|A Medical Emergency: “Leukostasis”
Abstract: Hyperleukocytosis is commonly defined as a white blood cell (WBC) count exceeding 50-100 x 109 L-1 in
peripheral blood and can be seen in newly diagnosed leukemias. Increased WBC count can lead to increased blood
viscosity, leukocyte aggregation, and consequently stasis in blood vessels. Hyperleukocytic leukemia is associated with
a risk of organ failure and early death secondary to leukostasis. The main sites that tend to be injured are the central
nervous system (CNS) and lungs. The goal of the treatment of hyperleukocytosis and/or leukostasis is to remove
leukocytes or blasts from the peripheral circulation as soon as possible and to prevent or reduce acute symptoms of
leukostasis. The cytoreduction can generally be achieved by leukapheresis and/or some chemotherapeutic agents
before starting induction chemotherapy. Leukapheresis is an effective and safe procedure which can be used for
symptomatic relief, some special and rare conditions (serious respiratory failure, CNS involvement, priapism), or
prophylactically. The supportive care has to be a part of the treatment in order to prevent tumor lysis syndrome or
coagulopathy. The difference of hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis, pathophysiology and clinical presentation of
leukostasis, and treatment options of hyperleukocytosis and/or leukostasis in the light of the current literature will be
discussed in this review.
|Vitamin B12 and/or Folate Deficiency is a Cause of Macro Thrombocytopenia
Abstract: This retrospective study reveals that it is likely that vitamin B12 and / or folate deficiency is an important cause
for isolated thrombocytopenia with larger than normal sized platelets. Data collection and interpretation from the
laboratory has revealed this and as this can have further therapeutic utility, more studies on the subject are indicated.
Hypothyroidism may also be another cause for the findings.
|Expression of the Recombinant Soluble Glycoprotein IIb: Lessons Learned and Future Directions
Abstract: The platelet glycoprotein IIb (GPIIb) is an integral membrane protein, which forms with GPIIIa a calciumdependent
heterodimer. This heterodimer forms in the endoplasmic reticulum (RE) and in the absence of heterodimer
formation, both GPIIb and GPIIIa are retained and degraded in the ER. Efforts have been previously made to produce
recombinantly the soluble GPIIb, which can be used in the solid phase assays for the antibody identification. However,
all previous attempts to produce such a construct have not yield any product. This mini-review describes the previous
attempts and the future challenges.
|Effect of Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Plasma Iron, Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Infants
Abstracts: The deleterious effects of cigarette smoking on trace elements concentrations are well known. Recent
studies show that exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in many biochemical
processes and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and
cooper (Cu) in 29 infants (14 boys and 15 girls, age range: 2-6 months, mean age: 3.6 months) who had been exposed
to ETS (range 8-30 cigarettes/day mean 12.4 ± 4.7) for at least two months at home, while the control group included 30
infants (13 male, 17 female, age range: 2-6 months, mean age: 3.3 months) who had never been exposed to ETS. All
infants had been breast fed. The plasma iron concentrations were determined by commercial kit, cotinine levels were
determined by luminometric method. Cu and Zn concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The
plasma Fe and Zn concentrations in the study group were significantly lower than in the controls (P < 0.05). However,
plasma Cu levels were not different between the two groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the plasma Fe and Zn
concentration decline in the ETS exposed infants.
|Prognosis of Elevated Serum Ferritin in Allogeneic-HCT
Abstract: Introduction: Serum ferritin was demonstrated to be a useful tool to predict the risk in patients who undergo
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Still it is not clear if its predictive value solely represents iron overload
(IO) and published results are sometimes contradictory. So the objective of present study was to determine relationship
between elevated pre-HCT serum ferritin levels, morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell
transplantation (allo-HCT) on one side, and its correlations with various risk indexes which were developed recently to
predict outcomes after allo-HCT on the other side.
Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study we have reviewed medical records of one hundred six consecutive
patients (52 males and 54 females), with a median age of 32 years (range, 5 to 60), who underwent allo-HCT with
unmanipulated grafts between Jan 2013 and Dec2014. We retrieved pre-allo-HCT serum ferritin levels and also
calculated risk indexes before HCT. The incidence of complications and outcomes after allo-HCT was assessed. The
median follow-up period was 12 (range, 4-27) months after allo-HCT.
Results: We have determined a cuttoff ferritin level of 500 ng/mL for early complications and 737 for outcomes. We
found increased incidence of number of febrile neutropenic episodes (P =0.02), number of bacterial infection episodes (P
=0.009), pneumonias (P =0.039), slower period of neutrophil engraftment (P=0.032), demand for multiple red blood cell
(RBC) transfusions (P =0.002) within 100 days post transplantation. A significant association was found between pretransplant
ferritin concentrations and different risk indexes; European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
(EBMT) risk score (P=0.001), Hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) (P=0.003), Pre-transplant
Assessment of Mortality (PAM) score (P=0.007) and disease risk (DR) (P =0.037).
Conclusion: On the one hand we did confirmed that even moderate serum ferritin elevation is associated with increased
incidence of infections, slower period to engraftment and increasing demand of RBC units transfusions, but strong
correlation with pre-transplant indexes that take into account disease risk raises the question if IO is the only factor that
adversely affect the outcome of HCT in patients with increased ferritin. This should be studied in prospective trials
|Ferrous Sulfate Versus Ferrous Fumarate Plus Zinc Sulfate and Vitamin C for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children
Abstract: During childhood, different oral iron preparations are widely used in iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and
prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of different oral iron preparations in children with IDA.
Eighty-nine children (age range, 1 to 17 years) with IDA were randomized to receive therapy orally in two divided doses
of either 5 mg Fe2+/kg/day ferrous sulfate (FS group, n = 45) or ferrous fumarate plus zinc and vitamin C (FZ group, n =
44). Hematological profile and iron status were evaluated at the beginning and on days 15 and 45 of treatment. Mean
Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red cell distribution weight (RDW), and iron
and ferritin levels were significantly higher in both groups on days 15 and 45 of treatment. Mean changes in Hb were 2.5
± 1.2 g/dL and 2.1 ± 0.7 g/dL on day 15 (P = 0.295), and 3.9 ± 1.8 g/dL and 3.5 ± 1.2 g/dL on day 45 (P = 0.331) in the
FS and FZ groups, respectively. Our study suggests that ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate plus zinc and vitamin C
were well tolerated and were highly effective in correcting IDA in children. Ferrous fumarate plus zinc and vitamin C did
not influence hematologic recovery compared with ferrous sulfate in this group.
|Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients in the Pre-Engraftment Period
||Attili V.S. Suresh
Abstract: Introduction: The recipients of the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of a
variety of infections due to their immunocompromised state. The severity of the immunocompromise differs depending
upon host, underlying disease, comorbidities, type of transplantation, conditioning regimen, and immunosuppressive
drugs. Pre-engraftment period is attended by neutropenia, mucosal barrier disruption, broad spectrum antibiotic usage
and invasive procedures like central lines.
Aim: We sought to evaluate the type and frequency of the infections in the pre-engraftment period in our transplant
Methods and Results: We reviewed 17 HSCT cases done in our center over 24 months from August, 2011 upto August,
2013 which included 11 autologous and 6 allogeneic HSCT cases. We found a total of 20 febrile neutropenic episodes
with 12 bacterial and 6 fungal infections. Eighteen of the 73 cultures were positive (24.65%). Nine out of 17 patients
(52.94%) had at least one culture positive. Eight out of 11 bacteria were ESBL producing (extended spectrum beta
lactamase) and one organism was only sensitive to colistin. Only 2 of the 12 bacteria were gram positive (16.67%). Only
one stool test was positive for Clostridium deficile. We had only one culture documented fungal infection (Aspergillus
sinusitis) and 5 presumed Aspergillus infections.
Conclusion: The incidence of febrile neutropenia is similar to other centers in India and Western world, though the
organisms are different. Gram negative bacteria continue to be the major threat to hematopoietic cell transplant
recipients especially in the early post-transplant period in India.
|Indications and Spectrum of Haematological Disorders from Bone Marrow Aspiration Examination: A Three Year Review Study
||Timothy Amos Ekwere
||Mabel Benson Ino-Ekanem
Abstract: Background: Haematological disorders have diverse modes of presentation that often requires bone marrow
examination for both diagnosis and management. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important particularly in
resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking or absent. This study was
conducted to determine the indications and the spectrum of Haematological diseases diagnosed using this procedure.
Methodology: This was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Haematology University of Uyo Teaching
Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. Bone marrow aspiration cytology records of 62 suspected cases of
haematological diseases were reviewed and analyzed using STATA software version 10.
Results: Majority of the patients who had bone marrow aspiration were adults aged 19 years and above. The male to
female ratio was 1.2:1. Most (93.5%) of the marrow aspirate examined had definitive pathologic features while 4 (6.5%)
were normal marrow elements. The main indications for BMA examination in order of decreasing frequency include;
anaemia (37.1%), diagnosis of Leukaemia (30.7%) and pancytopaenia (5.1%). Acute leukaemia was the most common
haematological disease diagnosed using this procedure. Acute myeloid leukaemia was twice as common as acute
lymphoblastic leukaemia. Also, mixed nutritional deficiencies occurred more commonly than single nutrient deficiency.
Conclusion: The indications for BMA examination in this study are similar to those reported in other studies. This
procedure remains a veritable tool in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of haematological diseases
especially in a resource poor centre like ours.
|Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Fatal Complication of Rituximab
||Sheikh A. Saleem
Abstract: Pulmonary toxicity is a rare but severe adverse effect of Rituximab, associated with significant morbidity and
mortality. Despite increased reporting, few case reports associated with alveolar hemorrhage due to Rituximab have
been published. The authors present the case of a 61 year old Caucasian male with a diagnosis of small lymphocytic
lymphoma who recently completed chemotherapy with Rituximab and Bendamustine. The patient presented to the
emergency room with a one week history of nonproductive cough associated with shortness of breath and low grade
fevers. Differential diagnosis at the time of presentation included health care associated pneumonia, Rituximab-induced
pulmonary toxicity, and Pneumocystis jiroveci infection given his history of lymphoma and treatment with Rituximab. The
patient was initiated on intravenous (IV) broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral atovaquone, and IV methylprednisolone. A CT
scan showed bilateral diffuse pulmonary opacities and a video-assisted thorascopic surgery guided lung biopsy revealed
early diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with no evidence for infection. However, the remaining work-up consisting of blood
cultures, blood tests, and bronchopulmonary lavage did not produce any suggestive findings. Despite initiating the above
aggressive therapies, the patient continued to rapidly deteriorate. An autopsy revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage of
the lungs, thought to be secondary to Rituximab toxicity. The authors recommend emphasizing the importance of early
identification of worsening pulmonary symptoms in patients receiving Rituximab, with diagnostic consideration given to
|Cancer Associated Retinopathy in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
||Mohammad Muhsin Chisti
Abstract: Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) is an uncommon paraneoplastic retinopathy usually associated with
small cell lung carcinoma. To our knowledge, there is no previous report in the English literature of CAR syndrome
occurring in lymphoma patients. We describe a rare case of CAR syndrome in a 62-year-old male with non-Hodgkin’s
lymphoma (NHL) treated with four doses of intravenous immunoglobulin.
|Iron Overload in Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Abstract: Iron overload has been associated to a variety of post-transplant complications, including infections,
sinusoidal obstructive syndrome and it is conceivable that increased hepatic iron may mimic the clinical picture of GVHD
or even may contribute to the worsening of hepatic GVHD.
Objectives and Methods: aim of present review was to summarize the current knowledge about diagnosis and treatment
strategies of iron overload following HSCT.
Results: serum ferritin may be considered as surrogate marker of iron overload and is widely used as an indicator of
body iron status; however other noninvasive diagnostic methods, namely SQUID and MRI, may provide more precise
information on iron burden in specific organs, such as liver and heart. Since there are not physiological tools to remove
efficiently the excess of iron, it is of particular importance to consider iron depleting therapy. Phlebotomy should be
considered as the first line treatment of iron overload, while iron chelators, such as deferasirox, may represent an
alternative option for patients with an inadequate hematological recovery.
Discussion: additional prospective studies are mandatory to investigate the relationship between iron overload and the
outcome of patients receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
|Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis: A Diagnostic Challenge
Abstract: Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a rare Epstein barr virus associated lymphoma. It most commonly involves
lungs, skin, central nervous system and kidneys. When lungs are involved, it often mimics common pulmonary
conditions like pneumonia, making diagnosis extremely challenging. We present one such interesting case of
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis in an immunocompetent young man.
|Signal Transduction Therapies for Treatment of Chronic Leukemias
||Burçin Tezcanli Kaymaz
Abstract: The term signal transduction includes the interaction of external signals that are driven by hormones, growth
factors, chemokines, cytokines and small molecules such as ATP in order to receive a cellular response. These
responses in turn effect gene transcription and translation, cell division, survival and death upon many signaling
networks related with malignancies. Since almost all diseases exhibit dysfunctional aspects of the signaling pathways,
drug discovery studies in means of signal transduction therapies have an accelerating importance including chronic
Among chronic leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are being
investigated extensively for abnormalities of cellular signaling pathways. This review focuses on targeting B-cell antigen
receptor (BCR) signaling and Wnt/-Catenin/LEF-1 signaling pathways and their inhibitors that provided new
opportunities for development of more effective therapies for CLL. Besides this, signaling network systems such as
RAS/RAF/MAPK and JAK/STAT will be discussed that contribute high oncogenic activity of BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein in
CML. Finally the molecular targets in treatment duration with clinical insights will be discussed.
|Changes in the Cell Surface Markers During Normal Hematopoiesis: A Guide to Cell Isolation
Abstract: Hematopoiesis, the process of hematopoietic cell production, largely takes place in the bone marrow (BM) of
humans. This process follows a stepwise manner in which hematopoietic stem cells give rise to progenitor cells and they
develop the terminally differentiated cells along each lineage through a sequential series of stages. Consequently,
constant changes would occur in the gene expressions leading to morphological or functional changes necessary for
different stages of maturation. These changes provide us with guides to differentiate different subsets of hematopoietic
hierarchy based on the cell surface antigen markers and will help us to isolate various cells from the hematopoietic
hierarchy. Here we have a short review on the changes of these surface markers during different stages of development
and we have applied an algorithmic approach for the isolation of all these cells based on our current understandings of
|Life-Threatening Massive Thromboembolism After Laparoscopic Splenectomy in an Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Patient
Abstract: A life-threatening massive thromboembolism is reported that developed after laparoscopic splenectomy in a
57-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Although asymptomatic, she underwent splenectomy
because of poor response to steroids and intravenous (IV) gamma globulin. Thirteen days after splenectomy, she
suffered portal and mesenteric emboli, followed by pulmoner emboli and left popliteal thrombophlebitis. Extensive
workup for hypercoagulable states was negative. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was initiated at a suboptimal
dose because of thrombocytopenia. During follow-up, her platelet count increased gradually. Whenever the platelet
count had remained stable at > 50 x 109/L, she received full dose of LMWH treatment. Over the next 38 days, her pain
resolved, she tolerated a full diet, and sent home. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated a recanalized portal vein and
totally resolved pulmonary arteries. We thought that, consumption of platelets in the massive thromboembolism sites
including portal, mesenteric and pulmoner vascular beds had resulted in deep thrombocytopenia, which improved
gradually with anticoagulant therapy.
|Platelet Volume Indices in Peripheral Artery Disease
||Judit M. Mahalek
||Katalin S. Zsóri
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the relationship between platelet volume indices (PVI) and peripheral artery
disease (PAD). Platelet count (PLT), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR), and mean platelet
volume (MPV) were studied in adult patients with PAD. Two hundred ninety two patients were divided into two groups
according to Fontaine classification. Group-1 contained 183 patients with stage I and II with mild symptoms, and the
remaining 109 patients referred to the group-2 with severe symptoms. Blood samples were analyzed in a Sysmex SF-
3000 for platelet indices. There were no significant differences between patients in group-1 and group-2 in terms of PVI
(P>0.05). No significant correlation was identified between severity of peripheral vascular disease and PVI in patients
with PAD. PVI seem not to associate with severity of PAD.
|Study of Platelet Transfusion Response in Thrombocytopenic Head Injury Patients
Abstract: Background: Thrombocytopenia is common among head injury patients. However there is a paucity of
literature on the effects of platelet transfusion and clinical outcome in this group. We conducted this study to compare the
severity of injury, transfusion requirements, in hospital mortality in thrombocytopenic and non thrombocytopenic head
injury patients, also to study the response to platelet transfusion.
Materials & Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of clinical, laboratory and blood bank parameters of head injury
patients was performed over a six month period (Jan-June 2011). Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet count <
100109cells/L. Severity of head injury, hospital length of stay, transfusion requirements, presence of coagulopathy and
hospital mortality were assessed. A 20% increase in platelet count from baseline, 24 hours post transfusion was
considered appropriate response. H/o drug (cefaperazone and mannitol) intake, fever, symptomatic bleeding, and
transfusion history (days of storage and blood group of transfused platelet, H/o other blood components transfused, and
transfusion reaction) were compared.
Results: A total of 139 thrombocytopenic patients and 87 non-thrombocytopenic patients were assessed. Severity of
injury was significantly higher in thrombocytopenic group (GCS 8.7±4.2; ISS 24.5 (0-75) as compared to the non
thrombocytopenic group (GCS 12.3±4.1; ISS 6.7 (0-25); (p<0.001) 62.6% thrombocytopenic patients developed
coagulopathy (p<0.04). Thrombocytopenia was a risk factor for mortality (p<0.001). Patients who received ABO matched
platelets showed appropriate response. Coagulopathy, h/o of drugs, fever, and days of storage for platelet units had no
correlation with transfusion response.
Conclusion: Thrombocytopenic head injured patients have significantly higher severity of injury, increased ICU stay,
incidence of coagulopathy and poorer prognosis. However a significant relation of clinical, patient and blood bank related
factors with post transfusion platelet increment was not observed. Prospective studies are needed to determine
predictors of ineffective platelet transfusion response in head injured patients.
|Magnetized Anisotropic Dark Energy Bianchi Type III Cosmological Models in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravitation
Abstract: We investigate the spatially homogeneous Bianchi Type III cosmological models with magnetized anisotropic
dark energy fluid in the scalar tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Brans-Dicke . The solutions of the models are
obtained by volumetric exponential expansion, power law expansion and power law relation between scalar field and
scale factor ‘a’. The physical aspects of the dark energy models are discussed.
|Interacting Two Fluid Viscous Dark Energy Cosmological Models in Bianchi Type II Universe
Abstract: In this paper, we present a class of solutions of Barber’s second self creation field equations describing two
fluid models of the universe in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type II universe filled with the barotropic fluid and
bulk viscous dark energy fluid. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained for non-interacting and interacting two
fluid models. The Physical behavior of the model has been discussed.
|Numerical Simulation and Spice Modeling of Organic Thin FilmTransistors (OTFTs)
Abstract: As organic thin film transistors are playing important role in low cost, large area and flexible integrated circuits,
there is urgent need of accurate modeling and simulation of these devices with emphasis of compact modeling suitable
in integrated circuit simulation using Spice like simulators. This paper presents a 2D numerical simulation of pentacene
based organic thin film transistors. Also a spice model extraction methodology of OTFTs base on Silvaco's UOTFT
model is presented for circuit simulation. The numerically simulated results are in good agreement with OTFT spice
modeling results. The Organic TFT model is extracted from the numerically simulated data and further it is used in circuit
simulation of CMOS like hybrid inverter and five stage ring oscillator circuit realized from hybrid inverter. In the hybrid
inverter circuit an amorphous silicon TFT is used in place of the NMOS devices and a Pentacene based TFT is used in
place of the PMOS devices. Circuit simulation results proves the applicability of the model in circuit design of organic thin
film based transistors.
|Influence of Stress Relaxation on the Magnetization Process of Hitperm-Type Glass-Coated Microwires
Abstract: The remagnetization process of most amorphous and nanocrystalline glass-coated microwires with positive
magnetostriction coefficient occurs through the single and large Barkhausen jump. This article encompasses a study on
the magnetization process of thin Hitperm-type glass coated microwires. The complex stress distribution inside these
microwires enables us to investigate the influence of; the measuring frequency, applied tensile stresses, as well as
current annealing, and conventional annealing at wide range of temperatures. A systematic elucidations have been
discussed in the framework of the microwire's geometries and the shape anisotropy that arises during its fabrication
process, with the aim to provide an assessment of the criteria for selecting the necessary conditions to be designed in
|On Some Properties of Cylindrically Transformed Systems With R() Symmetry and Phase Dynamics
||A. Roy Chowdhury
Abstract: Nonlinear dynamical systems with R() symmetry are shown to behave in a very interesting manner under a
new transformation of dynamical variables. Such property helps to identify the phase dynamics embedded in the system but
preserves the basic property of the attractor intact. This is very similar to those phenomenon discussed with the help of
covering transformation in the literature. The Poincare sections obtained are identical to those obtained through covering
transformation and hence indicate to a similar topological structure and identical dynamical characteristics.
|Investigation of Intrinsic Stress and Transport Properties of Fe/P-Si (001) Schottky Heterojunction
Abstract: We present a comprehensive study on the growth morphology, the electrical and magnetic transport
properties of thin iron (Fe) film on p-Si(100) substrate. The structural analysis revealed the growth of an amorphous Fe
film, with low crystalline ordering and granular structure. The resistivity of the film was observed to deviate from the usual
metallic behavior at lower temperature revealing a tunneling type conductance. This was also reflected in the
magnetoresistance measurement of the film. The film show high positive (negative) magnetoresistance at all
temperatures (below 10 K) on application of out-of-plane (in-plane) magnetic field. The current-voltage (I-V)
measurement of Fe/p-Si Schottky heterojunction exhibits good rectifying property. The ideality factor (n) and Schottky
barrier height b ( ) of the device, at room temperature, were obtained from fitting the I-V curves. The carrier
concentration of the semiconductor substrate was evaluated from the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. From
the measurements large deviation from the ideal value of the diode parameters was observed. All the results thus
obtained show a strong correlation between the stress and the transport measurements.
|PbZrO3-Based Antiferroelectric Thin Film Capacitors with High Energy Storage Density
Abstract: A series of 400-nm-thick sandwich structured Pb(1+x)ZrO3/(Pb,Eu)ZrO3/Pb(1+x)ZrO3(PZO/PEZO/PZO) antiferroelectric
thin films with different Pb excess content (x) (x=0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) in the PZO precursors have been
successfully deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol–gel method. The effects of Pb excess content on the
dielectric properties, and energy storage performance of the PZO/PEZO/PZO thin films have been investigated in detail.
It is found that all the films show a unique perovskite phase structure. With increasing Pb excess content in the PZO
precursors, P-E hysteresis loop changes from slanted to square shape. Meanwhile, a larger antiferroelectric to
ferroelectric switching field (EAF) and ferroelectric to antiferroelectric switching field (EFA) are observed in the films with
higher Pb excess content. When increasing Pb excess content from 0% to 30%, the energy storage density of the
sandwich structured films is remarkably improved from 11.4 to 14.8 J/cm3 at 1000 kV/cm.
|Fundamental Properties and Origin of the High-Tc Cuprate Superconductors: Development of Concepts
Abstract: After a review of the fundamental properties of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors, we evaluate and study
the major parameters of these compounds. In this approach, we consider the attractive interaction is due to the phonons
at low temperature, but at high temperature it is related to the magnetic excitations. Analytical expressions for the
coherence length , the isotope coefficient and the superconducting gap ratio R = 2(0) /kBTc are obtained for the
case where the Fermi level is close to the van Hove singularity. This model explains simultaneously high Tc, large gap
energy (0), short coherence length and small values of the isotope coefficient . Our theoretical values are in a
good agreement with experimental results.
|Method of Green’s Functions for the Problem of Sound Diffraction on Elastic Shell of Non-Analytical Form
Abstract: The real scatterers have a non–analytical form and, therefore, the variable separation method (Fourier series
method) for calculation of the reflected sound field cannot be applied to them. This article presents the method of
Green’s functions and methods of the dynamic theory of elasticity for the solution of the problem of sound diffraction on
elastic shell of a non–analytical surface. Furthermore, this work includes the detailed analysis of the solution of this
problem and calculation of the angular characteristics of the sound scattering by non-analytical scatterers.
|Advance in the Analysis Models for Characterizing Multi-Layered Interdigital Capacitors
||Kwong Wai Mak*
Abstract: The performances of multi-layered interdigital capacitors are commonly simulated by computer software.
However, it is the time-consuming process. Besides simulations, the analytic models with closed form expressions
provide convenient methods in particular usages, such as characterizing ferroelectric materials. This article briefly
reviews the development in the expressions for analytic models. We provide an overview of partial capacitance
technique and conformal mapping technique, which are used for formulating expressions. In addition, three common
models used these techniques are presented. The differences of models and applications are also discussed.
|Meson Acceleration and Handling
Abstract: The fundamental engineering techniques, such as high electric field produced by rf systems or lasers, strong
magnetic field produced by the MegaGauss techniques and the various methods for high-energy particle handling, have
been promoted rapidly, and the fields have been improved drastically. Those techniques are expected to explore the
new frontier by using elementary particles for industrial applications. One of the scenarios to accomplish the application
trials by elongation of the short lifetime of mesons is described in this paper.
|Impulse Strong Mirror Field for High-Energy Particle Handlings
Abstract: The technologies for generating strong magnetic flux density of 10 T ~ 1000 T have been developed and
become to be utilized for fundamental science studies, especially for solid-state physics. These technologies enable to
control the high-energy particles in a compact region, and explore the new frontier of nuclei conversions and nuclear
fusion studies. The methods to generate strong mirror field for high-energy particle confinement and handlings are
described in this paper.
|New Approach for Designing of High-Energy Circular Particle Accelerators
Abstract: New particles and new nuclei have been discovered by artificial techniques recently. High-energy particle
accelerators work the important roles to bring such discoveries. The applications of the particles are being discussed at
various communities as a next step to get new technologies. The life-time of the particles are very short to handle by
conventional techniques. It can be extended by the theory of relativity. The compact particle accelerator, which enables
rapid acceleration, is required especially for the industrial applications. The possibility to satisfy the isochronous
condition in the case of DC and uniform magnetic field is discussed here by getting back to the fundamental theoretical
|Saving Energy and Uninterruptible Power System for Large Scale Research Facility
Abstract: Large Scale Research Facility such as J-PARC is faced on a budgetary deficit and also environmental
concerns. Then, affordable and sustainable energy supply should be considered to continue and develop the big
science. Magnets of the synchrotron are excited by a pulse operation power supply, and then the load fluctuation should
be a severe problem. An energy storage system, such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), flywheel
generator so far are expected to protect the load fluctuation and the instantaneous voltage drop. The author has
investigated about the application to the particle accelerator power supply of SMES. The resent status and the future
energy storage systems for large-scale research facilities, especially a particle accelerator facility, are described in this
paper. This engineering technique is effective for office buildings and hospitals so far. Feasibility of the sustainable
energy supply will be discussed.
|Developments on Next-Generation Beam Handling of High-Energy Particles by using Non-linear Characteristics
Abstract: Various developments had been conducted to produce a fast-response magnet by the traditional concepts
based on the use of linear-characteristic elements, but the improvement is limited by the transmission theory. The
application of non-linear phenomena is important to achieve further improvements. The recent progress and the future
plan of the developments to produce a fast-response and strong field for high-energy particle handling are described
|Space-Group Approach to the Wavefunction of a Cooper Pair: Nodal Structure and Additional Quantum Numbers for Sr2RuO4 and UPt3
Abstract: Induced representation method and Mackey theorem on symmetrized squares were applied to construct zerototal-
momentum two-electron states in solids, corresponding to Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors. In this
approach the structure of two-electron states depends on the position of one-electron wave vector in a single-electron
Brillouin zone. It is shown, that the decomposition of total two-electron basis set results in repeating multidimensional
irreducible representations. It is obtained, that in order to label repeating irreducible representation two additional
quantum numbers are required: irreducible representation of wave vector group for symmetry planes and directions and
quantum numbers on an intermediate group for a general point in a Brillouin zone. Theoretical results are applied to
unconventional superconductors UPt3 and Sr2RuO4.
|Superconductor-Dielectric Photonic Band Gap in Ultraviolet Radiation
||Arafa H Aly*
Abstract: Optical properties of a high-temperature superconductor/dielectric (HTcScD) in the UV operation range are
theoretically investigated. We have obtained and performed the calculations of optical reflectance and transmittance
spectra. The calculated wavelength-dependent reflectance and transmittance for the structure superconductor/dielectric
shows that the threshold wavelength is significance by the angle of incidence and the polarization of waves. The
variance of the intensity and the bandwidth of the transmission and reflection are strongly dependent on the different
thicknesses, different temperatures, and different incident angles as well as we obtained the different band gaps
dependent on the thickness of layers. Also we have examined the influence of the increased of the number of periods on
the transmittance and reflectance spectra as well as on the band gap positions
|Effect of Silver Substitution Threshold on the Superconducting Properties of IG Processed Bulk YBCO/Ag Composite Superconductors
Abstract: In this article, we report anomalous substitution of Ag in Cu sites in Y-123 lattice during the fabrication of bulk
YBCO/Ag composites via the Infiltration Growth Processing technique. We have observed concentration quenching of
Ag in the Y-123 unit cell which implies a threshold for Ag substitution in Cu sites. We find gradual variation in properties
with increase in Ag content up to a threshold value beyond which the superconducting properties are altered
significantly. We discuss the effect of substitution threshold of Ag on the magnetic and superconducting properties of
these composites and the optimum substitution level of Ag for enhanced properties.
|Enhancement of Phase Formation and Critical Current Density in (Bi,Pb)-2223 Superconductor by Boron Addition and Ball Milling
Abstract: The effects of crystalline boron addition and ball milling on the phase formation and transport properties of
(Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS have been studied. Samples with nominal composition Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3BxOy, x=0 - 0.5, were
prepared via a solid state reaction route. Superconducting properties of undoped (reference) and boron-added (Bi,Pb)-
2223 compounds were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), resistivity and
transport critical current density (Jc) measurements. Obtained results have shown that boron additive leads to the
acceleration of high-Tc phase formation and enhancement of Jc in (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor. The estimated volume
fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 phase increases from ~25 % for reference specimen to ~75 % for x=0.15. Moreover, strong
increase in the Jc was observed for the x=0.15 sample (Jc=340 A/cm2), compared to a reference sample (Jc=115 A/cm2).
We have studied the effect of high-energy ball milling on Jc in reference and x=0.15 samples. Addition of B in
combination with the ball milling leads to the further enhancement of Jc up to 490 A/cm2, whereas the ball milling of
reference specimen causes the marked decrease in both Jc and Tc values. Improvement of superconducting properties in
(Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor can be attributed to the acceleration of high-Tc phase formation along with the
enhancement of intergrain coupling due to the elemental boron addition.
|Hydrophilic Nanocomposite Membranes for the Pervaporation Separation of Water - Ethanol Azeotropic Mixtures
||Soney C George*
Abstract: Bentonite nanoclay reinforced Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite membranes were used for the
separation of azeotropic composition of water – ethanol mixtures by pervaporation process. Fourier – transform infrared
(FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed the interaction of bentonite nanoclay and the PVA matrix. The dispersion and
distribution of nanoclay in the polymer matrix was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopic analysis (TEM).
The intrinsic membrane properties with filler loading were also investigated. The results indicate that the hydrophilic
nature of the nanoclay influenced the pervaporation to a greater extent. The hydrophilic nature and surface roughness of
the nanocomposite membranes was analyzed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. The pervaporation process
illustrates that the permeation flux increases and the separation factor decreases with nanoclay loading. The instrinsic
selectivity, which reflects the membrane performance was maximum for 1 wt% clay loaded membranes. PVA with 1 wt%
nanoclay loading showed better pervaporation performance. The separation factor of the 1 wt% nanoclay membranes
increased to 13, i.e. nearly 4 times more than that of neat PVA membranes. Membrane selectivity also increased to
254% than that of pristine PVA membranes. Thus at lower filler loading, maximum separation was achieved. The
increase in nanoclay loading is favorable to improve intrinsic permeance at the cost of decrease in selectivity.
|Theoretical Analysis of Butane Isomers Separation using Various Membrane Process Configurations
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is performance investigation of single stage membrane, continuous membrane
column (CMC) and countercurrent recycle membrane cascade (CRC)during butane isomers separation in the typical
LPG plant. As a case study, the required total membrane area and compressor duty for three type configurations for
separation of butane isomers produced in LPG unit of Tabriz refinery was evaluated. For this purpose, a typical H-ZSM-5
zeolite membrane with n-butane/isobutene selectivity around 10 was considered. The optimum scheme was then
selected by means of minimum total membrane area and compressor duty requirements. Moreover, the effects of key
parameters such as selectivity, feed to permeate pressure ratio and composition of the permeate stream on the
membrane surface area was evaluated
|Separation of 1,3-Propanediol by Nanofiltration Method
||Seda Eristurk Ozture
Abstract: The application potential of nanofiltration (NF) method on the separation of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from
synthetically prepared fermentation broth was investigated. The rejection tests at different pressures (10, 20, 30 bar) and
pH values (7 and 10) were performed on laboratory scale using Desal DL-5 NF membrane. The rejection of succinic
acid, having the molecular weight larger than or closer to the molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) of Desal-5 DL NF
membrane was 100% independent of operating pressure and pH. The results of this study clearly showed that NF
process is a very promising pretreatment step for the removal of volatile organic acids from the fermentation broth.
|Mechanics and Pervaporation Performance of Ionic Liquid Modified CNT Based SBR Membranes - A Case Study for the Separation of Toluene/Heptane Mixtures
Abstract: SBR/ionic liquid modified CNT Nanocomposites were prepared using different concentration of CNT. Nano
scale dispersion of CNT affected the properties of SBR. The results have been compared with the unfilled SBR films.
Cure characteristics and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, abrasion resistance and hardness
were measured for different composites. Morphological behaviour and structural characteristics of the composites were
investigated by AFM, TEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural development in presence of filler and
interfacial interaction between modified CNT and polymer matrix led to enhanced properties. The pervaporation
performances of membranes were analysed using a toluene/heptane mixture. Membranes displayed high selectivity
towards heptane. The influence of feed composition on pervaporation was also analysed. The 5 phr CNT loaded
membrane showed enhanced membrane permeance and selectivity value, an improvement of 18% over the neat
polymer. A drop in selectivity and an increase in permeation rate were observed at higher CNT loadings.