume some approximations on calculations, like uniformity in activity distribution within source regions, homogeneous media distribution for patient treated regions and uniform delivered dose on target organs. In this work, a formula to obtain Dose Point Kernel for different biological media is presented. Results are collated with Monte Carlo simulations suggesting a behavior that can be splitted in three groups, in accordance to their differences against the stochastic estimations: a) skin, blood and brain present differences within the 5% in comparison with the reference data; b) skeletal muscle, soft tissue, striated muscle and adipose tissue have differences lower than 20%; and c) compact bone, cortical bone and lung tissue differences are found above 50%.
This introduction of a medium-specific Dose Point Kernel calculation method could potentially lead to future improvements on dosimetric systems, limiting for now this model to tissues with effective atomic number closed to liquid water.

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