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Diuretic Activity of Siddha Formulation of SenkaluneerChooranam in Albino Rats Jegatheeswaran.V Kanagasundaram.S

The Siddha drug Senkaluneer Chooranam (SKC) is used in the treatment of Piththa
Diseases (Including Hypertension). This study is evaluated the efficacy and safety of the
Siddha drug Senkaluneer Chooranam (SKC) in Albino rats. The Siddha drug SKC its a
diuretic effect is found out method in Lipschitz method using frusemide drug as standard.
The group – I (Controle Group) was given a normal saline, Group - II (Standard
group) serves as standard received the Frusemide (20mg/kg) and the three test groups – III,
IV, V were treated by Senkaluneer Chooranam (SKC) doses level of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg,
300mg/kg respectively. Albino rats were kept in metabolic cages and 24 hours urine was
collected. Total urine volume and urinary excretion of measured using a standard measuring
cylinder. SKC has secreted dose dependant increase volume in total urine volume, when
compare to control group. The test drug Senkaluneer Chooranam at the dose levels of
100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, which its showed a statistically significant increase in
the volume of urine with a dose dependent increase in the diuretic Urine volume to 10.28,
13.58 and 14.37 respectively. The drug also confirmed a significant increase in sodium
excretion in comparison to control group. An increase (p ˂ 0.05) in urinary excretion of
potassium is also observed. The Senkaluneer Chooranam (SKC) treated rats showed high
diuretic effect as compared to control but this effect is less than the frusemide (Group II). So,
Senkaluneer Chooranam (SKC) is good diuretic activity.

In-Vitro Anticancer Activity of Siddha Formulation ChithiraPallathiMezhugu against Hela Cell Line Selvam.M Kingsly.A

Siddha system of medicine is a well defined science in the medical world. It is one of
the most ancient systems of medicine for curing diseases. The symptoms of cervical
carcinoma are blood tinged vaginal discharge, painless menorrhagia, malignancy enlarges.
This symptom may be correlated with karuppaikazhunthuputtru in our siddha system.
Siddhars told a wonderful medicine for karuppaikazhunthuputtru namely Chithira Pallathi
Mezhugu. This traditional preparation is being used for ages without scientific validation. In
this current study, the attempt is made to establish the fact of anticancer activity of the drug
above. In modern scientific approach, this anticancer study can see through In-vitro HeLa cell
line method. This cell line method is used for cervical carcinoma. The name HeLa cell line
was derived from the name of the lady Henrietta Lacks who had affected by the cervical
carcinoma at first. This study results found that the % growth inhibition increasing with
increasing concentration steadily up to 30.127μg/ml on HeLa cell line and IC50 value of this
assay. Now overall study evaluate that Siddha Formulation ChithiraPallathiMezhugu has
potential activity on HeLa cell line. So this drug has considerable anticancer activity on
cervical carcinoma.

ANTIHISTAMINIC AND ANTIANAPHYLACTIC ACTIVITY OF SIDDHA FORMULATION OF LAVANKATHI CHOORANAM IN WISTAR RATS AND GUINEA PIGS Sowmiya S Jegatheeswaran V

Bronchial asthma (Iya Iraippu Noi) is a very common disease in the society, due to
increasing exposure to air pollution and western life style. It is common in both sexes. The
prevalence of bronchial asthma has increased significantly since the 1970s. According to the
study in 2025, will expecting more than 300 million people will affect asthma.
In the present study, Anti Histaminic and Anti anaphylactic of Lavankathi
Chooranam (LC) is investigated in animal models. Antihistaminic activity was studied in
guinea pigs using histamine-induced bronchospasm, where pre convulsive dyspnea was used
as an end point following exposure to histamine aerosol. It was evaluated for antihistamine
and bronchodilator activities and it administrated at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body
weight. A dose response curve for histamine is lower, when compared with histamine
induced contraction (p<0.05) at moderate dose level. The LC at moderate dose level significantly prolonged the latent period of convulsions as compared to control following the exposure of histamine aerosol. The result of study showed that Lavankathi Chooranam (LC) significantly protected the Guinea pigs against histamine-induced bronchospasm. Significant increase in between pre and post treatment period (**P<0.01). End of the study reveals that the Lavankathi Chooranam (LC) is more effective in the treatment of Bronchial asthma.

Risk Assessment, Fraud Detection and Prevention; Empirical Evidence from University of Eldoret Kenya Caroline Jemeli Koech  

understand the organization’s structure, work, and authority flows. They are designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of operational objectives. Cases of fraud have significantly increased in public universities due to weakness of internal controls functions. The study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between risk assessment. This study was founded on prospect theory. Descriptive survey research design was used. Target population was accountants and internal auditors, the accessible population had involve 34 accountants and internal auditors at the University of Eldoret. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The study used primary data. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, means, variances, and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that risk assessment (β1 = 0.133; p < 0.05), positively and significantly influence fraud detection and prevention in the institution. It was concluded that adequate internal controls could reduce fraud detection prevention. The study recommends that decision making and understanding how risk influences decisions is imperative. The study further recommends that the governing body, possibly supported by the audit committee, should ensure that the internal control system is periodically monitored and evaluated. The study findings will guide the institution to reduce variance in budgets through better reporting and budgetary control measures that reduces cases of fraud. It is expected that the findings will improve on internal controls in the organization.

Effect of Risk Management on Corporate Governance in Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies in Nairobi County Kenya. Ombaba K. B . Mwengei  

Corporate governance an integral part of the firms in both the public and the private sectors. Saccos need to improve their corporate governance in order to compete globally. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of risk management on corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County. The study was guided by the credit risk theory. This study adopted descriptive research design. The study targeted 45 licensed SACCOS in Nairobi County with a population of 180 respondents who worked for 45 licensed SACCOS by SASRA in Nairobi County. The sample size for the study was 124 respondents. Purposive technique and simple random sampling was used to select a sample size that represented all employees in filling questionnaires. In order to establish the validity and reliability of the instruments, a pilot study was carried out in Eldoret town. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings indicated that there was a statistical significant relationship between risk management and corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County (t=2.226, P<0.05). The study recommended that the SACCOs should adopt risk management and effectively used to identify risk exposure in order to strengthen corporate governance. The policy makers should ensure that risk management is incorporated in all management decisions being taken to enhance corporate governance

Effects of E-Procurement and e- invoicing on Organisational Performance. Is e-invoicing significant Evidence from Public Hospital in Uasin Gishu County,Kenya Rasto N. Chegugu  

chain units has made it possible to conduct procurement practices effectively as compared to the manual methods of recording procurement and general conducting of procurement functions. However, the performance of hospitals in delivering high quality of services has reduced due to lack of an e-procurement system in some hospitals. Hospitals with e-procurement systems also face challenges. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of e-invoicing practices on organizational performance. The study adopted the use of diffusion of innovation theory institutional theory to relate to the study. The study employed a descriptive survey of 5 hospitals. The sample size was 367 respondents. Questionnaires were the main types of data collection tools. The main findings of the study were as follows: In relation to e-tendering, the main findings of the study was that majority of the respondents strongly agreed that there is increased competitiveness in the tendering bid for the hospital. The result on inferential analysis was that e-invoicing is positively and significantly affecting organizational performance (β = 0.805; P < 0.05). The study findings will be of great significance to Uasin Gishu County Hospitals as it was deemed to shed light on how e-procurement practices could have affected the performance of the supply chain; to hospitals in other counties. The study recommended that the best models to be adopted when creating e-procurement practices systems relationship with suppliers and also emphasize the need to create the relationship models with the suppliers; to other future study and scholars, the study was expected to explain the concept of e-procurement practices and its impact on hospital performance while at the same time act as a basis for future research.

Effect of Liquidity Management Strategies on Sustainability of Table Banking Groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Kimani E. Maina  

determinants of sustainability of table banking groups. It enables groups set clear goals, efficient utilization of resources, proper decisions in sourcing of finances and dividends decision making. The main purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between liquidity management strategies and sustainability of table banking groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was founded on liquidity preference theory and life cycle theory. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The target population were all table bank groups in Kenya. The accessible population was 538 registered table bank groups in Uasin Gishu County. A sample of 230 groups was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique was used to narrow down the sub-counties. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 3 sub-counties out of six sub-counties in Uasin Gishu County. Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the actual study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, mean, variance and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearsons Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings were presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study established that liquidity management strategies positively and significantly influence sustainability of table banking groups (β=0.535; p < 0.05). It was concluded that proper financial management strategies could enable table banking groups to enhance their sustainability. The study is expected to guide organizational policy makers and investors as well as financial advisors and consultants on financial management strategies. The study recommended that risk management strategies should be incorporated in financial management strategies. It was also recommended that theories anchored this study should be applied so as to enhance sustainability.

Corporate Planning on Revenue Collection at Kenya Revenue Authority in North Rift Region. Does Evaluation Strategy Matter? Dr. Lydia Muriuki  

evaluation strategy on corporate planning in revenue collection at Kenya Revenue Authority. The research was guided by Stewardship Theory and the Theory of Constraints. It adopted a cross-sectional survey design which is analytical in nature. The study targeted a population of 386 KRA employees from 3 KRA stations in north rift region. The study sampled 191 respondents using simple random sampling method. Data collection was done through questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Descriptive statistics involved the use of frequency, percentages mean and standard deviation. Inferential statistics involved the use of correlation and regression model. The results of the study was presented using tables and figures. The study results showed that evaluation strategy is statistically significant with revenue collection. The study findings would be beneficial to the government in relation to policy making and strategy formulation in line to its expectations from KRA as an institution. The findings of this study would also give KRA management relevant information to help them build and improve their strategic responses in relation to revenue collection in order to satisfy its mandate to Kenyan people. Equally, the findings of this study would enrich existing knowledge and hence would be of interest to both researchers and academicians who seek to explore and carry out further investigations.

Is the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis Valid for Kenya? An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach. Yabesh Ombwori Kongo Dr. Ernest Saina

The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis posits that ecological degradation as a result of different pollutants upsurges at the primary stages, but declines as the economy attains a particular level of economic growth, determined by considering the per capita income of that economy. This hypothesized association results in an inverted U-shaped curve. The hypothesis has become a critical area of concern amid scholars who study environmental guidelines hence drawing much enquiry attention for both established and developing economies. This study examines the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Kenya using the time period of 1970–2015 relying on data from Energy Information Administration database and World Bank’s World Development Indicators database. The study utilized the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model to achieve the objective of this study. The study sought to address this challenge of climate change by examining the macroeconomic factors that are responsible in increasing environmental pollution and recommend appropriate policies for stable and sustainable economic growth and development in line with Kenya’s vision 2030. With the application of bounds test, the findings of this study confirmed the presence of a long run equilibrium relationship between the variables under study. Applying the Narayan and Narayan 2010 approach, the study determined that the short run coefficient 0.035 (p< 0.05) is weaker than the long run coefficient 0.207 (p < 0.05) confirming the absence of EKC in Kenya. This implies that there is no evidence of positive effect of economic activities on emissions in Kenya. This therefore means that EKC hypothesis is not significant for formulating policy in Kenya given its stumpy level of economic development. In terms of policy implication of these findings, intensifying economic activities in the country may not extremely result into carbon emissions. However, it should be noted that there will be no environmental paybacks from ill-using the environment in the name of economic growth. The study therefore recommends that in order to ensure sustainable development, Kenyan policymakers should make significant investments on appropriate environmental policies alongside economic development policies in order to achieve positive results regarding environmental quality along with the economic growth.

Risk Assessment, Fraud Detection and Prevention; Empirical Evidence from University of Eldoret Kenya Caroline Jemeli Koech  

Internal controls help the institution to understand the organization’s structure, work, and authority flows. They are designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of operational objectives. Cases of fraud have significantly increased in public universities due to weakness of internal controls functions. The study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between risk assessment. This study was founded on prospect theory. Descriptive survey research design was used. Target population was accountants and internal auditors, the accessible population had involve 34 accountants and internal auditors at the University of Eldoret. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The study used primary data. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, means, variances, and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that risk assessment (β1 = 0.133; p < 0.05), positively and significantly influence fraud detection and prevention in the institution. It was concluded that adequate internal controls could reduce fraud detection prevention. The study recommends that decision making and understanding how risk influences decisions is imperative. The study further recommends that the governing body, possibly supported by the audit committee, should ensure that the internal control system is periodically monitored and evaluated. The study findings will guide the institution to reduce variance in budgets through better reporting and budgetary control measures that reduces cases of fraud. It is expected that the findings will improve on internal controls in the organization.

Effect of Risk Management on Corporate Governance in Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies in Nairobi County Kenya. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba  

Corporate governance an integral part of the firms in both the public and the private sectors. Saccos need to improve their corporate governance in order to compete globally. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of risk management on corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County. The study was guided by the credit risk theory. This study adopted descriptive research design. The study targeted 45 licensed SACCOS in Nairobi County with a population of 180 respondents who worked for 45 licensed SACCOS by SASRA in Nairobi County. The sample size for the study was 124 respondents. Purposive technique and simple random sampling was used to select a sample size that represented all employees in filling questionnaires. In order to establish the validity and reliability of the instruments, a pilot study was carried out in Eldoret town. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings indicated that there was a statistical significant relationship between risk management and corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County (t=2.226, P<0.05). The study recommended that the SACCOs should adopt risk management and effectively used to identify risk exposure in order to strengthen corporate governance. The policy makers should ensure that risk management is incorporated in all management decisions being taken to enhance corporate governance

Effects of E-Procurement and e- invoicing on Organisational Performance. Is e-invoicing significant Evidence from Public Hospital in Uasin Gishu County,Kenya Rasto N. Chegugu  

Integrating e-procurement in hospitals’ supply chain units has made it possible to conduct procurement practices effectively as compared to the manual methods of recording procurement and general conducting of procurement functions. However, the performance of hospitals in delivering high quality of services has reduced due to lack of an e-procurement system in some hospitals. Hospitals with e-procurement systems also face challenges. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of e-invoicing practices on organizational performance. The study adopted the use of diffusion of innovation theory institutional theory to relate to the study. The study employed a descriptive survey of 5 hospitals. The sample size was 367 respondents. Questionnaires were the main types of data collection tools. The main findings of the study were as follows: In relation to e-tendering, the main findings of the study was that majority of the respondents strongly agreed that there is increased competitiveness in the tendering bid for the hospital. The result on inferential analysis was that e-invoicing is positively and significantly affecting organizational performance (β = 0.805; P < 0.05). The study findings will be of great significance to Uasin Gishu County Hospitals as it was deemed to shed light on how e-procurement practices could have affected the performance of the supply chain; to hospitals in other counties. The study recommended that the best models to be adopted when creating e-procurement practices systems relationship with suppliers and also emphasize the need to create the relationship models with the suppliers; to other future study and scholars, the study was expected to explain the concept of e-procurement practices and its impact on hospital performance while at the same time act as a basis for future research

Electronic Journal of Social Scinces Salih Tellioglu  

Electronic Journal of Social Sciences(sbedergi), will published twice a year. sbedergi, accepts article all scope of social sciences as turkish and english.

 
Inclusive Lifelong Education for Sustainable Development; the Successes and Challenges Aming’a Robert Maina Kisilu Kitainge

Inclusive quality education and lifelong learning is a key lever of sustainable development. This is based on a vision of inclusive societies in which all citizens have equitable opportunities to access effective and relevant lifelong learning delivered through multiple formal, non-formal and informal settings. As such, inclusive quality education and lifelong learning is essential to the development of individuals their families, local and national communities to which they belong, and to the world at large. It is vital to note that individuals who lack certain forms of learning in life may not contribute effectively to societal development. This paper reviews information from various researchers and establishes the nature of education provided globally, regionally and locally in connection to inclusive quality education and lifelong learning in relation to sustainable development so as to establish the major successes and challenges. It brings together a wide range of scientific expertise across the natural and social sciences in an accessible and concise manner. It is a unique paper designed primarily for negotiators, technical support teams and other actors engaged in defining a universal, integrated and transformational form of education for sustainable development. In particular it is a resource for technical review of the targets carried out in the education system in preparation for their adoption and translation at the national level. The results offer rigorous analysis of the proposed education goals and targets, collectively and individually, assessing whether they are backed up by scientific evidence, whether they address the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in an integrated way, and whether they are sufficiently specific to be effectively implemented and monitored. Concrete recommendations have been put forward for consideration in refining the education goals and targets.

Metal Bioaccumulation/Toxicity Test for Metal Industry Wastewaters Zeynep Cansu Ayturan Fatma Kunt

Metal industry wastewaters include different types of heavy metals with respect to the metal production
processes and products. There are several methods used for metal production industry such as refining and smelting
operations. Both may produce air emissionslike SO2 and particulate matter, wastewater originating from floatation
and leachate, and other wastes like sludge and slag. Heavy metals of metal industry wastewaters are nickel, brass,
chrome, gold, cadmium, copper, brass, and silver. Most of them may give severe damage to human and
environment. For example, chrome ion leads to lung cancer, stomach ulcer, kidney and liver function disorders
and death on human. Thus, heavy metal containing wastewaters could be very dangerous. Besides, plant species
which have capability of accumulate heavy metals can be an option to bioaccumulate metal industry wastewaters
while plant species which are sensitive to heavy metals can be used as a plant for phytotoxicity tests. In this study
metal industry wastewaters were analysed in order to determine plant species whether they are sensitive or tolerant
to heavy metals. During analysis phytotoxicity tests were conducted with different plant species.

MİMARLIKTA YAPARAK ÖĞRENME VE BİR ARAŞTIRMA ORTAMI OLARAK ÖĞRENCİLERİN ÜRETTİĞİ GEÇİCİ STRÜKTÜRLER LEARNING BY DOING IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND EDUCATIONAL PAVILIONSMANUFACTURED BY STUDENTS Berna MUN Semra ARSLAN SELÇUK

As in all design disciplines, architectural design education approaches integrate many concepts of thought and design methods. In architecture education, learning activity is based on learning by doing. Architectural design studios; is a place in which students experience new theories, ideas, materials and structures. They have the opportunity to work together, learn together and follow each other's design processes. Nowadays, computational design and production methods have become effective tools and environments for teaching and learning. Students can easily choose the most advanced ones among the many alternatives in their designs and they can represent the design with the prototypes they produce with the help of digital tools. The experimental approach inherent in the architecture is now supported by digital technologies and has begun to influence and transform architectural design and production processes. With this evolution, the concepts of material, form and structure which are the basic elements of an architectural design can be reinterpreted. Temporary structures, which are among experimental areas in the architecture, are the most successful examples reflecting these innovations due to their scale. Temporary structures / pavilions make it possible to build an alternative beyond just physical building an architectural practice. Moreover, a non-permanent experience; a new material experiment, a different fiction, an untested form and structure. The design practice is a experimental process in which new thinking and production formsare discussed from a different point of view. Due to their appropriate scales, pavilions are not only successful examples of prototypes to reach the desired applicability of novel architectural forms but also they can be accepted as bridges to the new design tools and manufacturing technologies. In this context this paper discusses and exemplifies the learning by doing approach in architectural design education through the recently constructed 7 student pavilions in different universities which are following different notions in architectural education. As a result of the study, it was questioned how learning-by-doing approaches, integrated with digital technologies, could be a field of research in architectural education, especially in educational pavilions.

TÜRKİYE VE DÜNYADA FOTOVOLTAİK UYGULAMALARINDA 2017 EĞİLİMLERİ Turkey and World Trends 2017 in Photovoltaic Applications Burak YILDIRIM Mahmut Temel ÖZDEMİR

The worldwide use of traditional energy sources is causing global warming, which affects our world in a negative way. Global warming is realized on the burning of fossil fuels that cause harmful gases. Because of increasing environmental concerns, such as the lack of traditional fossil fuels and carbon emissions reduction, energy production from renewable energy sources is increasing considerably. Photovoltaic (PV) production, which is one of the renewable energy sources, is attracting a lot of attention. This paper show trends related to PV applications in the world and Turkey. For this purpose, new investment and current status of PV applications in the world and Turkey is shown. In addition, the percentage of PV applications for new investments in electric power generation in Turkey is given for the year 2017. The results of this study show the current status of renewable energy sources and PV applications in electric power generation. The results obtained showed that the production based on solar energy has attracted a great deal of attention throughout the world and that the percentage of production based on solar energy in electric power generation is increasing day by day.

DÜNYADAKI RÜZGAR ENERJISININ GÜCÜNE GENEL BIR BAKIŞ Burak YILDIRIM Mahmut Temel ÖZDEMİR

Because of increasing environmental concerns, such as the lack of traditional fossil fuels and carbon emissions reduction, energy production from renewable energy sources is increasing considerably. In the United States and Europe, legislative regulations for the increased use of renewable energy have come into force. Wind generation is a kind of renewable energy source that focuses on the renewable energy profile in states with strong wind resources. In this study, electricity generation based on wind energy was tried to give general information about available values in the world. For this purpose, we can list some data given in this study as follows. The global cumulative installed wind capacity for the period 2010-2017 was first given. The top 10 countries with the highest cumulative and annual installed wind capacity in the market at the end of 2017 have been shown. In addition, wind power rates according to region are given in detail for the years 2010-2017. Offshore wind power plants, which increase the rate of worldwide wind production day by day, showed installed capacity for the year 2017. Finally, the offshore wind power plants were given cumulative installed capacity for the years 2011-2017.

FİZİK EĞİTİMİNDE METAFORVE ANOLOJİ ARASINDAKİ FARKLAR ÜZERİNE BİR META-ANALİZ ARAŞTIRMASI Havva Sibel KURT Musa SARI

The disruptions in the field of physics education in our country, the difficulties of learning and the low student achievement led the physicists to question how we can make abstract concepts more meaningful in classroom learning environments. Research in this context has gained momentum in representation, such as modeling, developing analogies, creating tables and graphics, presenting forms, and using mathematical formulas. In this framework, there search of thephysics language used in physics has been shaped by analogies and metaphors. Educators, who aim to reach unknown concepts from conventional concepts, use many analogies in thePhysics textbooks in order to objectify abstract concepts. However, there are not enough studies to analyze how the seanalogiesand metaphors which have reflections on languag eaffect learning, whether they result in positiveeffects, misconceptionsorun certainty in thelanguage. At the same time, this in sufficiency also show up in different contexts such as which conceptsare appropriat etocrea teanalogies in physics or which conceptsare metaphors or the effects of metaphorical perceptions in the learning process. Inourcountry, there has not been encountered a comprehensive study that shows the difference sand similarities between analogiesand metaphors, yet.

INVESTIGATION OF FATIGUE LIFE OF NEW DESIGNED GATLING GUN STRIKER İbrahim Halil GÜZELBEY Edip ÖZTÜRK

The Gatling gun is an old war machine that has multiple barrels. These barrels rotate around a central axis and placed on a kind of drum. Since every barrel used for shooting only once per revolution of drum, every single barrel has enough time for cooling off. This cooling operation ensures that time for recycling for barrels can be shorter. A modern Gatling gun has a firing capacity nearly 2000 bullets per minute. This means every barrel and firing mechanism located inside drum are used 670 times per minute. When the working speed of barrel is considered, it is seen that the fatigue life becomes an important issue for every part of this type of gun. Striker is the most critical part of Gatling gun firing mechanism,as every weapon. A striker is used applying force to primer of bullet to ignite propellant. Striker shape is as important as recycling time in terms of bullet primer-striker interaction. Hence, in this study, new designed Gatling gun striker is investigated in terms of fatigue life.Three different striker geometries, which are flat, spherical and chamfered, is used to perform the study. Numerical simulation of the study is fulfilled using ANSYS-Workbench, which is finite element program. Static structural analysis is chosen for analysis system to perform numerical study.Structural steel is assigned for the striker material. Firing load is applied the tip of striker as 100 N. At the end of the study, fatigue life, deformation, and stress values on the Gatling gun striker is obtained.

БОЛАШАҚ БИОЛОГТАРДЫҢ ҒЫЛЫМИ-ЗЕРТТЕУШІЛІК ҚҰЗЫРЕТТІЛІГІН ҚАЛЫПТАСТЫРУДЫҢ ТЕОРИЯЛЫҚ НЕГІЗДЕРІ KYRBASSOVA ELZIRA  

Мақалада педагогикалық жоғары оқу орындарында болашақ биологтардың ғылыми-зерттеушілік құзыреттіліктерін қалыптастырудың теориялық негіздері берілген.
Бүгінгі таңда студенттердің ғылыми-зерттеу жұмыстары жоғары оқу орындарында маман дайындауда ең қажетті негізгі компоненттердің бірі, оқу үдерісінің құрамдас элементі болып табылады. Осыған байланысты оқу үдерісін студенттер оқу бағдарламасына сәйкес білім алып қана қоймай, сонымен қатар алған білімін өзбетінше жетілдіре білетін, ғылыми мәселелерді шешуде ғылыми-зерттеу әдістерін меңгерген, әртүрлі ақпарат ағындарын жалпылап және анализдей алатындай етіп құрастыру қажет. Ғылыми-зерттеушілік іс-әрекеттерді ұйымдастырудағы оқытушының негізгі міндеті - студенттерді ғылыми жұмыстарға тартуға ықпал ету. Оқытушының жоғары профессионализмі, педагогикалық шеберлігі студенттердің ғылыми жұмысқа деген қызығушылығын тудырады және соның нәтижесінде шығармашылық сипаттағы танымдық белсенділігін арттырады [1].
Студенттердің, магистранттардың ғылыми-зерттеушілік жұмыстары деп ғылыми жұмыстарды орындауда әдістер мен дағдыларды игеруге бағытталған іс-шаралар жиынтығын айтуға болады. Студенттердің ғылыми-зерттеушілік жұмыстарын дамыту мен жетілдіру – студенттердің танымдық іс-әрекеттерін белсендірумен, шығармашылық ойлау қабілеттері мен зерттеушілік құзыреттіліктерінің дағдысын қалыптастырумен тікелей байланысты педагогиканың негізгі міндеттеріне кіреді.
Инновациялық білім беру үдерісінде жоғары оқу орындарының білім алушыларының ғылыми-зерттеушілік іс-әрекеттері өзекті және болашақ мамандарды кәсіби дайындауда негізгі компоненттердің бірі болып табылады [2].
Студенттердің зерттеушілік құзыреттілігі – ғылыми-зерттеушілік іс-əрекет үрдісінде қалыптасатын тұлғаның дайындығы, оған ғылым құндылықтары мен нормаларын, зерттеушілік іс-əрекеттің əмбебап тəсілдерін меңгеруі, жаңа білімдер жүйесін өз бетімен игеруі, нəтижені алуға бағытталған жаңа əдіс-тəсілдерді білуі, өзінің зерттеушілік əрекетінің рефлексиясын жүзеге асыруы, педагогикалық жəне психологиялық зерттеуді жүргізуге дайындығы жатады [3]. Жоғары оқу орнында білім алушылардың ғылыми жұмыстары теориялық және қолданбалы мәселелерді тиімді шешуге қабілетті, заманауи мамандардың кәсіби және шығармашылық дағдыларын қалыптастырады [4].
Биология мамандығының студенттері мен магистранттарының ғылыми-зерттеушілік іс-әрекет тәжірибесін қалыптастыру білім берудің барлық кезеңдерінде міндетті және элективті пәндерді оқыту барысында іске асырылады. Әр пәннің өз ерекшеліктері бар. Мысалы, биология мамандығы магистранттарында жүргізілетін «Дәрілік өсімдіктер қоры» элективті пәнінің пәнаралық ауқымы өте кең: ботаника, экология, генетика, химия, тарих, медицина пәндерімен өте тығыз байланысты. Осыған байланысты бұл пәннің зертханалық сабақтарында орындалатын жұмыстар да әртүрлі бағытта болады.

BENEFICIAL MICROBIOTA OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Osman ERKMEN  

Probiotic and prebiotic foods enhance the growth of healthy microorganisms in body.Probiotics are the healthy microflora that live in digestive tract and prebiotics are the nutrients that they use to thrive. Synbiotic products combine probiotics and prebiotics to enhance their beneficial effects. The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Many microbial species live commensally on mucosal tissues of the nose, mouth, and GI tract. Probiotics and prebiotics may help normalize a gut microbiota disturbed by antibiotics or other stressors and improve health of people.Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. The introduction of probiotics and prebiotics into human diet is favorable for the intestinal microbiota. Abiotic components are dead cell components (such as enzymes), metabolic by-products (bioactive peptides), and others.Probiotics, probiotics and synbiotics have systemic effects on the host’s health metabolism and immune system. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Most commonly used probiotic strains are present in Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillusand Saccharomyces boulardii. Some of the prebiotics are inulin, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids. Prebiotics are the most commonly used fibers which when used together with probiotics are termed synbiotics and are able to improve the viability of the probiotics. Synbiotics aid digestion and absorption of nutrients, synthesize certain vitamins and amino acids, and improve immune function. They also keep the pathogens in check by crowding them out or secreting substances that reduce their numbers. Dietary fiber is not digested in the small intestines, when it makes its way to the large intestines, the healthy bacteria break it down releasing short chain fatty acids.Utilization of prebiotics by probiotics should be a pre-requisite in order to maintain a good synergy and maximize the beneficial effects.Nonviable probiotics exert beneficial effects on the health of people.

SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS HARMONICS IN POWER SYSTEM INCLUDING NONLINEAR LOAD Süleyman ADAK Hasan CANGİ

Harmonics generally occur due to the presence of non-linear circuit elements and / or non-sinusoidal sources is found in the power system.Harmonics are pollution in power systems. With the use of static converters, this pollution rate increases day by day. The increase of power electronic elements and various nonlinear elements every day causes the increase of the non-sinusoidal size circulating in the energy system. The presence of harmonic components in power systems will lead to distortion of the sinusoidal wave.As a result of non-linear elements or non-sinusoidal sources, the sinusoidal wave form in the energy system is distorted. These distorted waves are called "non-sinusoidal waves". The wave outside the fundamental wave is called the "harmonic component".Demand for electricity energy is increasing day by day. Harmonics must be destroyed for a more reliable and higher quality energy.Considering increase of non-linear elements in recent years, it appears that harmonics will greatly affect our energy system in the near future. Harmonic currents tend to flow from the harmonic source to the lowest impedance in power system.Harmonics producing by non-linear characteristic loads or sources are added to power system. This paper analyzing variousnon-sinusoidal voltage or current distortion waveforms generated by typical non-linear loads such as uninterruptible power supply (UPS), DC/DC power converter, frequency converter, DC/AC rectifier, switched power supplies, saturated magnetic components and power electronic switches. Even if the power of the nonlinear loads are low, they distort the sinusoidal wave form of current or voltage. Effects of harmonics on power system can cause such problems as change of power factor, neutral current increase, heating of transformers, increase of losses, capacitor fuse blowing,Increase in voltage drop in power system, memory of CAD / CAM terminals deletedvibrations in electric motors, resonances and device malfunctions. Nonlinear loads, even at low power, distort sinusoidal current and voltage waveforms in energy systems. Considering the large number of nonlinear loads connected to the power systems, it is very important for the quality of the energy to eliminate the resulting harmonic distortion. Non-linear elements cause serious harmonic pollution in production, transmission and distribution systems and decrease the quality of energy given to consumers, and harmonics in power system must be destroyed before larger problems occur. This paper presents a detailed analysis of total harmonic distortion (THD) in terms of presence of a nonlinear load in the power circuit. The six pulse rectifier in the power system act as a harmonic source. The harmonic components such as the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 23rd, 25th, etc. produced by a six-pulse rectifier.Simulink is a bundle program of Matlab that is used to build, simulate and analyze dynamic system models. The hamonic analysis of the power system was performed with

MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR COMPUTING OUTPUTVOLTAGE OF PV SOLAR MODULEDEPENDENT ON TEMPERATUREAND IRRADIANCE Süleyman ADAK Hasan CANGİ

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology system is a renewable energy and it is also an attractive technique to reduce consumption of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil causes of global warming. Solar PV system converts the photon energy to the direct-current (DC)energy. Output inducing voltage of the PV system which is depending onthe solarirradiance, shading, dust, temperature, humidity,tilt of solar panel, type of panel and other meteorological conditions. There is a common misconception that solar panels need hot style weather so as to work high yield. This idea is not true! Solar PV panels work by absorbing the irradiance from the sun, andturning it into direct current energy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate voltage changes of the PV panel terminals according to temperature and irradiance. Change of panel out put voltage which depends on the temperature and irradiance have been observed by using Matlab /Simulink. Inaddition, simulation allows us to design and analysis of complex systems. Theimportance of simulation in engineeringsystems isincreasingdaybyday. Generally, voltage drop occurs at high temperature of the PV panels so that PV system can Works more effective at lower temperature. The voltge induced by a PV panel is maximum at low temperature and on high irradiation. Moreover, it is a variable quantity depending on the solar irradiance and cell temperature. In this aspect, this paper is proposed modelling, design and simulation of the PV system equivalent circuit was executed by MATLAB/Simulink and also the analysis process has been achived by the SPSS statistical program. This program include sregression methods such as Logistic regression, nonlinear regression and Probit regression

KRONİK HASTALIKLARIN TEDAVİSİNDE OYUN TERAPİSİ DESTEĞİ Game TherapySupport İn TheTreatment Of ChronicDiseases Yasemin OĞUZ GÜNER  

Chronic Illnesses are the most important health problems that are rapidly increasing in the world and in our country. Preventive health care and education as well as studies for the development of medical treatment options have led to an increase in the survival of this patient group, but the quality of life can not be achieved at the desired level. The quality of life is the common problem of chronic patients who have to maintain medical support life-long. Cancer, chronic organ failure and organ transplant patients are living with many psychosocial problems due to reasons such as inability to work, loss of family duties, and pushing out of society together with uncertainty of the treatment process. For this reason, the multidisciplinary approach requires the help of professionals such as clinical psychologists and occupational therapists for various psychological problems, especially chronic patients, anxiety and depression, and methods of coping with stress.
It is thought that fighting chronic diseases which affects people of all ages physiologically and spiritually will enable them to act by playing games, emotional, psychosomatic, physical and other mechanisms to enable them to cope with stress and relieve them, to express themselves, to express themselves and to raise awareness of their problems.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the application of gaming therapy in children, adolescents, adults and couples can also be achieved in individuals fighting chronic diseases. As a means of communication, play is used to provide a means of expressing verbal abuse, to force emotions into words, or to develop awareness of their own problems. During the game, the expert finds the opportunity to examine their behavior with the expression of the individual. It is possible to elucidate the cognitive, emotional, physical, linguistic and social disadvantages of chronic patients, such as anxiety and depression, through guided or unguided play therapy, and offer alternative support to such illnesses. It is thought that one of the applications that can be done with the support of "I listen to you", "I care about you", "I am here for you", "I understand you", "can accomplish" most needed in the difficult treatment of patients. In this study, it was discussed that the theories of play therapy and its use in chronic diseases.

KORUMA ALANLARININ ÇEVRESİNDE NÜFUS HAREKETLERİ: TEMEL YAKLAŞIMLAR Yasin KOÇ Abdullah SOYKAN

In recent years as conservation areas itself ,around of these areas are also emerged as a subject in terms of population movements. Social scientists working in the field of environmental protection attempt to explain the population movements in different progress brought important discussions which constitutes subject of this research. within this scope, the purpose of this paper is to reveala different approaches about population movement aroun protected areas from a theoretical perspective. While differences approaches and methods exist the general trend show that there are population movement around protected areas. A emerged paradigma suggest that case studies are essential but efficiency of protected policies and impact of the population movement around protected areas on local communities to understand influences of the population movements correctly. I had reviewed and analysed literature about the protected areas particularly related with the new paradigma

MICROWAVE ACTIVATED DESULFURIZATION OF TURKISH COALS AND LIGNITE, ŞIRNAK ASPHALTITE –MODIFIED PNEUMATIC FLOTATION Yıldırım İsmail TOSUN  

Clean coal products of Tunçbilek, Bolu Mengen, KütahyaGediz lignite, Sirnak asphaltite were received as mid-products and shale settlements in modified centrifuge settler in the column form. The cleaner products was also second cleaning stage was also carried out. Heavy duty washing was applied in two and three stages ranging 1.5 to 1.7 gr/cm3 densities of ZnCl2 baths in order to determine and compare with centrifuge settler performance and cleaning efficiencies of coagulation and settling. The modified settler design for the optimum washing unit and the most advanced clean product was investigated.
With the advanced design, the best quality lignite is obtained by producing the cleanest product that the country needs as desulfurization. The coal types can change the method of coagulation cleaning of the coal and asphaltite in the local area of Şırnak. The country side may use much simple methods using water settling and during settling coagulation of asphaltite fines as clean desulfurized products. This method could be successful in high product yield for mid products and pyrite rejection following Humphrey spirals. The combustion yields for Şırnak asphaltite fine under 100 micron was over 73% and 60% with 23% ash and 22% ash contents in the first and last cleaning stage end, respectively. The coal samples desulfurization at third cleaning stages was reached 59,5% for Şırnak asphaltite fine while the desulfurization rate values was 43,6% in control tests of selective coagulation tests.
The production of high quality solid coal fuels will lead to the development of the South East Anatolian region and will further improve the industrial development with the diversification and supply of industrial energy fuels. Şırnak asphaltite and lignite with various washing devices could be cleaned from ash clay. The washing of lignite and forward washing stages and optimum parameters were determined and the efficiency was high. Performance for current process should be subsequently practiced for mid heavy media products and low qualities of our lignite. Tests and their performance in advanced processing could provide the modification for settler and it also needs to be developed depending on type of lignite.

RECOVERY OF HEMATİTE FROM THE ASPHALTİTE BOİLER’S BOTTOM ASH BY COLUMN FLOTATİON – PLANT MODELLİNG Yıldırım İsmail TOSUN  

Clean hematite product and midsfrom theBottom ash ofSirnak asphaltite were received as mid-products and shale sequentially at third settlements in the column flotation. The cleaner products was also second cleaning stage was also managed. Ash cleaning efficiencies were investigated at varied stages by columnflotation and shale settling.The modified column flotationdesign for the optimum washing unit and the most advanced clean product was investigated.
With the advanced design, the best quality iron raw materialscould be obtained by producing the cleanest product that the country needs as reductive roasted iron products. Thecombustionin the Silopi Power Station can change the ash type as hematite and ferriteeffecting thecolumn flotstion of the bottom ash of combusted asphaltite in the local areaof Şırnak. Thisdirect column flotation method could be successful in high product yield for mid products and ash silicate rejection following Humphrey spirals. The flotation yields for hematite fine under 100 micron was over 62% and 56% with grades of 54,3% Fe and 62,7% total Fe contents in thesecond and last cleaning stage end, respectively. Theslime lost at scavanger stages was decreased 19,5%,relatively in control tests of column flotation tests.

MİCROWAVE PYROLYSİS OF COAL SLİME AND WOOD STRAW BY PYRİTE FOR ACTİVE CARBON PRODUCT Yıldırım İsmail TOSUN  

In the Southeastern Anatolian Region of Turkey, in Ergani Elazığ and Siirt Şirvan copper ore concentrators, containing the pyrite and the high pyrite content discarded is received as pyrite concentrate from concentrating copper by flotation swept and waste products. Ergani Concentrator produce the pyrite concentrate by product about 350 thousand tons for sulfuric acid production and about 1,700 thousand tons of pyrite waste sent to dispose, Siirt Şirvan copper pyrite is not also evaluated. These pyrite waste products both should be evaluated by the microwave pyrolysis of Turkish Lignites and Şırnak Asphaltite which contains aproximately 8% coal pyrite at seperately disseminated micron and macro sized. The shale and clay content was also separated sellectively in this microwave processing in terms of high carbon contents.
In this study, samples are subjected to microwave pyrolysis by roasting of pyrite waste and subsequently pelletized slime mixtures with wood straw samples were subjected to microwave pyrolysis by pyrite at varied power under the temperature 500oC. Active carbon and char matter at the end of microwave pyrolysis were tested. The carbon, ash and moisture volatıle matter improves physical pore types for active carbon at certain degree. The energy need was also minimised at 73% for Şırnak Asphaltite slime by microwave pyrolysis.

Financial Management Capacities and Financial Sustainability of Community Based Organizations in Turkana County, Kenya. Dr. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba Francis Obondi Abong’o

The evolution of Community Based Organizations in recent year especially in developing countries has reinforced the new that these grassroots organizations are more effective in addressing local needs than larger charitable organizations due to their penetration, networks and perceived neutrality in their areas of operations. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of financial management capacities on financial sustainability of CBOs in Turkana County, Kenya. The study was founded on resource-based theory. The study adopted an exploratory research design and stratified proportionate sampling. The population of the research consisted 126 respondents from 42 CBOs in Turkana County. The study used both primary and secondary data. The study utilized self-administered semi-structured questionnaire and content analysis for collecting secondary data using data collection schedule. A pilot test was conducted to confirm validity and reliability of the research questionnaires. Content validity of the research instruments was ensured by consulting supervisors. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The study found that financial management capacities had a positive and significant effect on financial sustainability (β=0.016, p<0.05), in Turkana County, Kenya. The study recommended that CBOs management should consider putting in place the recommended strategies to enhance financial management practices to improve financial sustainability. The study will contribute new dimensions and perspectives to generate policy solutions to the management and CBOs sector stakeholders. The new empirical evidence will form the basis for further studies with the aim of addressing financial sustainability of CBOs through prudent financial management practices

FORMATION OF THE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS THROUGH INTERSUBJECT COMMUNICATION IN THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY MYRZAKHMETOVA Nurbala O KUANYSHEVA Zh.K

Intersubject competence is a system of knowledge, skills and skills, formed by an integrated
knowledge of the substance, phenomena and processes. The interdisciplinary nature of chemical
knowledge originates in the nature of the relationships "structure - properties - functions": the
biological (physiological) functions of all biogenic elements are determined by their
physicochemical properties, which in turn depend on the features of the structure of atoms, their
place in the periodic system. I. Mendeleev. The means of formation of interdisciplinary
competencies is integration, as an integration into a whole of disparate parts, a deep
interpenetration, the merging in one material of generalized knowledge in one area or another. The
integrated content of training provides more opportunities for the formation of intellectual, creative
thinking through the creation of problem situations, the solution of intersubject problems.
Interdisciplinary integration makes it possible to impart personal importance to one area of
knowledge by satisfying the interests of students in other areas of knowledge. This is especially true
in classes with a humanitarian direction of instruction. Working on the formation of
interdisciplinary competence, it is necessary to use interdisciplinary connections in the teaching and
educational process in the system. To do this, study textbooks on other subjects and additional
literature. To create calendar - thematic and pourochnoe planning taking into account
interdisciplinary relations.
The article examines ways of forming competence in chemistry lessons by means of knowledge
integration.

Effect of Liquidity Management Strategies on Sustainability of Table Banking Groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Kimani E. Maina  

Financial management strategies are crucial determinants of sustainability of table banking groups. It enables groups set clear goals, efficient utilization of resources, proper decisions in sourcing of finances and dividends decision making. The main purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between liquidity management strategies and sustainability of table banking groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was founded on liquidity preference theory and life cycle theory. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The target population were all table bank groups in Kenya. The accessible population was 538 registered table bank groups in Uasin Gishu County. A sample of 230 groups was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique was used to narrow down the sub-counties. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 3 sub-counties out of six sub-counties in Uasin Gishu County. Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the actual study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, mean, variance and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearsons Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings were presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study established that liquidity management strategies positively and significantly influence sustainability of table banking groups (β=0.535; p < 0.05). It was concluded that proper financial management strategies could enable table banking groups to enhance their sustainability. The study is expected to guide organizational policy makers and investors as well as financial advisors and consultants on financial management strategies. The study recommended that risk management strategies should be incorporated in financial management strategies. It was also recommended that theories anchored this study should be applied so as to enhance sustainability

Corporate Planning on Revenue Collection at Kenya Revenue Authority in North Rift Region. Does Evaluation Strategy Matter? Dr. Lydia Muriuki  

The study aimed at determining the influence of evaluation strategy on corporate planning in revenue collection at Kenya Revenue Authority. The research was guided by Stewardship Theory and the Theory of Constraints. It adopted a cross-sectional survey design which is analytical in nature. The study targeted a population of 386 KRA employees from 3 KRA stations in north rift region. The study sampled 191 respondents using simple random sampling method. Data collection was done through questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Descriptive statistics involved the use of frequency, percentages mean and standard deviation. Inferential statistics involved the use of correlation and regression model. The results of the study was presented using tables and figures. The study results showed that evaluation strategy is statistically significant with revenue collection. The study findings would be beneficial to the government in relation to policy making and strategy formulation in line to its expectations from KRA as an institution. The findings of this study would also give KRA management relevant information to help them build and improve their strategic responses in relation to revenue collection in order to satisfy its mandate to Kenyan people. Equally, the findings of this study would enrich existing knowledge and hence would be of interest to both researchers and academicians who seek to explore and carry out further investigations.

Effects of Operational Risk Reduction on Service Delivery at Kenya Power Company Limited , Kapseret Sub County ,Uasin- Gishu County, Kenya. Paul Kebenei Geoffrey Kimutai Kiptum

With the current Kenyan government goal of power connectivity to its citizens through Kenya power company limited, there has been an increase in illegal lines, operational accidents, long connectivity time, leakage of company information, and rise in number of complaints from the customers since the adoption of outsourcing. This study sought to establish the effects of operational risks reduction on service delivery at Kenya Power Company limited, Kapseret Sub-County, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study adopted Transaction Cost (TC) Theory. Descriptive survey research design was used. A total population of 1812 and sample size of 317 were used. The study also employed stratified random sampling method done according to the Kenya Power Company limited structure and used the questionnaire and interview as the main research instrument which was tested for validity and reliability after pilot study. The data analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 24. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regressions. These obtained data was presented in form of tables. There was a positive significant relationship between operational risks reduction of projects (β1=0.528) and service delivery at Kenya Power Company limited. Management of Kenya Power Company limited should ensure there is existence of a competent outsourcing team. They should also sensitize its employees on the core and non-core activities of Kenya Power Company limited, the activities outsourced and reasons for outsourcing. For effective implementation of outsourcing there should be an overall clear understanding of what it entails and requires for great performance.

Relationship Between Financial Risk Management and Performance of Small and Micro Enterprise in Moiben Constituency Uasin - Gishu County. 1Noah K. Kiprop 2Kimani E. Maina

Financial literacy provides knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and the skills, motivation and confidence to apply such knowledge and understanding in order to make effective decisions across a range of financial context and to improve the financial well of SMEs. Research shows that 65.1% of the SMEs in Kenya fail within their first year of operation. This study determined the relationship between financial risk management and the performance of micro and small enterprises in Moiben constituency, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. A total of 1923 registered micro and small enterprises in Moiben Constituency comprised the study population. A sample of 331 micro and small enterprises was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique; purposive sampling and simple random sampling was used to select micro and small enterprises to be used in the study. A pilot study was conducted so as to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Validity of the research instrument was achieved by using of content validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Self-administered questionnaires and a secondary data sheet were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and presented by use of tables, charts and graphs. The result of the study indicates that financial risk management affects the firm’s performance of micro and small enterprises in Moiben Constituency. Performance of small and micro enterprises was found to be significantly affected by financial risk management (t = 8.327; p = 0.041). The study therefore recommends that stakeholders involved should therefore focus on developing programs to educate SMEs on how to assess, monitor and reduce risk of a given business portfolio. The study findings informs all the stakeholders in charge of the SMEs sector as it proves that financial literacy affects the financial performance of the micro and small enterprises

Effects of Strategic plan Resources Allocation on Quality Services Delivery in the Sugar Manufacturing Companies in Western Region, Kenya. Josephat Kiprono Mengich Geoffrey Kimutai Kiptum

Service delivery is an essential function in the relation between companies and citizens. Over the past ten years the realization that citizens are customers has become increasingly important to the way companies think and act. The aim of this study was determine effect of strategic plan resource allocation on quality service delivery in the sugar manufacturing industry. The study was guided by the Vrooms expectancy theory. Accessible population for this study was 734 respondents from Nzoia Sugar Company, Mumias Sugar Company, Chemelil Sugar Company, Kibos Sugar Company, South Nyanza Sugar Company and Soin Sugar Company. Slovin’s Formula was used to get the desired sample size which was 259 employees from the 6 selected sugar companies. The study utilized questionnaires to collect data. Reliability of the instrument was ensured through split-half method. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics was used to analyze data. Data were presented in form of frequency tables and in written report. Study findings also rejected the null hypothesis because there was a statistical significant effect of strategic total rewards on service delivery in the sugar manufacturing industry (p=0.000). The study enabled policy makers obtain knowledge of manufacturing industry dynamics and the appropriate strategies to be applied to enhance performance and therefore obtain guidance from this study in designing appropriate policies that will regulate the industry. To the academicians the study might contribute to the existing literature in the field of strategy implementation and quality service delivery of sugar manufacturing industry

Relationship between Chronic Illiness on School Going Children and Academics Achievements in Ainabkoi County, Kenya Theresa Wambui (Ph.D)  

Children with chronic illness are at the intersection of the health and education systems. Unfortunately, typical educational programs and policies are not designed to support students battling chronic illness. Therefore understanding their educational needs of pupils affected with chronic illness is important if we are to provide equitable educational opportunities. Chronic illness has an impact on children development, affecting their academic performance, self esteem, social relationship and ability to access the same educational outcomes as healthy peers. This paper seeks to highlight some of the experiences that chronic ill pupils go through that affect their academic performance. The study was descriptive targeted pupils from class 7 and 8 and class teachers from Public primary schools in Ainabkoi constituency. Questionnaires and interview guide formed tools for data collection. Results from the study revealed that children academic performance is affected by other factors caused by chronic illness. The finding also revealed that chronic illness affects intelligence, memory, concentration and self esteem of pupils. Pupils with chronic illness are likely to perform poorly in Languages, and mathematic. The study therefore, recommends modification of curriculum to be able to accommodate this group of pupil. The study also recommends an in-service training that will enable teachers learn how to deal with chronically ill children in schools

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Performance of State Corporation in Kenya. Ogolla Judith Atieno Dr. Eng. Thomas A. Senaji

Leadership is vital in the overall performance of any organization. The leadership chosen is dependent on various contingent factors. The environment influences the link between leadership and performance. The combination of the various factors contributes to the leadership selected which influences the performance of the organization. Over the past three decades, transformational leadership has emerged as one of the predominant paradigms to understand leadership efficacy. Transformational leadership theory is based on the concept that certain leader behaviors transform followers' values, needs, preferences, and aspirations, and motivate them, “to perform above and beyond the call of duty”. Transformational leadership has gained extensive attention in the literature research because of its potential proposition for the performance of the organizations. Research indicates that this type of leadership can collectively influence workforce performance and loyalty leading to improvements in the workers motivation and creativity. In consideration to the past decades research findings and strength this forms the foundation for this study research on the importance of transformational leadership through its four constructs; idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration and their influence on organizational performance in fifty five state corporation in Kenya with commercial and strategic functions. A total of 257 surveys instrument questionnaires were distributed with 235 retuned and 215 were suitable for use. The data was analyzed using multiple regressions method with a significance level of p < 0.05. The measurement instrument used was on five likert scale ranging from strongly disagree as 1 to strongly agree as 5. The results indicate that while transformational leadership and three of its constructs; inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration contributed to 78.6 percent of the variation in organizational performance; idealized influence was moderately a significant factor contributing to the study outcomes. Top Leadership management may need to focus on these constructs of transformational leadership to improve performance of the organizations understudy.

Do Orphans and Vulnerable Children Have A Future? A Critical Analysis of Community basedSocial Protection Sytems in Kenya. Selina Cheptonui Kogo  

chronic poverty and Hiv/Aids have increased the number of orphans and vulnerable children, thereby threatening the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals in spheres of Education, Health, Nutrition, and psychosocial development. In Kenya, the vulnerability of children communities is evident and its manifestation is in different spheres in the society causing disorder and disintegration. Orphans and vulnerable children have been the victims of circumstance, posing a big challenge to their survival and development. Academic evidence from various studies on child protection in other countries in Africa have shown how adoption of community based child protection mechanism can effectively address child protection issues. The main question is: Is this the same case in Kenya? With use of literature information in Kenya and outside, this paper analyses the role of community-based child protection structures for the survival and development of orphans and vulnerable children. Findings of the study indicates that there is disconnect that exist between the national child protection systems and community-based child protection structures thus, threatening the future of orphans and vulnerable children. The paper argues that Kenya has done little in strengthening community-based child protection systems, which play the role of prevention and coordination of resources at the community level in addressing child protection issues. Moreover, interventions employed by various stakeholders to establish and/or strengthen child social protection systems, have achieved little and are not sustainable. The paper concludes that community based child protection structures are fundamental instruments in prevention of children vulnerabilities and create a link between children, community and national structures. The paper recommends that for community-based protection structures to be effective, a creation of collaborative effort of these structures in addressing children vulnerabilities is integral

Establishing the Effects of Credit Risk Management Strategies on Sustainability of Table Bankig Groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Patropa Jepkogei Kiptoo Kimani E. Maina

Financial management strategies are crucial determinants of sustainability of table banking groups. The strategies enable groups to set clear goals, efficient utilization of resources, proper decisions in sourcing of finances and dividends decision making. The main purpose of this study therefore was to establish the effect of credit risk management strategies saving strategies, financial regulation strategies and liquidity management strategies on sustainability of table banking groups was assessed. The study was founded on credit risk theory. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The target population were all table bank groups in Kenya. The accessible population was 538 registered table bank groups in Uasin Gishu County. A sample of 230 groups was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique was used to narrow down the sub-counties. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 3 sub-counties out of the six sub-counties in Uasin Gishu, County. Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the actual study. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Findings were presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study found out that credit risk management strategies significantly influence sustainability of table banking groups (β=0.207; p< 0.05). It was concluded that proper credit management strategies could enable table banking groups by enhancing sustainability. The findings of this study are expected to be employed by table banking groups to ensure business success, hence promoting sustainability and economic development. It was also recommended that theories anchored this study should be applied so as to enhance sustainability.

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