|Physical Properties of Cucurbita Ficifolia Seed and Functional Properties of Whole and Defatted Meal
Abstract: The aim of this research was to describe some physical properties of Cucurbita ficifolia seeds and evaluate
the effect of defatting on C. ficifolia seed meal functional properties. Geometric diameter was 8.05 mm, arithmetic
diameter was 10.61 mm, sphericity was 45.36%, aspect ratio was 64.29%, surface area was 204.08 mm2, volume was
187.44 mm3, true density was 0.51 Kg/m3, porosity was 31.81% and hardness was 6.23 N. Defatted C. ficifolia seed
meal presented a content of protein (70.36 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (13.18 g/100 g). The defatted meal had higher
water absorption capacity (2.94 g H2O/g sample), water solubility capacity (34.08 %), oil absorption capacity (2.97 g oil /g
sample), emulsifying capacity (24.93%), foaming capacity (30.33%) and better foam stability (from 20 to 60 min) than the
whole meal. The high protein content of defatted seed meal, suggests its use as a natural alternative ingredient in
numerous food industry applications.
|Study of Maize Drying in Uganda Using an in-Store Dryer Weather Data Simulation Software
Abstract: The applicability of an in-store drying system in Uganda as an alternative for maize drying and storage was
studied. With the 13.5 tonne capacity In-store Dryer (ISD) used in this study, the predicteddrying rates were lower,and
investment costs and operating costs lower, than other comparable grain dryers. In the simulation, the fan and burner
were operated 24 hours continuously irrespective of weather. Under these conditions for the two districts Jinja and
Kasese, the cost of drying a kilogram of maize was estimated at around US$0.203/kg. The final product after drying had
a dry matter loss (DML) of under 0.6% (Jinja0.45% and Kasese0.55%), indicating a high quality maize.
The profit margin, based on the current price of maize in Uganda of US$0.0507/kg, was better for the Kasese district. It
was observed that both drying costs and profit were greatly affected by price fluctuations of fuel and electricity and also
the unpredictable prices for maize.
|Effect of Sucrose on Thermal and pH Stability of Clitoria ternatea Extract
||Jonathan D Wilkin
Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sucrose on the stability of Clitoria ternate extract against
thermal and pH degradations. Lyophilised extract of the flower (1 mg/ml) was added into a series of sucrose solutions
with concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 20% at pH7. The thermal stability of the extract in the solutions at 60oC was
monitored using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer over 24 days. High temperature (60oC) accelerated degradation of the
anthocyanin-rich extract but the presence of sucrose appeared to have slowed down the degradation process. However,
sucrose asserted no protective effect against pH even at a concentration of 20%. It was thought that sucrose enhanced
the thermal stability of anthocyanins by reducing water activity, partially preventing nucleophilic attack at the pyrylium
ring of anthocyanins by water molecules. The present work provides some useful information for evaluating the potential
of C. ternatea extract on food applications.
|Comparison of Extraction Efficiency of Tanshinones from S. miltiorrhiza by Solvent and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Abstracts: Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza), also named as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine reported
to possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities, which can be attributed to presence of the major functional
components tanshinones. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass
spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for determination of tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza and comparison of extraction
efficiency of solvent and supercritical CO2. Results showed that a total of 6 tanshinones including 15,16-
dihydrotanshinone I, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, 1,2-dihydrotanshinone I and
tanshinone IIA could be separated within 18 min by employing a Metachem ODS-2 C18 column and a gradient mobile
phase of 0.1% formic acid solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) with flow rate at 1 mL/min, detection wavelength at 280 nm
and column temperature at 25°C. The highest yield of total tanshiones (2869.9 μg/g) extracted by supercritical CO2 was
attained at 70°C and 400 bar. For solvent extraction, the highest yield of total tanshinones was obtained by methanol or
ethanol, which amounted to 3103.1 μg/g and 3021.6 μg/g, respectively. For future large production of tanshinones from
S. miltiorrhiza, ethanol can be adopted to replace methanol and supercritical CO2 amid its safety nature and higher yield
than supercritical CO2.
|Content of Minerals and Antinutritional Factors in Akara (Fried Cowpea Food)
||Maria das Graças A. Korn
Abstract: The aim of the study was the quantifaction of minerals and antinutritional factors in akara (AK) and its crude
mass (CM). Deep-frying was performed on 5 consecutive days. Potassium and phosphorus were the most abundant
elements naturally present (545-719 mg 100 g-1 and 210-375 mg 100 g-1, respectively), while sodium exhibited the
highest contents (699-1,869 mg 100 g-1) because of salt addition to CM. The content of antinutritional factors in AK and
CM were determined to be: 11.27 ± 0.17 and 9.9 ± 0.14 mol g-1 (InsP5); 2.92 ± 0.03 and 3.75 ± 0.11 mol g-1 (InsP6);
1.73 ± 0.16 and 1.68 ± 0.02 mg eq. CE g-1 (tannins); 6.35 ± 0.03 and 6.27 ± 0.03 mg g-1 (polyphenols); 0.50 ± 0.00 and
0.0 HU kg-1 (hemagglutinins). Deep frying led to a significant reduction (p 0.05) in the content of most of the minerals
and antinutritional factors analyzed. Nonetheless, AK was shown to be a good source of K, P, Mg, Mn, Mo, Cr, Cu, Fe
and Zn. However, bioavailability of the Fe and Zn was low.
|Conventional and Advanced Ocular Formulation and Delivery: A Mini Review
||Lunawati L Bennett
Abstract: Objective: To review available ocular formulation and delivery for the treatment of eye diseases, and to
discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the ophthalmic formulation and delivery due to the complexity anatomical
of the eye.
Data Sources: A literature search through Pub Med (1984 – December 2016) was performed using the key words: ocular
barrier, posterior segment, anterior segment, disease of the eye, peptide delivery, ocular delivery, ophthalmic.
Study Selection and Data Extraction: Articles in English identified from reviews, abstracts, and presentations on eye
formulation and delivery were included.
Conclusion: Effective treatment of ocular diseases has been difficult challenges due to the nature of the disease, the
presence of the ocular barriers, and the unique structure of the eye. Within the last 2 decades, challenges in drug
delivery have been partially met through modification of the ophthalmic formulations using viscosity enhancing polymers,
hydrogels; through formulation of novel drugs approach using prodrugs, gene therapy and peptide delivery; and through
making the drug particles smaller using nano-formulations techniques which all are aimed to increase the drug’s
retention time in the eye, to have the least side effects, and to be minimally invasive. However, there are many more
challenges that need to be addressed including: the application from the research bench top using rabbit or cadaver into
patients’ specific diseases, decreasing the toxicities of the formulations, and making the ophthalmic formulations and
deliveries safe, well-tolerated and cost efficient.
|Health Tourism in Clinics Located in Tourist Areas: the Case of Spain
Abstract: Objective: Knowing the characteristics of health tourism and to develop a theoretical framework exploring
empirical evidence the health tourism in Spain studying major competitive methods, the aim is to objectively examine the
lines of action being taken by the clinics to then offer a theory of how to compete successfully in the medical tourism
Method: Apply a descriptive quantitative approach to analyze data collected through a questionnaire distributed to 148
clinics in 50 provinces, in 2011.
Results: Tourist offers medical services are mainly aimed at German, British and French citizens. 91.46% of the centers
surveyed say their services are designed for tourists. There are agreements with hotels / apartments according to
59.52% of the sample, stating that the 66.67% refuse to work with health tourism and wellness, which could offer service
centers / clinics in the rest of Spain and abroad.
Conclusions: There is a high demand for health tourism. Tour operators play an important role in the management of
these services, as well as in the design of travel packages and medical services adapted to the expectations and needs
of tourists. The most popular services include: emergencies, plastic surgery, and clinical analyses.
It is noted that there is a strong presence of marketing and advertising around the sector, as well as efforts by hospitals
to train employees to this section of business.
|GABA-Ergic Premedication and Hemodynamic Stability during Induction Laryngoscopy Phase of General Anesthesia
||Tabish Hussain Asifa Anwar Mir
||Asifa Anwar Mir
Abstract: introduction: Gabapentin is a second generation anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of chronic
neuropathic pain. Recent data suggests its perioperative administration for attenuation of the hemodynamic response to
laryngoscopy and intubation. The aim of this study was to compare Oral Gabapentin premedication with no
premedication in patients undergoing rigid laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation for General Anaesthesia in terms of
mean heart rate and mean arterial pressure.
Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at Anesthesia Department Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi.
Total 100 patients were included in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups. In Group-A patients were given 800
mg Gabapentin orally and in Group-B patients were not given Gabapentin orally. Baseline parameters (including heart
rate, Mean Arterial Pressure MAP) were recorded 1 hr. before surgery. Drug selected for given patient was given orally
with a sip of water. After 1 hr. Data was collected on a standardized Performa and analyzed on SPSS 16 version.
Results: Mean hear rate in Group-A patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was 96.22±11.96, 91.84±11.28,
84.66±10.98 and 82.10±11.47 respectively. While in Group-B mean heart rate in Group-B patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at
10th minute was 105.70±11.95, 100.42±11.58, 92.18±10.56 and 88.40±9.61 respectively. It was observed that at 1st , 3rd ,
5th and at 10th minute mean heart rate was statistically different in both treatment groups. Mean arterial pressure in
Group-A patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was 103.68±6.55, 100.42±5.63, 96.54±5.72 and 95.04±5.86
respectively. While in Group-B mean arterial pressure in Group-B patients at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute was
112.40±6.93, 106.60±5.98, 100.90±5.95 and 99.16±5.69 respectively. It was observed that at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th
minute mean arterial pressure was statistically different in both treatment groups.
Conclusion: 800 mg oral gabapentin given 1 hour before undergoing rigid laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation for
general anesthesia significantly affects mean heart rate and mean arterial pressure at 1st, 3rd, 5th and at 10th minute.
|Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Male Smokers Having Different Types of Cancers with Reference to Healthy Male Smokers
||Tasneem Gul Kazi1
||Sham Kumar Wadhwa
Abstract: Immense epidemiologic studies have been reported about the role of essential trace and toxic elements as
risk factors for incidence of different type of cancers in population of developed and developing countries. In present
work the levels of carcinogenic, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Nickel (As, Cd and Ni) and anti-carcinogenic, Zinc and Selenium
(Zn and Se) elements were measured in blood of male cancer patients (urinary bladder, lung, mouth and esophageal)
and healthy referents. The all patients and referents were smoker. The blood samples were analysed with atomic
absorption spectrometry after microwave assisted acid digestion. The resulted data indicated that the levels of toxic
elements As, Ni and Cd were considerably elevated whereas essential elements, Zn and Se were lower in blood
samples of all cancer cases as compared to those values found in noncancerous subjects. As the levels of essential
trace elements were low in blood samples of male cancerous patients but difference was highly significant in lung and
mouth cancer subjects (p<0.001), whereas sequence of decreasing order was not uniform. The levels of Zn in blood
samples of different cancerous patients were found in decreasing order as: esophagus< mouth< urinary bladder
|Genetic Variability Within ADA Gene and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Subjects
Abstract: The complex relationship between adenosine, obesity and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) prompted us to investigate
a possible role of genetic variability within adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene in the susceptibility to T2D in obese
subjects. With enzymatic activity ADA contributes to the regulation of adenosine concentration in body fluids and as
ecto- enzyme modulates signaling events involving adenosine receptors on cell surface.
Three polymorphic sites within the ADA gene, ADA1 (exon 1), ADA2 (intron 2) and ADA6 (exon6) were examined in 299
subjects from the White population of Rome admitted to the Hospital for cardiovascular diseases. Each site shows two
alleles: the alleles with higher frequency are ADA1*1, ADA2*1 and ADA6*2.
Informed consent was obtained by the patients to participate to the study that was approved by the Council of
For the three sites examined the relative risk of T2D in obese subjects (vs non obese) is higher in carriers of the
homozygous genotype for the allele with higher frequency. The three loci cooperate to the risk that is low in subjects
carrying no homozygous genotype (O.R. 1.25) but it is very high (O.R. 13.240) in subjects carrying the three
From a practical point of view, the study of ADA gene may help to detect obese subjects at high risk of T2D who need
active preventive measures. The results point to the importance of further studies on the role of genetic variability within
ADA gene on the relationship within obesity and T2D.
|An Unusual Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
||George M. Weisz
Abstract: The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was reported in the literature following numerous traumatic
events. Stretching the Brachial plexus, such as in peri-operational positioning, was as yet not found. The author is
presenting a recently discovered such case. The clinical presentation is illustrated by a probable mechanism of
|Perceptions and Expectations about Care in Hospitalized Patients over 75 Years of Age
Abstract: Objective: To know the expectations and perceptions of patients over 75 years of age, regarding the quality
of care provided to acutely ill geriatric patients admitted to the Hospital Virgen del Valle de Toledo Spain.
Methods: Design: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study.
Location of study: Geriatric Hospital Virgen del Valle Toledo (Spain).
Subjects: Patients older than 75 years of age admitted to the Acute Treatment Unit at Hospital Virgen del Valle de
Sample size: 267 patients (p = 0.5, confidence interval 95%, e = 0.06).
Measures: Validated questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL model to measure the expectations and perceptions of
Results: The global assessment of overall satisfaction with the attention and care they received was "moderately good".
Higher scores were obtained in the assessment of “care” than in “attention received”, in general. The results highlighted
the importance of empathy and information. The theory suggesting that satisfaction with the nursing staff is a good
predictor of overall satisfaction with the hospital has found support in this study.
Conclusion: There exists an urgent need, when it comes to caring for older people, to increase the level of knowledge
about the patient’s preferences along with understanding their expectations, in order to help develop better care.
Knowledge of the deficiencies of care provides professionals with information indicating where they should intervene to
make favourable changes with a resultant increase in patient satisfaction.
|A Left Temporal Arachnoid Cyst in a Patient with Early Onset Schizophrenia
Abstract : Arachnoid cysts are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. In the literature, some case studies
report a probable etiological association between arachnoid cysts and psychiatric disorders. We report an early onset
schizophrenia case who had a left temporal arachnoid cyst and who had an inadequate response to antipsychotic
treatment. We discuss the potential association between arachnoid cysts and psychiatric disorders in the light of the
|The Role of Serum Bio-Markers in Predicting Small Bowel Pathology in Crohn`s Disease Patients
Abstract: Background: Computed tomography enterography (CTE) is a useful modality in the evaluation of small bowel
(SB) crohn`s disease (CD) as it can provide assessment of disease activity, extramural abnormalities and SB
complications. This procedure however utilises radiation exposure. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine
the clinical indications and findings on CTE and to determine if serum bio-markers (CRP, ESR, platelet count and
anaemia) can predict significant pathologies.
Method: This was a retrospective analysis where 50 patients above the age of 18 with CD who had CTE between
October 2013 and February 2015 were identified. The clinical indications, serum bio-markers and CTE findings in these
patients were analysed.
Results: The main indications for CTE were abdominal pain/discomfort and/or symptoms suggestive of SB obstruction.
26% of CD patients had active inflammation, 36% had a SB stricture and 4% had active inflammation with stricturing and
fistulating disease. All the patients with a completely normal CTE did not have a raised bio-marker whist 76.9% of
patients with active inflammation had one or more positive bio-markers. Additional findings were active colitis (8%),
splenomegaly (4%), aortitis (2%) and had sacroileitis (2%). In these patients, 75% had a positive bio-marker. In patients
with positive findings, the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was the most common marker of inflammation.
Conclusion: CTE is an important tool in management of patients with CD however, in the presence of normal
biomarkers, clinicians should question the need for CTE and thus decrease exposure of CD patients to ionising radiation.
|An Overview of the Genetic Causes of Frontotemporal Degeneration
||Wanda C. Reygaert
Abstract: Many neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have been thought to be caused mainly by conditions that were
not controlled by genetic inheritance. Extensive research into these diseases has recently discovered that perhaps a
majority of them have genetic inheritance components. Once thought to be a rare form of NDD, frontotemporal
degeneration (FTD) is now considered to be the main cause of early onset NDD, and the information on genetic causes
and inheritance has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. The main genes that have been found to be involved
in frontotemporal degeneration, MAPT, TARDBP, GRN C9orf72, VCP, FUS, and CHMP2B, have also been found in
related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. This paper is
intended as an updated review of the genetic causes of FTD. This information should aid physicians and scientists in
understanding the current concepts, and encourage even more genetic testing so that a full knowledge of genetic
inheritance in FTD will be soon be forthcoming.
|Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Report of Two Atypical Cases
||Reza M. Robati
Abstract: Multiple and unusual clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) had been reported as hyperkeratotic,
psoriasiform, eczematoid, zosteriform pattern, warty lesions, erysipeloid, and acneiform lesions. The clinical features of
CL primarily depend on the host's cell-mediated response and the species of Leishmania being involved. In this paper
we reported two cases of atypical CL from Iran, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Loghman-e-Hakim hospitals presented with
infiltrative erythematous lesions covering the perioral region and the lower limb, respectively. The diagnosis of cutaneous
leishmaniasis was confirmed with skin smears and biopsies.
|The Psychiatric Aspects of Alopecia Areata
Abstract: Alopecia areata (AA) refers to noncicatricial hair loss. It is defined as a secondary psychiatric disorder in the
classification of psycho dermatological disorders. Its profound effect on a person’s physical appearance and the resulting
emotional stress have led many researchers to investigate psychiatric aspects of AA in recent decades [1, 2]. This study
presents a review of the literature and highlights psychiatric aspects of AA. The results showed that both pediatric and
adult patients with AA have a high risk of depression and anxiety. Dermatologists should consider a psychiatric
evaluation of female patients under 20 years with AA to detect potential depression and anxiety. As much as alexithymia
also in association of AA and other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),
personality, manic, bipolar, attention deficit, phobic disorders, further investigations are needed. The evaluation of the
psychological status of patients with AA is extremely important to aid the well-being of individuals suffering from this
|Clozapine use in Dual Diagnosis Patients
Abstract: Background: Dual diagnosis (DD), defined as the co-occurrence of a substance use disorder (SUD) and a
severe mental illness (SMI), is associated with several negative outcomes. Typical antipsychotics (TAP) are not of great
value for patients with DD as they are associated with poorer responses and can worsen SUD. Atypical antipsychotics
(AAP) offer several advantages compared to TAP and in DD patients they have been found to be effective in treating
both, psychiatric symptoms and substance use. The aim of this article is to review the use of clozapine (CLO) for treating
Methods: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pubmed was performed in order to identify publications that examined
the use of CLO in the treatment of DD.
Results: There is consistent data in regard to the efficacy of CLO in the treatment of DD patients in both studies with and
without comparison to TAP and other AAP. These positive results have been found for different substances of abuse and
in different SMI. However, there is a lack of randomized, placebo-controlled trials in this field.
Conclusions: CLO has been found to be at least as effective as TAP and other AAP in treating psychiatric symptoms, but
it has shown itself to be more effective in reducing substance use in DD patients. Several hypotheses have been
proposed to explain this effectiveness: 1) amelioration of reward system dysfunction in the dopamine-mediated
mesocorticolimbic circuits; 2) improvement of negative symptoms, and relief of anxiety, depression and dysphoria; 3)
improvement of cognitive dysfunction associated with DD; and 4) reduction of craving. CLO might be considered as a
pharmacological agent for use in patients with DD, although safety issues, such as the risk of agranulocytosis and
seizures must be taken into account. Even though there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the beneficial effects
of CLO in DD patients, further randomized, blind, controlled trials, with larger sample sizes and longer follows-up are
|Review of Mipomersen Sodium (Kynamro®) for Familial Hypercholesterolemia
||Lunawati L. Bennett
Abstract: Objective: To review the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and
place in therapy of mipomersen sodium (Kynamro®) for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).
Data Sources: A literature search through Pub Med and clinicaltrials.gov (1984–May 2014; English language) was
performed using the key words: homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), heterozygous familial
hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), FH, dyslipidemia, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), low density lipoprotein cholesterol
(LDL-C), antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), and ISIS 301012. Searches were limited to published studies in humans.
Study Selection and Data Extraction: All articles in English identified from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical
trials of mipomersen in humans were selected and included.
Data Synthesis: Mipomersen sodium (Kynamro®), an oligonucleotide inhibitor of apoB-100 synthesis, is approved for
reducing apoB-100, LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in HoFH
patients as an adjunctive treatment with other lipid lowering drugs and low fat diet.
Conclusion: Mipomersen is effective in decreasing LDL-C, apoB-100, TC, and non-HDL-C in patients that are refractory
to other lipid lowering drugs. Mipomersen is administered as 200 mg subcutaneous (s.c.) once weekly injection. The
drug is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. The most common adverse reactions
include injection site reaction (ISRs), influenza-like symptoms and increases in serum hepatic transaminase. Kynamro®
is only available through restricted program under Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) called Kynamro®
|Clinical Significance of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung cancer
Abstract: Objective: Due to poor prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), new markers and more
effective treatment methods are needed in the monitoring of the disease. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the
clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with advanced NSCLC on
prognosis and survival.
Materials and method: Sixty seven patients (62 men and 5 women) and 20 healthy volunteers (16 men and 4 women)
were included in our study. The demographic and laboratory data and serum VEGF levels of two groups were compared.
Results: A statistically significantly high level of VEGF (p=0.0001) was detected in patients compared to the control
group. The high level of serum VEGF has a statistically significant relationship with the short disease-free survival time
(p=0.05). While the median progression free survival (PFS) time in patients with high VEGF levels was 157 days, the
median PFS time in those with normal VEGF levels reached up to 340 days. This difference was statistically significant
(p=0.003). When overall survival (OS) times was evaluated, it was 472 days in patients with low VEGF levels and 180
days in those with high levels and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001).
Conclusion: In our study, the serum VEGF levels were determined to be statistically significant increased in the NSCLC
patient group compared to the control group. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was discovered between the
serum VEGF level and all survival times in the NSCLC patient group.
|Prognostic Value of CEA and CA 19.9 in Gastric Cancer
Abstract: Introduction: Gastric cancer (GC) is still a major health problem due to the majority of patients present with
advanced disease. This considerably reduces the possibility of curative treatment. A critical decision in the treatment of
GC is related to staging, which is mainly assessed by the use of the TNM classification. There are other factors that can
influence in the prognosis during the preoperative period: pathological type, degree of differentiation or tumor markers
level. The most commonly used tumor markers (TM) in GC are CEA and CA 19.9. The aim of the present study is to
analyze the relationship between CEA and CA 19.9 markers with certain characteristics of the patients and tumors and
to evaluate the utility of these TM determined at the time of diagnosis as prognostic factors.
Material and methods: A prospective collection of the data of all pacients operated by GC at our centre. A total of 501
cases were diagnosed. Mean age was 68.2 years. We analyzed age, sex, tumor location, clinical stage, tumor markers
determined in the preoperative period, the use of perioperative chemotherapy and response to chemotherapy, the
pathological characteristics and disease follow-up.
Results: At the time of diagnosis 23,3 % of the patients presented high values of CEA, 32,6 % presented high values of
CA 19.9 and 14,1% presented with both elevated markers. Patients who were diagnosed at an advanced stage and
presented high levels of CEA or CA 19.9 or both TM had worse survival compared to those with normal values.
Conclusion: the presence of an elevated serum level of tumor markers is related to advanced tumor stage and worse
prognosis in terms of overall survival.
|Mitochondrial Genome Mutations and Pathological Features of Prostate Cancer: an Update
||Arnaldo A. Arbini
Abstract: Mitochondria are organelles involved in a variety of cellular functions that are central to the life and death of a
cell. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the main energy provider of the cell, takes place inside mitochondria and is
known to be altered in carcinogenesis and tumor progression contributing to the “metabolic reprogramming”, one of the
hallmarks of cancer cells. Due to the central role of energy metabolism in cancer cell pathogenesis, mutations in the
mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), which encodes for essential components of the OXPHOS pathway, have been
suggested to play a role in many cancers, including prostate cancer. Recent studies provide evidence for increased
levels of mutant mtDNA in prostate cancer patients with higher Gleason grade and relapse, as well as in bone metastatic
sites. In this review, we will provide an overview of recent studies investigating the presence of mtDNA mutations in
prostate cancer cells and their significance in the context of clinical pathological features of prostate cancer.
|The Dosimetric Effects of Photon Energy on the Quality of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Abstract: Purpose: There is little published data on the optimal energy to use to minimize doses to Organs at Risk
(OARs), while maintaining adequate Planning Target Volume (PTV) coverage in lung volumetric-modulated arc therapy
(VMAT) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).
Methods: 35 lung lesions in 33 patients were treated at our institution by VMAT SBRT. Dosimetric plans using 6-
Megavoltage (6-MV) and 10-Megavoltage (10-MV) energies were generated for each lesion. The median dose was
5000cGy delivered over 3-5 daily fractions. Various dosimetric parameters were recorded for both the 6-MV and 10-MV
plans and the patients were stratified according to the tumor to chest wall distance (TCW), the tumor location (central
versus peripheral), patient anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, and the diameter of an equivalent sphere encompassing the
patient's body over the distance of the PTV (ESD).
Results: There was a statistically significant difference between 6-MV and 10-MV with respect to the sum lung dose,
which favored 6-MV plans (p=0.04). For those stratified by TCW, there was a difference in conformity index (CI) for
patients with peripheral tumors (p=0.04). For the group stratified by AP separation, there was a difference in mean sum
lung dose favoring 6-MV (p=0.01). In the group stratified by ESD, there were statistically significant (SS) differences in
the volume of lung receiving at least 13Gy (V13), mean sum lung dose, and CI, all favoring 6-MV plans (p=0.05, p<0.01,
and p<0.01). For the cohort overall, and within each subgroup, there was a SS difference in the total number of monitor
units (MUs), which consistently favored planning with 10-MV.
Conclusion: With the exception of thinner patients, for which 6-MV plans was superior with respect to OARs and
conformity index, 10-MV should be considered for use in lung VMAT SBRT. 10-MV plans consistently resulted in fewer
total MUs. Fewer MUs results in shorter treatment times, with the potential for improved target accuracy due to less
intrafractional tumor motion.
|Clinical Features of the Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Abstract: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a very heterogeneous cancer in many aspects including epidemiology, risk
factors, clinical presentation and genetics. Medical literature reflects this feature especially in terms of differences of
clinical presentation among the intrahepatic/extrahepatic subtypes and according to related risk factors and geographic
areas. Consequently these tumors are often challenging to diagnose and treat and the prognosis is poor.
This manuscript deals with the clinical presentation and epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma.
|Body Image and Quality of Life Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer patients tend to suffer from severe body image disturbance which has a great
impact on their quality of life. The effects can be permanent as cancer survivorship is a lifelong process.
Objectives: The objectives of this literature review are to identify, summarise and critically appraise the current literature
investigating the body image and quality of life of breast cancer survivors.
Design: A critical literature review on the body image and quality of life of breast cancer survivors.
Date sources: MEDLINE, the British Nursing Index, CINAHL Plus, PsycI NFO and Google Scholar.
Review methods: A comprehensive search was carried out in the five databases from the period 2005 to 2016 to identify
relevant articles with the following terms and their combinations: “body image”, “quality of life” and “breast cancer”.
Results: A total of 13 studies were included in the literature review, six investigated the impacts of the disease and its
related treatment on body image and seven examined the quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Body image was
found to be disturbed after treatment and associated with the type of surgery a patient had undergone, but the impact
seemed to diminish within two years following surgery. The cosmetic differences caused by different surgical approaches
were found to have no significant impact on body image. Young breast cancer survivors suffered from worse body image
when compared with older women. Regarding the quality of life of breast cancer survivors, this was also found to be
associated with the type of surgery undergone. Patients who received breast-conserving therapy perceived that they had
a better quality of life than those who underwent mastectomy. Age is also identified as a determinant of quality of life,
with younger patients reported to have poorer outcomes. In the long run, an improvement in quality of life among breast
cancer survivors over time was noted. The relevant literature was unable to produce enough evidence of the correlation
between body image and quality of life.
Conclusion: Breast cancer survivors were reported as having a poorer body image and deterioration in their quality of life
after related treatment. Specialist nursing care and appropriate interventions should be developed to address patient
needs. As most of the studies investigating the body image of breast cancer survivors were carried out in Western
countries, implications for research on this issue in different cultural background is suggested.
|Malignant Brain Tumors: Death Sentence, No Mercy
||Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy
||Igor S Bryukhovetskiy
Abstract: The article presents critical analysis of current methodological approaches, the standard and the options of
complex therapy of malignant brain tumors (MBT). Author defines the main reasons for low effectiveness of MBT
therapy. Relying on post-genome innovations (mass-spectrometry proteome mapping and whole transcriptome profiling
of gene expression of cancer cells (CCs), cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tissue-specific stem cells (TSSCs) of the cancer
patient, and their comparative analysis) the author proposes systemic solution for the MBT complex therapy that consists
in a new alternative paradigm of cytoregulatory anti-cancer treatment of the MBT that is aimed at rigid control,
management and regulation of the number of CCs and CSCs in the body. The goal of a new treatment paradigm is to
transfer acute, uncontrollable and mortal process into chronic and non-lethal disease, and, thus, to improve survival
rates and life quality of the patients. The instrument to implement the new paradigm is a sparing algorithm of
conventional therapeutic methods and immune therapy, supplemented with personalized anti-tumor proteome-based cell
therapy. The therapy implies transfusions of transcriptome-modified autologous TSSCs with specified properties to
regulate the reproductive functions of the CSCs. The author proposes the complex therapy of the MBT and shows its
social and economic significance for the society and neuroscience.
|Metabolic Disorders in Elderly Patients with Hematologic Malignancies. A Review
||Angelo Michele Carella
Abstract: Over recent decades, due to the gradual rise in life expectancy and the consequent aging of the population,
the incidence of some hematological malignancies most common in the elderly is expected to increase. In elderly cancer
patients, the older age is an adverse prognostic factor because of specific age-related conditions, such as changes in
cellular biology and reduced functional reserve in multiple organ systems, as well as in consequence of comorbidities.
Some age-related pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, cardiovascular dysfunction, liver disease and other disorders may predispose the elderlies to develop metabolic
abnormalities. In the elderly, the occurrence of hematological malignancies can cause some metabolic disorders or
worsen pre-existing dysmetabolic conditions that increase the outcomes of these patients. Hyperuricemia is the most
common metabolic abnormality; hyperuricemia less commonly may be associated with hyperkalemia,
hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia, in the framework of oncologic emergency that is the Tumor lysis syndrome.
Hypercalcemia is relatively common in patients with multiple myeloma and adult T-cell Lymphoma. Cases of Syndrome of
inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in patients with hematological malignancies have also been
reported. Idiopathic hyperammonemia may occur in oncohematological patients after receiving intensive chemotherapy
or following bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, there is evidence that patients with lymphoma, leukemia and
multiple myeloma can develop Type B lactic acidosis. Non–islet cell tumor hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia are other
potential metabolic abnormalities occurring in patients with hematological malignancies. The pathogenesis of these
metabolic disorders is often unclear and several theories have been postulated; possible mechanisms include: increase
in neoplastic cell turnover and apoptosis, blast crisis, cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy, tumor secretion of hormones,
peptides or cytokines, immune cross-reactivity between malignant and normal tissues, malignancy-induced enzyme
dysfunction. Parenteral nutrition, sarcopenia, cachexia, stress, immune deficiency and infections could contribute.
Although successful treatment of the underlying tumor often improves metabolic disorders, these conditions often worse
prognosis and are associated with poor survival; thus it is important to consider early detection and effective treatment.
|BRCA2 Mutations in Prostate Cancer: A Literature Review
||Arnaldo A. Arbini
Abstract: Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease and the second
leading cause of cancer mortality in men of the Western world. Despite improved methods for early detection, a large
proportion of patients succumb to metastatic prostate cancer that is resistant to conventional therapies. The
development of novel effective strategies to prevent and treat prostate cancer relies considerably upon increasing our
knowledge of the interplay among various molecular and genetic alterations that lead to onset and progression of
prostate cancer. To date, germline mutations in the cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 represent one of the strongest risk
factor to develop prostate cancer.
Objective: Goal of this review is to summarize current reports investigating the presence of BRCA2 mutations in prostate
Design: A comprehensive analysis of the literature on BRCA2 mutations in prostate cancer. Data source: Pubmed.
Terms included in the search: "BRCA2 mutations", "prostate cancer".
Results: A total of 18 studies were included in the review. The studies focused on the clinical implications of BRCA2
mutations in prostate cancer. The findings indicate that inherited pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 predispose to highly
aggressive prostate cancers and poor survival. Very recent reports also suggest that metastatic castration-resistant
prostate cancers are "enriched" of BRCA2 mutations compared to the primary tumors.
Conclusion: Because BRCA2-mutated tumors are very sensitive to PARP-inhibitors'-based chemotherapy, BRCA2
genomic testing of patients with advanced metastatic prostate disease may enable an effective, personalized,
|Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy for Cancer: A Safe Procedure in Oncological Surgery
Abstract: Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the surgical management of esophageal cancer is now
accepted as a valid technique. The aim of this study is to show our initial experience with this approach.
Material and Methods: Observational study using data collected prospectively from a database, which includes 23
patients operated by MIS. Esophageal dissection was performed by videothoracoscopy, followed by laparotomy or
laparoscopy. An Akiyama gastroplasty was made up, and pulled up through the posterior mediastinum and an side-toside
esophagogastric cervical anastomosis was then performed.
Results: Most of the patients (19) were male and the average age was 63.3 years. Most tumors were located underneath
the carina. 17 were adenocarcinomas and 6 squamous cell type. 19 patients received neoadjuvant therapy. The average
operating time was 377.5 minutes and in 5 patients it was necessary to make a thoracotomy to finish the esophageal
dissection. An average of 18 lymph node were removed and the most frequent pathological stage was the IIA. The
morbidity was 47.8%, 5 patients with respiratory complications and 7 patients presenting a anastomosis leakage or
fistula. 3 patients died postoperatively. The average follow-up was 23.5 months and the estimated 5-year overall survival
Conclusion: This study confirms previous reports about MIS which seems to be a valid technique if made by experienced
teams. Our results support a satisfactory oncological outcome and a low rate of respiratory complications.
|A Systematic Review of Multimodal Treatment for 1 to 4 Brain Metastases
||Joel Caballero García
||Orlando Cruz García
Abstract: Treatment of brain metastases are controversial, being the optimal therapeutic combination still unknown. The
aim of the present work was to determine the outcome differences among Whole Brain Radiation Therapy, Stereotactic
Radiosurgery and Surgical Resection in terms of Overall Survival, Functional Independence, Local Control, Neurological
Death and Neurocognitive Impairment. A systematically review of the pertinent literature was performed by using the
Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL/CCTR), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the ISRCTNR
(International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register) databases. A total amount of 971 articles were
encountered, including 19 Randomized Clinical Trials. High bias risk studies were excluded based on the Cochrane Bias
Risk Tool and 14 RCT with low bias risk were selected. The combination of surgical resection and Whole Brain Radiation
Therapy resulted in longer overall survival than Whole Brain Radiation Therapy alone. The combination of Whole Brain
Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery resulted in better Local Control and Overall Survival than Whole Brain
Radiation Therapy alone. Significative differences were not found in terms of Local Control and Overall Survive between
the combination of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiosurgery alone
but Neurocognition was less affected in patients treated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Current studies that compare
different therapeutic modalities for 1 to 4 brain metastases are not conclusive. The best treatment for patients with 1-4
brain metastases remains controversial.
|Effect of Passive Transfer of Anti-Hydatid Cyst Antigen Antisera on Melanoma Tumor Growth in Animal Model
||Fereshteah Jafaei Nodeh
||Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi
Abstract: Introduction: Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of Echinococcusgranulosus, a parasite responsible for hydatid
disease in human and livestock. The Effect of different antigens of this parasite in preventing the growth of tumor cells
has been demonstrated in various studies. Therefore, in this work the effect of passive transfer of antisera raised against
different antigens of Hydatid cyst on melanoma cancer growth in animal model has been investigated.
Methods: In this experimental study, antisera against different antigens of hydatid cyst raised in rabbits. C57/black mice
were injected with melanoma cells and then they received anti hydatid cyst antigen antisera. Control mice received
normal rabbit serum or saline. Tumor size in the case and control groups was measured. Then, the data were analyzed
using SPSS software and one-way Anova test.
Findings: The mean tumor area in mice that received antisera against hydatidcyst fluid, protoscolices crude antigen,
excretory-secretory antigens of protoscolices and cuticular layer was not significantly different from tumor area of control
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that injection of antisera against antigens of hydatid cyst had no significant
effect on melanoma tumor growth. So it is recommended that effect of transfer of immune cells is investigated in future
|The Best Management of Portal Neoplastic Thrombosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
||Stefania De Lorenzo
Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth commonest cancer worldwide. Vascular invasion of the portal vein
is one of the most important prognostic factors for survival in HCC patients and the prognosis is generally poor. The
optimal treatment for patients with HCC and portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) remains controversial. Although many
therapeutic options have been proposed, surgical resection is the only hope of cure for such patients.
We present the case of a 74-year-old man diagnosed with a single HCC nodule with portal thrombosis in the right
hepatic lobe in the setting of HCV-related liver cirrhosis. After a first approach with a loco-regional treatment not tolerated
by the patient, a right hepatectomy proved the best option. One year later the patient is still free from disease.
|Sexual Functioning of Gynecological Cancer Patients: A Literature Review
Abstract: Background: According to the World Health Organization, cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers were the third,
sixth and eighth most common cancers in women worldwide. Unlike other physiological side effects of cancer treatment,
sexual problems in gynecological cancer survivors do not tend to resolve after first few years of cancer treatment.
However, women who experience sexual dysfunction do not discuss the problem openly with their healthcare
Objective: The objectives of this literature review are to identify, summarize and critically appraise current literatures
investigating the sexual functioning and sexual health needs of gynecological cancer patients, as well as to identify the
communication between gynecological cancer patients and healthcare professionals.
Design: A thorough analysis of the literatures on the topic of sexual functioning of gynecological cancer patients.
Data sources: EBSCO host (Medline, CINAL Plus and Academic Search Alumni Edition) and Ovid Technology (British
Review methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in the named data sources from 2003 to 2014 to identify
English articles with the keywords “ovarian cancer”, “uterine cancer”, “cervical cancer”, “gynecological cancer”, “sexual
functioning”, “sexuality” and “sexual health needs”. Two authors assessed all identified articles independently for
inclusion in the review.
Results: A total of eight studies were included in the review. All studies focused on the sexual functioning of
gynecological cancer patients. Four of them assessed their sexual health needs and one evaluated the communication
between the patients and healthcare professionals. The findings indicated that gynecological cancer patients
experienced sexual dysfunction after the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Uncertainty of the side-effects of
cancer treatment on bodily functions led to misunderstanding and misconceptions on sexual functioning.
Communication, in general, was found to be insufficient between gynecological cancer patients and healthcare
Conclusion: Sexual functioning after the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological cancer requires special attention and
care. Appropriate interventions should be developed to meet the patients’ needs. As most of the studies investigating the
sexual functioning of gynecological cancer patients were carried out in Western countries, implications for research on
this issue in different cultural background is suggested.
|Removal of Mercury from Shark Using Sodium Borohydride and Product Characterization
||Luciene Fagundes Lauer Macedo
Abstracts: Predatory fish, such as shark, can accumulate mercury (Hg) at levels that are incompatible in relation to
consumption. Fish containing Hg can be decontaminated and potentially used as food. It was studied a procedure for the
removal of Hg from shark using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and characterized the product obtained from shark (POS).
The Hg was reduced to Hgo and eliminated by shaking. The efficiency of Hg removal was high (> 86 %) and the residual
levels of Hg in POS were compatible with human consumption. Physical appearance, color, no fish odour, texturing
capacity shown by POS were potentially compatible with its use as food. The process used did not significantly affect the
POS protein, except for the partial reduction (24.5 %) of bioavailable lysine. Although significant, the reduction of lysine
still kept its quantitative nutritional attractiveness. The NaBH4 performed strong potential decontaminant in relation to Hg,
but his use requires more studies.
|The Effectiveness of Konjac Flour on the Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of the Myofibrillar Proteins of the Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio)
Abstract: The effects of konjac flour (KF) on the emulsifying properties, turbidity, rheological properties, gel strength, gel
water-binding capacity (WBC), and gel microstructure of the myofibrillar protein (MP) of the common carp (Cyprinus
carpio) were investigated. The results showed that the emulsifying activities and gel strength of MP increased first and
then decreased with increasing KF concentrations, achieving the highest values at 0.1% KF (P<0.05). Increased KF
concentrations were accompanied by an enhanced gel WBC and increased susceptibility to thermal aggregation
(P<0.05). The addition of KF markedly enhanced G' over the entire heating temperature range, and the “peak” G values
of the 2.0% KF sample were 3.6 times than those of the control samples. The reduced G/G at the end of the heating
process (80°C) revealed that KF addition improved the gel elastic quality and increased the gelling ability of MP. It was
determined by observing the gel microstructure that addition of KF reduced empty spaces and produced a more compact
and homogeneous MP gel network structure. Overall, these results suggest that KF addition offers an effective approach
for improving the MP gel formation ability of the common carp muscle.
|Hyperspectral Imaging for Beef Tenderness Assessment
Abstract: Tenderness is one of the principal properties of meat quality. The traditional way to measure tenderness the
beef is time consuming and also destructive, and therefore not appropriate for rapidly identifying quality parameters on
the processing line, with the minimum of human intervention. The objective of the present research was to measure the
tenderness of cooked beef samples obtained from four types of muscles (i.e. infraspinatus (TB), gluteus medius (TS),
psoas major (TL), and longissimus thorasis (RE)) at three different durations of dry aging (Fresh (0 days), 14 days, and
21 days), using near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra (900 nm < < 1700 nm) were
acquired for a total of 260 beef steak samples with dry-ages of 0, 14 or 21 days. After imaging, samples were cooked
and the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), a parameter inversely related to meat tenderness, was measured. After
reflectance calibration, a region of interest (ROI) was selected from each acquired hyperspectral image and stepwise
regression was applied to the ROI to select wavelengths that were strongly related to cooked meat tenderness. Multiple
Linear Regression (MLR) calibration models were developed for quantitative evaluation of beef tenderness. The
correlation coefficient (R) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were employed to evaluate the calibration model’s
predictive ability for each group. The calibration model developed predicted tenderness with R values of 0.89, 0.86, 0.81
and 0.83 for TS, RE, TB, and TL, respectively. The results revealed that the HSI could be used for non-destructive
measurement of beef tenderness in beef having undergone three different durations of aging.
|Determination of Cold Spot Location for Conduction-Heated Canned Foods Using an Inverse Approach
||Ibrahim O. Mohamed*
Abstract: Cold spot location is a focal point in thermal process lethality calculations for conduction heated canned foods.
An inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) approach was used to model heat transfer for canned food with headspace
using a one dimensional heat conduction model. Sequential function specification algorithm was used to solve for heat
fluxes history at the can headspace side using known internal transient temperature measurements. The estimated heat
fluxes were then used to solve the direct heat conduction problem for the temperature profiles in the axial direction
including at the sensor position. Deviations between estimated temperatures and measured temperatures at the sensor
position were calculated using root mean square error. From all the treatments used, a maximum error of 0.29 oC was
obtained for the whole measurement period of the treatment which is well within thermocouple measurement error. The
excellent agreement between the measured and calculated temperatures at the sensor position is an indication of an
accurate estimation of heat fluxes and subsequent location of the cold spot. The results revealed that the cold spot is
located at about 59 % of the model food height from the bottom of the can for the three levels of headspace investigated
(10%, 14% and 20%). The result of this research provides a useful guide for accurate location of cold spot when
collecting heat penetration data for conduction heated foods with headspace predominantly occupied by water vapor.
This will aid in assuring the safety of canned foods based on accurate calculation of thermal process lethality.
|Obtaining a Concentrated Fresh Product of Capsicum Annuum by Reverse Osmosis Process and Analysis of Its Bioactive Constituents and Mineral Composition
||Oulaï Casimir Ayamaé
||Amian Brice Benjamain Kassi
Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of fresh extract product of bell pepper Capsicum annuum
obtained by reverse osmosis in terms of bioactive compounds and mineral composition. Quantitative analysis of this
product showed the presence of total alkaloids, total polyphenols and vitamin C at contents of 14.42 ± 0.23 %, 69.65 ±
0.43 g/LGA equivalent and 157.48 mg/100g, respectively, indicating the preservation of these bioactive compounds after
the application of this membrane technology. Regarding mineral composition, the contents were estimated to
61.68±0.41, 16.66±2.66, 20.69±5.31 and 11.52±0.7 mg/100g, respectively for potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron,
also indicating the preservation of these minerals in the fresh concentrated product.
The bioactive compounds of fresh concentrated product were analyzed using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
(GC-MS). Thirty four compounds were identified of which 4-Hydroxyphenylethanol. di-TMS; Benzoic acid 4-methoxy-3-
(trimethylsilyl) oxy-. methyl ester; Bis(trimethylsilyl)isovanillate. Benzoic acid. 3.4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-. trimethylsilyl
ester. Vanillylpropionic acid bis(trimethylsilyl) - are phenolic compounds and cis-4-Trimethylsilyloxy-cyclohexyl
(trimethylsilyl) carboxylate is one derived fatty acid. The presence of these various bioactive compounds in the fresh
concentrated product demonstrated that the application of membrane technology by reverse osmosis could constitute a
good alternative for obtaining the viable finished product of Capsicum fruits.
|Moisture Dependent Physical Properties of Anise Seeds
Abstract: A study on the anise seeds (Ajmer Anise-1) was performed to investigate the effect of seeds moisture content
on their physical properties as these are very important to design post harvest equipments. The physical properties of
the anise were evaluated as a function of moisture contents in the range of 4.85 % to 24.81% dry basis (d.b.). Seed
geometric parameters such as average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, volume, sphericity and
surface area increased with the increase in seed moisture. The 1000-seed mass increased linearly with increase in
moisture. Bulk density and true density of anise decreased when seed moisture content was raised while the porosity of
anise increased. The angle of repose and coefficients of static friction on four different surfaces (plywood, mild steel,
galvanized iron and glass) and terminal velocity increased with increase in seed moisture.
|Minimal Processing and Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Carrot Discs: Effects of Packaging Film and Product Weight
Abstract: Carrot (Daucus carota L.) discs were prepared and packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags with or
without aluminium silicate under passive modified atmosphere, and then stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The effects of
modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatments on oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the headspace,
color, texture, mass loss, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), -carotene content and sensory quality of packaged carrot
discs were determined. Oxygen levels decreased and carbon dioxide levels increased significantly within 7 days and
stayed stable for the rest of the storage time. While L* and WI values increased, a* and b* values decreased at the end
of the storage. Storage time was the most significant factor affecting physiological, physicochemical and sensory
attributes. -carotene content was 5.89 g kg1 fresh tissue right after processing and decreased in all applications during
storage. The shelf-life was determined as 14 days for minimally processed carrot discs for all applications.