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Internal Controlsand Corporate Governance Empirical Evidencefrom Kenya’s Savingsand Credit Co Operative Societies Hillary Maru. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba

Internal controls is part of internal auditing which is an integral part of the corporate governance mosaic in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of internal control on corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County. The study was guided by the Agency and Stewardship theories. This study adopted descriptive research design. The study targeted 45 licensed SACCOS in Nairobi County with a population of 180 respondents who worked for 45 licensed SACCOS by SASRA in Nairobi County. The sample size for the study was 124 respondents. Purposive technique and simple random sampling was used to select a sample size that represented all employees in filling questionnaires. In order to establish the validity and reliability of the instruments, a pilot study was carried out in Eldoret town. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings indicated that there was a statistical significant effect between internal controls and corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi (t=2.412, P<0.05). The study recommended that the SACCOs should improve on the use of internal controls in monitoring their operations in order control consciousness of its employees, they should contact accounting assessment by identifying and analyzing the relevant risks to the achievement of objectives, forming a basis for how the risks should be managed, the policy makers and stakeholders should ensure that the Sacco should comply with rules and regulation of the ministry and taxes payment.

Dynamics and Encounters of Rural Youth Farming; Experiences and Lessons from Kabete Lari Sub- County, Kenya. Peter Gutwa Oino Abigael Asiko Kutwa

Globally, the rural youth are the future of food security and sustainability, yet only a few of them see a future in rural agriculture. Unfortunately, many governments and interventionists have not taken rural youth in farming seriously as they are considered uninterested stakeholders, since majority especially those educated opt for white collar jobs in urban areas. In Kenya, despite concerted efforts by various stakeholders to involve rural youth in agricultural activities, less has been achieved due to lack of interest by the youth themselves, high pressure on arable land, lack of access to credit and many other productive resources necessary for rural farming. This paper focuses on the dynamics and encounters of rural youth farming in Kabete Lari sub-county. The study adopted the sustainable livelihood theoretical framework. The researchers employed a mixed research design method. A sample size of 111 rural youth farmers were selected through simple random sampling. Parent farmers were conveniently sampled for the interviews and focused group discussions. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using SPSS version 21.0 while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study found that 70% of the rural youth engaged in farming in the study area. Over 80% of the rural youth engaged in rural farming were able to meet their daily basic needs and save some money in SACCOs for future investment. More so 65% of the rural youth engaged in farming, preferred dairy farming. Despite many achievements, rural youth also faced some constraints in rural farming particularly, during post-production due to unavailability of ready markets for their products. The study concluded that youth farming was offering a wide potential for rural youth by creating employment, encouraging savings, reducing food expenses and encouraged self-reliance among themselves, however not many rural youth engaged in farming activities. The study recommends that government should sensitize, provide financial, technical support and mainstream rural youth in venturing into farming for the realization of substantive sustainable livelihoods.

Journal of Innovation in Electronics and Communication Engineering (JIECE) Dr. H. S. Saini Prof. R. K. Singh

IECE is an International Journal ( having an impact factor of 1.08 with ISSN 2249-9946 and eISSN 2455-3514number, indexing by major organizations (google scholar, research bib etc.). The journal is being published for the last seven years. JIECE aims to provide the most complete and reliable source of information on current developments in the fields with no financial effect.

Journal of Innovation in Electronics and Communication Engineering (JIECE) is a peer-reviewed international journal started with an aim to promote research in wide areas of electronics & communication engineering. It aims at publishing new ideas of state of art research results and fundamental advances in electronics engineering. It also provides a platform for intellects, researchers, practioners and scholars to present ongoing research and development in the fields of electronics. The editorial advisory board comprises scholars of the international repute and Indian main stream technical universities.

The scope of journal covers all aspects of electronics engineering which include (but not limited to) communication systems, satellite and mobile communication, signal processing, wireless networking, antennas, microwave engineering, embedded systems, VLSI, robotics etc.

Please visit the website and we request to you to grant permission to include our journal JIECE in your indexing.

Widya Yuridika Fakultas Hukum, Universitas Widyagama Malang  

WIDYA YURIDIKA: Journal of Law, published by the Faculty of Law, Universitas Widyagama Malang, as a forum of scientific publications for legal scientists and humanities who have a concentration in the field of law and human rights.
Widya Yuridika published two times annually, on June and December. Each of the issue has eight articles both on review and research article.


Household violence is a serious phenomenon that should be catered for due to its seriousness; it is not only done by the husband, who its mostly the doer of the action, but also by the wife. As a result, it is urgent to put the laws forbidingthe practice of such a householdviolence into effect. The laws control the protection of the victims in a household. Paradoxically, the enforcement, however, may trigger new modes of household violence, namely the violence done by the wife. The modes of violence are various in type.
In criminology studies, it is shown that the violence by the wife is caused by many causes. Further analyses (using a causalteit theory in criminal law) suggest that the violence by the wife is marely a negative reaction against the violence by the husband. On the basis of such of phenomenon, the law enforcement underscores socio-criminological aspects in order to realize a criminal individualization-based justice. Making a wife into a criminal case as a form of a repressive action of the violence just hide the real forms of household violence mostly done by the husband.


This present study was intended to understand the peoples perception on the comdemnation of street prostitutes and to know and explain the influence of the comdemnation of the prostitutes on the municipal government in formulating policies on this case using value or policy approaches. This study was based on the idea the criminal sanctions that have so far been given to the prostitutes. The peoples perception on the comdemnation of the prostitutes that the concemnation is ineffective in terms of the aspect of criminal sanction. The perception is from social affairs department and also municipal police unit. However, according to the 2005 local regulation no. 8 as a new regulation in malang municipality, the subject of the actors is widened. Therefore, the application of the local regulation is in line with the factors inherent in the doers (prostitutes), for example, economic or unhappy marriage factors. Based on the condition, it is necessary to maximize the guidance. Dealing with the influence on the malang municipality government, preventive action as a tool to avoid penal actions is thought to be ineffective in line with the application of the regulation. Therefore, the malang municipality government should develop a certain policy i.e, providing a rehabilitation centre as a non-penal prevention as suggested by the social affairs department and the municipal police unit.

EKSISTENSI DIRI WARIA DALAM KEHIDUPAN SOSIAL DI TENGAH MASYARAKAT KOTA (Fenomenologi Tentang Eksistensi Diri Waria Urbanisasi di Kota Malang) Muhammad Ramadhana Alfaris  

This research is a purpose to reveal how the self-existence of transvestites urbanization in Malang City. The methods used in this study using the method of transcendental phenomenology because this research is included in the phenomena of social life.
Self-existence of transvestites have a broad enough concept in a process which is the soul and the body is formed by imagination, emotion, and cognition. It can be said that a transvestite is the third human figure of absolute gender and the sexuality formed through pressure and socialization, then internalized into action normally, because of the sexuality orientation walks normally in accordance with the gender has been selected.

Widya Yuridika Muhammad Ramadhana Alfaris Ibnu Subarkah

WIDYA YURIDIKA: Journal of Law, published by the Faculty of Law, Universitas Widyagama Malang, as a forum of scientific publications for legal scientists and humanities who have a concentration in the field of law and human rights.
Widya Yuridika published two times annually, on June and December. Each of the issue has eight articles both on review and research article.

Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası Ali Vəzifəli Şəxsinin Səlahiyyətləri Və Onların Həyata Keçirilmə Formaları Mikayil V. YUSİFOV Mustafa Latif EMEK

Bu çalışmada Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti Yüksek görevli şahsının (Ali Meclis başkanının) anayasal hukuki statüsünün önemli unsurlarından olan yetkileri incelenir ve Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyetinin Anayasası ile belirlenmiş bu yetkilerinin Azerbaycan Cumhuriyetinin yasalarına uygun bir şekilde uygulanması yolları, uygulanırken ortaya çıkan sorunlar araştırılır. Yapılmış incelemeler sonucunda sözkonusu yetkilerin geliştirilmesi, bu yetkiler uygulandığında ortaya çıkan sorunların ortadan kaldırılması amacıyla Azerbaycan Cumhuriyetinin kanunlarına uygun hale getirilmesi ve Ali vazifeli şahsa diğer zaruri yetkilerin verilmesi öneriliyor. Çalışma üniversite öğrencileri, akademisyenler, anayasa hukukunun güncel problemlerinden olan üniter devlet içinde özerk devlete ait hâkimiyetin gerçekleştirilmesi alanında çalışan araştırmacılar için faydalı olabilir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Azerbaycan Cumhuriyeti, Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti, Ali vazifeli şahıs, Ali Meclis, devlet, hakimiyet, anayasa, kanun, yetki.


The author considers the question of semantics shapes and decorations used in traditional Uzbek crafts. It is shown that
the patterns that took place in various handicraft products are not merely art forms, but also are an important source of
ethnographic, reflecting the religious views and beliefs of the people.
Keywords: Semantic, Characters, Tradional Crafts


This article describes the composition of the Cichorium plant (flower, leaf, leaf). The pH value of Cichorium plant (flower,
leaf, leaf) was determined at pH value of the mark «I-160 MI». Extracted water was 80% ethyl alcohol and 2 hours in
water. The moisture content of the Cichorium plant by gravimetric method, acidity, ascorbic acid, pectinic substances by
tectimetric method, the size of macro-micro elements in the AAnalyst 400 by atomic-emission semiconductor spectral
analysis and spectrophotometer at atomic absorbing method Shimadzu on the «AA 7000», Cichorium plant The
photocalorimetry method was determined by photocalorimeter KFK-2 and KFK-3, protein Kvelald, by the method of
photocororimetry, anthocyanes, flavonoids, polyphenols, carotene and sugar. Kleachatka AE By Ermakov's modification,
using weight method, the crude fat content was determined by the Weight Method by Soxle Apparatus.
The elemental size of the Cichorium plant (flower, stalk, leaf) was determined. As a result, it has been shown that copper,
zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, cadmium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium are present. Also, according to the
study, Cichorium plant contains flavonoids, proteins, pectinic substances, antibodies, anthocyanins, phenolic acids,
carotene, polyphenols, and gumers.


The article deals with problems of formation of professional competence of the future professionals Geography and
Tourism Department. For example, the specialty "Geography" and "Tourism" are characterized by instrumental,
interpersonal, systemic and subject competence of students and undergraduates. At the same time, the article presents the
experience of practical activities of Geography and Tourism Department, the result of which is the professional
competence of students.


This article deals with the issues of organization and organization of educational work in the system of education in
Kazakhstan, directions and tasks of modern school educational work and management work in their organization.
As the society grows and our state develops, the growth of healthy, younger generation is evidence of paralysis of school
and school education. The younger generation begins with the family education and continues with the upbringing of the
school. That is why education of preschool, elementary, secondary, higher education institutions should be shaped and
directed towards them. In this regard, educational institutions are involved in the development of new approaches to
education and organization, management, management and comprehensive areas of education. The school, where the
main role in the upbringing of the younger generation, is the correct functioning of the system of educational work, the
organization of a well-educated, educated, competent, professional staff of the school management.


Article about the history of the Great Silk Road and historical features are the issues. The Great Silk Road is a historic road
linking the silk road that crosses Eurasia from China to the Mediterranean Sea and manufactured and sold in China, India
and Iran, which is a unified group of caravan routes, which has contributed to strengthening trade and cultural ties between
the states in the old and middle ages.
The Great Silk Way is a prerequisite for civilizations in Europe and Asia. Has long played a vital role in establishing trade
and cultural ties between Eurasia and the countries of Southeast Asia and has played an important role as a civilization that
influences political, economic, and economic development of the past, present and future of historical, economic, cultural
and communication complexes.


Today, the highest value of society is Adam. All the economic, social, and democratic transformations that are taking
place in the Republic of Kazakhstan are for the person, for his redemption and for the good. Here is a question of knowing
our national traditions, self-disclosure and self-disclosure, the issue of a national quality of deserved to the present-day
society, a well-educated mature human being, who has been continuing the centuries-old folk heritage. From the
pedagogical point of view of our deeply rooted history, it is known that human education is studied in all aspects of the
work of great scholars. In this context, Abai did not write a specific job on pedagogy, but did not engage in pedagogical
activities, but spoke very deeply about education of young people. There is no one who has told Abai about the full man,
his soul. Therefore, we decided to rely on Abay for his full-fledged appearance. The spiritual world of Abai, the object of
his research is man. It has identified the need to maintain man's behavior, moral values, and to improve man's lifelong
ideas. From this point of view, Abai formulated his philosophical, pedagogical, and psychological views as "the most
useful person" for the whole society. The phrase "Human beings with the mind, science, every character, from human
beings" refers to the fact that human beings are full of intelligence and behavior. According to Abay, a man of moral
character was brave, fearless to know, to study and to learn the basics of science and to achieve the goals he had set for
himself. Through the ability to see and develop the full humanity of man, a high appraisal of knowledge, the correct aging
of the person to the end of his life, his dedication to his people, love and respect for all humanity become one of the key
issues today. The great man was well aware that society was a time, a time, a time when the human being was transformed
into a normal state.


Humankind still has 45 to 50 years to improve the quality of airshed in the world on the whole and in Kazakhstan in
particular. There are several ecological methods to prevent hazardous phenomena and mitigate the severely continental
climate with its hot summers and cold winters, namely: 1) development and introduction of alternative power sources
(use of the power of sun, wind, hydroelectric power stations’ power, etc.). For example, sun and wind power plants have
been built and put into operation in many regions of Kazakhstan. Possible ways of alternative power sources usage were
demonstrated at the Expo-2017 exhibition held in Kazakhstan; 2) improvement of the vegetable blanket photosynthesis
throughout the world on the whole and in Kazakhstan in particular. To do this, it is necessary to preserve woodlands, to
grow long-term woody plants and fruit plants of high photosynthesis level. The Chair of Ecology and Biology of the
Kazakh State Women Teachers Training University has developed a Cheap way of growing the long-term woody plants
of high photosynthesis level, such as: oak, juniper, acacia, maple, cedar and lilac using the seeds, specially prepared
sprouts, at the permanent sites and tending them. It is possible to prepare a huge number of planlets of the above listed
trees using this method and it will not be expensive. When this activities are carried out and the large number of planted
trees grow big, this will stop desertisation and contribute to climate improvement and creation of favorable ecological
conditions in Kazakhstan. On top of that, these measures are of paramount importance for upbringing the new generation
in the spirit of ecological patriotism.


Earlier of ХХ centries, M.Jumabayev, J.Aytmatov, M.Dulatov, M.Awezov and S.Torayhirov are try to describe the social
problems like economy crisis, spiritual falls, crime problem on their proses. In our paper I try to analyze those description
methods. Alash Writers also describe the social problems during the Kazan Revolution through the single person images.
After the Alash Writers, how these issues show in modern Kazakh proses. I will also answered these questions.
In modern proses, Writers (N.Oraz, T.Ahmetjan, R.Mukanova, J.Qorhasbes) who pay more attention to show the social issues
with the inner subjectivities of images. The method of theme, idea, composition and storytelling are had been changed after
the independence. Those Writers also prefer to write a short contentious story or novella than novels. In their works, they
described the impact of a market economy on the Kazakh people. The work describes the experiences of people, fraud, they
were involved in, and the weakness of science and art throughout the country. The image of the workers and intellectuals of
the former Soviet period in belles-letters was significantly distorted. The works of that time described the spiritual life of the
people, honesty and ability to work of the young people.
The prose of independent Kazakhstan, in turn, reveals the existential character of people.


The article considers the artistic power and peculiarities of the aphorisms of Kazakh poets and writers, It is a rare and original genre of
literature. This article is about the aphorisms - the most popular genre among poet writers, i.e. about the beauty, deepness of words,
construction and power of aphorisms. XXI century is the century of technologies and digital age, but despite this century of books is
already vital for moral development. Also, short, understandable aphorisms, maxims that can describe the big and deep idea in two words
were always interesting for every reader. It is clear that in the era of digital technologies, developed means of communication and accessible
internet, importance of thousand works of every genre: literary, cultural, scientific, classical and others printed by printing house has a big
impact to the readers. In this article you can find a lot of theses on the means of development of aphorisms as genre in the literature.
According to the analysis, aphorism as one of the genres of Kazakh literature was not fully explored to this day. Aim of this article is to
give versatile information on establishment of the new genre in Kazakh literature, also advantages and specificity of aphorisms in Kazakh
literature was fully explored. History of catchwords is as deep and large as their scope. It is easy to prove the fact that aphorisms reflect
the history and vital problems of the time, when they were written. Aphorisms as genre play an important role in literature due to the fact
that they are top of mind every time, despite they are ancient form of literature that didn’t require relevance till our days. So we can say
that in the time of huge data of information, role of aphorisms is increasing day by day. Nowadays philosophers, linguists, litterateurs try
to use aphorisms in their activities during exploration of this genre. We have to admit the fact that aphorism is firstly literary genre.


When a nation that has been fighting for its country and its state for many years has been forced to enter a new trial, the
question of how to carry out the new faction with scarce resources has been gained. Undoubtedly, as in the case of the
implementation of "one-off-one national orders", if the main resource to be used for the execution of this struggle is still
in Anatolia, the foreign assistance to be received is also important for the success of the combat. Although these benefits
do not fully meet the needs, especially the assistance from the Turkish and Islamic world is very important.


Karabakh is the name of a large area which constitutes the Azerbaijan's south- west. Between 1992-1994 years Karabakh
was occupied by Armenia from Azerbaijan and it is still occupied by Armenia. The Karabakh War for Azerbaijan is the
removal of more than 1 million people forced from their home, be expressed in the murder of thousands of people and
caused a billion dollars in property damage. At the same time the Karabakh war brought after itself in the South Caucasus
political instability and conflicts. After the war, Azerbaijan and Turkey closed completely their borders with Armenia.
After the closing of the borders Armenia is left out of any major projects. It may seem as Armenia has won the war but
for Azerbaijan the war was not finished. Nowadays during the cold war situation, Armenia was trapped from both sides
by Turkey and Azerbaijan. This case shows us that the Karabakh war was not finished also economic and social conditions
gradually changed in favor of Azerbaijan’s.


Kazakistan Cumhuriyeti Türk dünyasının önemli ülkelerinden biridir. Ekonomik ve coğrafi büyüklüğü diğer Türk
Cumhuriyetleri ile kıyaslandığında hemen fark edilmektedir. Nüfusu daha az olmasına rağmen, ekonomisi diğer Orta
Asya Cumhuriyetlerine baktığımızda oldukça ileridedir. Bağımsızlığından günümüze kadar Kazakistan ekonomisinde
ciddi bir şekilde ilerleme görülmüştür. Özelleştirme ve ekonominin serbestleştirilmesinde çok önemli bir yol kat
edilmiştir. Elbette bu başarıda zengin yer altı ve enerji kaynaklarının rolü büyüktür. Ancak başarıyı sadece doğal
kaynaklara bağlamak doğru değildir. Ülkenin Devlet Başkanı Nursultan NAZARBAYEV’in pragmatist ve dengeleri
gözeten gerçekçi yaklaşımının Kazakistan’ın başarısındaki rolü büyüktür.


The Ottoman Empire ruled over a very wide geography for more than six centuries. In this geography where different
cultures and religions take part, a naturally developing financial structure, as well as Islam, which is the official religion
of the state, has been influential on the economic structure. In addition to the financial instruments required by Islamic
religion, there is also a unique financial culture in accordance with the Islamic rules. In the study, information about the
Islamic finance instruments used in the Ottoman Empire, which is an Islamic state, will be given. Later on, it will give
information about funding methods such as mudaraba, murabaha, bidaa, musharaka, bey bilfa ve karz-ı hasen which are
the financing methods of money foundations that emerged in Ottoman times and could be a solution to today's economic
crisis. In the evaluation section, the contributions of the Ottoman financial structure to the current Islamic world will be
explained with examples of what the reflections of the financial problems of Islamic countries will be.


Turkistan territory for the first time in the XVII century has been occupied by the Russian, as result of Russian oppression
and colonial millions of human lost their life’s. especially the soviet experience the greatest tragedies in human history.
agains the Russian cruelty and obstinately, Turkistan brave nations stand with faith and independence ideals and continued
to struggle for freedom. Meanwhile today Turkmenistan which had strategic and economic importance for Russians they
occupied this land for the first time in 1879, the lost this battle with heavy casualty. For the second time they occupied
this region in 1881 under the name of Göktepe war they brutally killed thousands of people.The main purpose of this
seminar is the Turkmens national struggle on Goktepe battle against Russian and the impact of war on the Turkistan

On the Importance of Scientific Reasoning Methods in Science Education in the Context of Science's Rationality Problem of Philosophy of Science Davut Sarıtaş Yüksel Tufan

To understand science, besides doing a science; it is necessary to evaluate it with historical, philosophical, sociological and even psychological context. Philosophy of Science, as an understanding activity on science, it must also be a critical factor in defining the nature of science. Philosophy of Science take the science with epistemology and ontology dimensions and problem areas such as methodological and rational aspects. Since a long time, it is emphasized that the statements given by the philosophy of science are also valuable in terms of science education. In this study, the nature of science in the context of science literacy, the key concepts of present-day science education, is discussed in the light of the rationality problem of science, which is an important topic of discussion of science philosophy. In this context, the possible contributions of science philosophy to the nature of science in science education are mentioned and some suggestions are presented.

Control de inventarios con ajuste dinámico del punto de reorden – Un caso de estudio para empresas con productos perecibles y no perecibles, usando técnicas computacionales. Manuel Guillermo Rodríguez López Flor Salazar Vázquez

La sostenibilidad de las empresas comercializadoras, ahora dependen con mayor intensidad del análisis dinámico de la demanda y de una gestión inteligente de abastecimiento. Las mismas que deben estar orientadas a tomar nuevas medidas o decisiones proactivas que generen valor agregado para estas organizaciones. Por tal motivo, en la presente investigación se muestra la aplicación de tecnologías computacionales orientado al negocio con ajustes de modelos matemáticos para el control de inventarios. En los cuáles se describe los casos de estudio para evaluar el rendimiento de estas técnicas que ayudan notablemente a visualizar el movimiento de cada producto dentro del almacén. A partir de estos hallazgos se determina la cantidad económica a pedir, la frecuencia de pedidos, el periodo de cada pedido y los productos de mayor incidencia económica utilizando la clasificación ABC. El objetivo es proponer una alternativa viable para innovar los modelos primitivos de control de inventario. Donde se discute en varios trabajos literarios, que estos modelos antiguos no se aplican correctamente, ya sea, por su deficiencia en los cambios de la demanda, no controlan el dinamismo de las entradas y salidas de las transacciones que se generan. Esta es la razón por la que, se usan herramientas informáticas con algoritmos analíticos complejos, para manejar grandes cantidades de datos con rapidez y precisión. Por consiguiente, se establecen técnicas claves para conseguir un equilibrio entre, oferta y demanda, regula la optimización de recursos y genera un mejor ambiente entre proveedor y minorista. Estos son elementos que proponen nuevas eco-metodologías para la gestión de los negocios modernos en favor de la sociedad y el medio ambiente.

Improved Compound Multiphase Waveforms with Additional Amplitude Modulation (periodic mode) for Marine Radars Vitaliy Koshevyy Olena Pashenko

This paper has presented the basis of a compound multiphase waveform design with additional amplitude modulation, capable of controlling a waveform pick-factor, suitable for use with marine radar. The waveform shows good Doppler tolerance, with the low side-lobes performance maintained over the central zone of an ambiguity function. A clear waveform design procedure has been presented that does not require the implementation of numerical optimization procedures. It has been shown that a compromise between side-lobes suppression and the value of pick-factor can be found. These waveforms allow achieving better results as compared to compound multiphase waveforms without additional amplitude modulation under mismatched weighting filtering. In this article we considered periodic mode of Radar

The Sunshine Duration Error Rates were calculated with Gradient-Descent Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm for Use of Solar Energy Yalçın Kaplan  

In this study, which is a source of renewable energy required to take advantage of solar energy to the maximum duration of sunshine was estimated. In the study, values were used of the city of Amasya. Artificial neural networks (ANN) backpropagation gradient-descent(GD) learn algorithm and genetic algorithm(GA) were used. Three hidden layer network model was designed with two inputs for ANN and GA. Between 2000 and 2010 values were used as input data monthly sunshine duration and humidity values. Output data was obtained monthly sunshine duration of 2010. The values obtained were compared with the actual values and the root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated. Result of the study, GA was used to calculate the values that are needed for solar energy.


Accelerators are systems where high-tech experiments are conducted today and contain high-tech constructions. Construction and operation of accelerators require multidisciplinary studies. Each accelerator structure has its own characteristics as well as similar features of accelerator structures. Control systems come to the forefront as one of the most important structures that make up accelerators. Since control systems have critical importance for accelerators, in such systems when a problem occurs, there is a danger of environmental and human safety as well as machine system. For that reason interlock systems are being developed in different structures. In the literature, FPGAs and PLCs in such interlock systems have been shown to be suitable for use in accelerators [1,7].

In this work, we describe an interlock system that evaluates the operation and protection modes of devices used in an electron accelerator. In order to ensure that this system can operate at minimum cost and maximum safety, the defined system is divided into 3 subsystems. The error messages from the control devices in the accelerator control systems are the input to the interlock system. The purpose of the interlock system that evaluates error messages is to ensure that the accelerator closes safely.

The purpose of this study is to specify which of the 3 interlock subsystems which are defined for minimum cost and maximum security should be connected to the fault outputs from the control devices. As an evaluation criterion, 6 features are defined for the control devices and each control device is weighted according to the importance of the task. In the solution of the problem, genetic algorithms were used for assigning 74 controller outputs to 3 interlock subsystems. Thanks to the Genetic Algorithm used in the study, 94.3% success rate was obtained in terms of cost and safe system.

Short-Term Load Forecasting Model Using Flower Pollination Algorithm Volkan Ateş Necaattin Barışçı

Electricity is natural but not a storable resource and has a vital role in modern life. Balancing between consumption and production of the electricity is highly important for power plants and production facilities. Researches show that electricity load consumption characteristic is highly related to exogenous factors such as weather condition, day type (weekdays, weekends and holidays etc.), seasonal effects, economic and politic changes (crisis, elections etc.). In this study, we propose a short-term load forecasting models using artificial intelligence based optimization technique. Proposed 5 different empirical models were optimized using flower pollination algorithm (FPA). Training and testing phase of the proposed models held with historical load and weather temperature dataset for the years between 2011-2014. Forecasting accuracy of the models was measured with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and monthly minimum approximately %1,79 for February 2013. Results showed that proposed load forecasting model is very competent for short-term load forecasting.


The purpose of this research is to analyze the degree of effectiveness of TQM in SMEs in Mexico as a function of Business Performance, considering that Business Performance is related to Total Quality Management. This research is analytical and descriptive, since no statistical method is used, only the variables and the research problem are analyzed in detail and in a detailed manner, and descriptive because tables and tables can be found to help facilitate understanding of these important concepts. This research will analyze the impact of both variables, and with this, the entrepreneurs can make the necessary changes in their production line or in their employees to obtain better and greater positive results.

Strategies That Transform the Retail José G. Vargas-Hernández María Luisa Anaya Rosas

The objective of the present investigation is to analyze the strategies that the companies implement and the changes that originate in the retail trade and the retail trade and in the commercial establishments in the developed countries. Based on a literary review, it identifies the framework of the current situation, encompassing all the social products and services that cause the new mechanisms of sale of products and services by the firms and the different ways of buying products and services by Los Consumers Concluding that this variation is mainly present due to the technological level, the culture of the purchase and the strategies of sale, that owns and develops the consumers and the companies.


gmunt Bauman is a sociolog
who calls sociology (with a critical insight) to comprehend the
basic dynamics of the human being and the world in which he lives, blending it with the products of a large
thought universe outside certain disciplinary boundaries.
This study aims to show i
n fluid modernity analysis
how Bauman, as a
, approached to one of the most important agenda items of today's: to
the “refugees”.
In a fluid modernity where everything feels fluid, unpredictable and uncertain,
the proposal for a
solution to the question of refugee status must also be evaluated in light of this reality.
n the days of
emporariness, groundlessness, rootlessness, mistrustfulness, unpredictability
and fluidity dominates
the issue of
immigration has taken its share f
this liquid state
of modernity, too.
Bauman's analysis of refugees also
comes to the fore in the light of his deep sociological view, as a beam of hope that transcends the pessimistic
future conception. In this sense, the study deals with Bauman's argu
ments that presented in fluid modernity
analysis, for constructing a common world vision that includes not also the world we are in but also the "other"s
that is alienated in immmigration issue.

An Artificial Arm Pressure Able to Reproduce Oscillometric Blood Pressure for Testing Holter Devices Claudio De Lazzari Igino Genuini,

The aim of this work is the realization of an "Artificial Arm Pressure" permitting to reproduce oscillometric waveforms able to replace expensive clinical trials for validating and testing a Holter blood pressure device. To perform this new device a hybrid simulator (numerical/hydraulic) of the left cardiocirculatory network was implemented in order to reproduce in different fixed times different oscillometric blood arterial pressure waveforms. The “Artificial Arm Pressure" consists of a numerical simulator of the left cardiovascular system, in which it is possible to fix the left atrial pressure (preload) and the left arterial pressure (afterload) and of an hydraulic system consisting of a D/A converter, a servo-amplifier, a D/C motor and a “gear pump”. The numerical simulator allows to vary the heart rate, the time duration of systole/diastole and the morphology of the ventricular/aortic pressure waveform in order to reproduce different physiopathology cardiovascular diseases. The hybrid simulator can be used to program the type and amount of steps you want to perform in 24/48-h to check the correct operation/calibration of the Holter blood pressure device. A Holter programmed to acquire data every 15 min has been tested for 24-h on the "Artificial Arm Pressure". The comparison between simulated and measured data shown that for systolic (diastolic) blood pressure the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.6% (±2.9). In the case of HR, the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.0%.

The Fascicle Undulation Effect on the Activating Function in Magnetic Stimulation of Peripheral Nerves with Transverse and Longitudinal Fields Eugen R. Lontis Karsten Nielsen

Analysis of activating function for a long, myelinated nerve fiber with undulating path in transverse and longitudinal induced electric fields was performed. The induced electric field was computed using a finite element model composed by a round coil beneath a bath with saline solution. Longitudinal and transverse components of the induced electric field were computed along two axes, one tangential and the other axial to the coil. The influence of a transverse field on the modified activating function was analyzed when the fiber path was determined by the fascicle undulation, and by the fascicle undulation plus the fiber undulation inside the fascicle. For the first path type, undulation wavelength of 40 to 90 mm and 0.8 mm amplitude determined a classic activating function with: (a) multiple virtual cathodes that could generate two or three stimulation sites for axially oriented coil, and (b) virtual cathode with distorted shape in amplitude up to 35% and location up to 67% for tangentially oriented coil. For axially oriented coil, the transverse field term of the modified activating function was comparable in amplitude with the classic activating function, however significant attenuation could occur due to perineurium. For the second path type with wavelength of tenths of millimeters and amplitudes of a quarter of the wavelength, the classic activating function had such a dramatic increase in the spatial frequency that could not predict the stimulation site with the usual interpretation of the virtual cathode. Similarity between the results obtained with the first path type and the ones obtained in a previous in-vitro experiment suggests that the undulating fascicles within the nerve trunk can be responsible for stimulation with transverse fields.

Comparison of Enthalpy Method and Water Fraction Method to Mathematically Model Water Vaporization During RF Ablation Yuliia Fatieieva Pedro Almendárez

During high-temperature energy-based therapies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) the target tissue reaches temperatures around 100ºC, which causes tissue dehydration by water vaporization. In order to be as realistic as possible, RFA theoretical models should include the formulation of these phenomena. There are currently two fixed mesh methods of modeling the electrical and thermal effects produced by water vaporization: the enthalpy method and the water fraction method. Our objective was to compare both methods, especially to assess the thermal and electrical performance in terms of electrical impedance progress during heating, distributions of temperature, and temperature progress at some specific locations. The results showed the performance of both methods to be qualitatively analogous, with similar impedance progress, temperature distributions and temperature progress. They were hence equally able to mimic the thermal and electrical performance in a pulsed protocol, i.e. during the period without applying RF power. The main difference between the methods was the time at which impedance started to rise. All these findings suggest that the two methods offer equivalent results in RFA modeling. However, since the enthalpy method has one less problem to be solved (dynamic volume fraction of liquid water in the tissue) it is less complex, has a lower computational cost and therefore seems to be more suitable for modeling RFA with dry or internally cooled electrodes, i.e. those in which there is no interstitial saline infusion. However, the water fraction method would be more appropriate in the case of RFA with externally irrigated electrodes.

Fabrication of Asymmetric Polysaccharide Composite Membranes as Guided Bone Regeneration Materials Na Li Mingyan Zhao

Periodontal regeneration can be achieved by guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membranes, which act as a physical barrier to exclude migration of connective and epithelium, favoring the repopulation of periodontal ligament cells. Asymmetric polysaccharide GBR membranes with two different surfaces were developed in this study. Positive chitosan (CS), negative hyluronaic acid (HA) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) were composited by electrostatic interaction, forming smooth and dense membranes as upper surface to inhibit the ingrowth of cells from gingiva. The lower porous and coarse surface was obtained by gel freeze-drying and mineralization to improve the regeneration of the bone tissue. The performance of the membranes was characterized by Infrared Radiation (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), tensile strength and biological evaluation. It was found that the composite membranes with chitosan content of 56.7 wt%in the dry state possess the highest tensile strength, with elongation 10 times more higher than that of the pure CS ones. Additionaly, open pores with diameter of 10-100 µm and homogenouse distributed nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) were investigated on the coarse part. Cell studies demonstrated that the porous surface promoted the growth of the preosteoblast. Overall, the composite membranes may be useful for regeneration of periodontal regeneration.

Logical Design of the E-Cig for a Fine Control of the Inhaled Nicotine for the Reduction of the Damage from Tobacco Agostino Giorgio Michele Guerra

The Electronic Cigarette (e-cig) is increasingly recognized as a pharmaceutical/medical device because the digital smoke appears helpful in reducing the nicotine addiction and the reduction of damages from tobacco. However, to this aim, it is not enough to know the nicotine concentration in the liquid digitally smoked, because there is no notice about the quantity of liquid digitally smoked, until the liquid tank of the e-cig is empty. This means that there is no notice about the equivalent of one cigarette has been smoked because there is no end-cigarette control in the e-cigs commercially available. Therefore, in this paper, criteria are proposed, implemented and simulated for a fine control of the inhaled nicotine based on a notice of end-cigarette given to the smoker. It is proposed a logical design of the e-cig with the end-cigarette control: the logic model is implemented in a digital circuit model, useful to design the e-cig for a fine control of the inhaled nicotine. The fine control of the nicotine is necessary to reduce the addiction from tobacco and related damages.

Discrimination Ability Analysis on Texture Features for Automatic Noise Reduction in Brain MR Images Yu-Ning Chang Herng-Hua Chang

Noise is one of the main sources of quality deterioration not only for visual inspection but also in computerized processing in magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis such as tissue classification, segmentation and registration. Accordingly, noise removal in brain MR images is important for a wide variety of subsequent processing applications. Most existing denoising algorithms require laborious tuning of parameters that are often sensitive to specific image features and textures. Automation of these parameters through artificial intelligence techniques will be highly beneficial. This paper attempts to systematically investigate significant attributes from popular image features and textures to facilitate subsequent automation process. In our approach, a total number of 39 image attributes are considered that are based on three categories: 1) Image statistics. 2) Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). 3) Tamura texture features. To obtain the ranking of discrimination in these texture features, a T-test is applied to each individual image features computed in every image based on noise levels, intensity distributions, and anatomical geometries. Preliminary results indicated that the order of significance in the texture features approximately varies in noise, slice, and normality. For distinguishing between noise levels, the features of contrast, standard deviation, angular second moment, and entropy from the GLCM class performed best. For distinguishing between slice positions, the features of mean and variance from the basic statistics class and the coarseness feature from the Tamuraclass outperformed other features.

Bitter Taste Receptor Agonist (Quinine) Induces Traction Force Reduction and Calcium Flux Increase in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Rats Huilong Zeng Yue Wang

Recently, bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have been found in the lung, which can be stimulated with TAS2R agonist such as quinine to relax airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via intracellular Ca2+ signaling generated from restricted phospholipase C activation. This provides a promising new therapy for asthma because enhanced contractility and impaired ability of relaxation of the ASMCs within the bronchial wall of asthmatic patients are thought to be ultimately responsible for airway constriction in asthma. However, further study is required for characterization of the effect of TAS2R agonist on the mechanical behaviors of ASMCs, in particular the traction force generation and associated mechanism in asthma model. Here, we sensitized Sprague Dawley rats with ovalbumin (OVA) for up to 12 weeks to simulate chronic asthma symptoms. Subsequently, we isolated ASMCs from these rats, and studied the traction force and intracellular Ca2+ signaling of the cells with/out treatment of quinine hydrochloride, a well-known TAS2R agonist. The results demonstrated that quinine hydrochloride relaxed the ASMC in a dose dependent manner. It also evoked dose-dependent increase of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the ASMCs. Perhaps more importantly, the quinine-induced traction force reduction and Ca2+ flux increase were correlated. Taken together, our findings indicate that TAS2R agonists (e.g. quinine hydrochloride) could reduce the ability of ASMCs to generate traction force via activation of the intracellular calcium signaling, which may contribute as one of the mechanisms for TAS2R agonist-induced ASMC relaxation. This provides additional evidence to support TAS2R agonists as a new class of compounds with potential in treatment of chronic asthma.

Stiffness of Substrate Influences the Distribution but not the Synthesis of Autophagosomes in Human Liver (LO2) Cells Fang Xu Yue Wang

Extracellular matrix (ECM) often becomes stiffer during tumor development, which not only gives the tumor's hardness feel but also actively contributes to the tumor formation. A good example is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that usually develops within chronically stiffened liver tissues due to fibrosis and cirrhosis. On the other hand, HCC cells exhibit reduced autophagy in a malignancy dependent manner, suggesting autophagy is suppressed during tumor development. However, it is not known whether ECM stiffness would influence autophagy during tumor development. To investigate this issue, We cultured the human liver (LO2) cellsthat stably expressed autophagosome indicator LC3 on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gels with stiffness varying from 11 to 1220 kPa.and on plastic cell culture dish as controls for up to 48h. We found that the total protein level of LC3-II in LO2 cells was not affected by the substrate stiffness. However the autophagosomes in LO2 cells cultured on the soft substrate (11 kPa PDMS gel) were localized and accumulated around the nucleus, while those on the stiff substrate (1220 kPa PDMS gel or plastic dish surface) were dispersed throughout the cytoplasmic space. Therefore, our data suggest that ECM stiffness may not directly synthesize nascent autophagosomes, but instead influencethe location/translocation and ultimately distribution of autophagosomes in the cells.

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