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Corporate Planning on Revenue Collection at Kenya Revenue Authority in North Rift Region. Does Evaluation Strategy Matter? Lydia Muriuki  

The study aimed at determining the influence of evaluation strategy on corporate planning in revenue collection at Kenya Revenue Authority. The research was guided by Stewardship Theory and the Theory of Constraints. It adopted a cross-sectional survey design which is analytical in nature. The study targeted a population of 386 KRA employees from 3 KRA stations in north rift region. The study sampled 191 respondents using simple random sampling method. Data collection was done through questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Descriptive statistics involved the use of frequency, percentages mean and standard deviation. Inferential statistics involved the use of correlation and regression model. The results of the study was presented using tables and figures. The study results showed that evaluation strategy is statistically significant with revenue collection. The study findings would be beneficial to the government in relation to policy making and strategy formulation in line to its expectations from KRA as an institution. The findings of this study would also give KRA management relevant information to help them build and improve their strategic responses in relation to revenue collection in order to satisfy its mandate to Kenyan people. Equally, the findings of this study would enrich existing knowledge and hence would be of interest to both researchers and academicians who seek to explore and carry out further investigations.

Risk Assesment , Fraud detection and Prevention; Empirical Evidence from University of Eldoret, Kenya. Caroline Jemeli Koech  

Internal controls help the institution to understand the organization’s structure, work, and authority flows. They are designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of operational objectives. Cases of fraud have significantly increased in public universities due to weakness of internal controls functions. The study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between risk assessment. This study was founded on prospect theory. Descriptive survey research design was used. Target population was accountants and internal auditors, the accessible population had involve 34 accountants and internal auditors at the University of Eldoret. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire. Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The study used primary data. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, means, variances, and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that risk assessment (β1 = 0.133; p < 0.05), positively and significantly influence fraud detection and prevention in the institution. It was concluded that adequate internal controls could reduce fraud detection prevention. The study recommends that decision making and understanding how risk influences decisions is imperative. The study further recommends that the governing body, possibly supported by the audit committee, should ensure that the internal control system is periodically monitored and evaluated. The study findings will guide the institution to reduce variance in budgets through better reporting and budgetary control measures that reduces cases of fraud. It is expected that the findings will improve on internal controls in the organization.

CNC makinelerinin bazı ayarlarının parça işleme süresi ve lif levhanın yüzey pürüzlülüğü üzerine etkileri Bekir Cihad Bal  

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) makineleri farklı üretim endüstrilerinde yıllardır kullanılmaktadır. Bu makineler, çok yüksek hassasiyet, yüksek üretim hızı ve işlemlerin sınırsız tekrarı gibi bazı özelliklere sahiptirler. Bazı önemli ayarlamalar CNC makinelerinin çalıştırılması için yapılmak zorundadır. Bunlar; bıçak motoru hızı, kesme derinliği, bıçak adımı, besleme hızı, güvenli yükseklik, işleme taktiği vs.dir. Bu ayarlamaların, işlenen malzemenin yüzey pürüzlülüğü üzerine ve her bir parçanın işlenme süresi üzerine bir etkisi vardır. Bu çalışmada, orta yoğunlukta lif levhanın yüzey pürüzlülüğü ve işleme süresi üzerine, bıçak adımı (%20, %40, %60 ve %80) ve besleme hızı (1, 3, 5 ve 7 m/dk) ayarlarının etkisi araştırılmıştır. Test örnekleri cep işleme yöntemi ile zig-zag taktiği kullanılarak işlenmiştir. Yüzey pürüzlülük ölçümleri TS 971’e göre yapılmıştır. Ortalama pürüzlülük (Ra), 10 nokta pürüzlülüğü (Rz) ve kareler ortalamasının karekökü (Rq) olan 3 pürüzlülük değeri belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen verilere göre; besleme hızı ve bıçak adımı arttıkça, yüzey pürüzlülüğü artmış ve işlem süresi azalmıştır. Ayrıca, yüzey pürüzlülüğü ve işlem süresi üzerine bıçak adımının besleme hızından daha etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir.

 
Determination of relationship between density and some physical properties in beech and poplar wood Bekir Cihad Bal İbrahim Bektaş

Solid wood material has used in many different areas from the past to the present day. In particular, it has many outstanding features such as being easy to procure, cheap, easy to process, attractive from aesthetic standpoint. It is known that wood species, moisture content, wood type (juvenile wood-mature wood or heart wood-sap wood) and wood imperfections are effective on wood properties. In this study, the relationship between physical properties and density of wood were determined. For this purpose, experiments carried out on beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and poplar (Populus x euramericana I-214) woods. In the experiments, the oven dry density of wood, swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and moisture content were determined. TS 2470, TS 2471, TS 4083 and TS 4084 standards were used in the experiments. The relationships between oven dry density and other physical properties were determined by regression equations. These relationships showed by distribution graphs. According to findings; it was determined that as the amount of oven dry density increased, the percentage of swelling increased and the percentage of moisture content decreased.

 
Determination of surface roughness parameters of heat-treated and untreated Scotch pine, oak and beech woods Ümit Ayata Tuğba Gürleyen

Heat treatment is an industrial application that changes the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of wood. In addition, the smell, color and surface roughness of the heat treated wood also varies. The objective of this study is to investigate surface roughness properties (Ra, Rz and Rq) of heat treatment and untreated some wood types. In this study, wood specimens prepared from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oak (Quercus petreae L.) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) wood species were heat-treated according to ThermoWood® method at 212oC for 1 hour and 2 hours in Bolu - Gerede, Turkey. Caliber sanding machine with 180 grinding were applied untreated and heat-treated specimens after heat treatment. Surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz and Rq) according to ISO 4287 (1997) standard were determined for all samples. According to obtained data, it was observed that the Ra, Rz and Rq parameters decreased when the heat treatment time increased. It was determined that the surface roughness of all wood materials was changed by the applied heat treatment process.

 
Karaçam testere talaşının polipropilen kompozitlerin mekanik özelliklerine etkisi Nasır Narlıoğlu Nihat Sami Çetin

Günümüzde çevreye olan duyarlılıktaki artış ile birlikte atık maddelerin geri dönüştürülebilme konuları üzerine araştırmalar yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, polipropilen matrise ilave edilen farklı oranlardaki karaçam testere talaşından elde edilen kompozit malzemelerin mekanik özelliklerindeki değişiklikler incelenmiştir. Kompozit malzeme üretimi için odun unu ve polipropilen çift burgulu ekstruder ile karıştırılarak pellet elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen pelletlerden sıcak pres kalıplama tekniği ile 250x250x2 mm ebatlarında kompozit levhalar üretilmiştir. Daha sonra, üretilen kompozit levhaların ASTM standartlarına göre çekme, eğilme ve darbe direnci testleri yapılmıştır. Mekanik test sonuçlarına göre en yüksek çekme direnci değeri %10 odun unu ilaveli kompozit örneğinde, en yüksek eğilme direnci ise %50 odun unu ilaveli kompozit örneğinde tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca kompozitler arasında en yüksek darbe direnci, %20 odun unu ilaveli kompozit örneğinde elde edilmiştir.

 
Higrotermal yaşlandırma işleminin ısıl işlem görmüş kestane odununun renk ve sertlik özellikleri üzerine etkisi Mehmet Karamanoğlu Alperen Kaymakçı

Bu çalışmanın amacı; higrotermal yaşlanmaya maruz kalmış, ısıl işlem uygulanmış ağaç malzemenin renk ve sertlik değişimlerini belirlemektir. Bu amaç için, Kestane odunu (Castanea sativa Mill.) kullanılmıştır. Isıl işlem uygulaması sıcaklık kontrollü küçük fırında yapılmıştır. Deney numuneleri, atmosferik basınç altında, üç farklı sıcaklıkta (130°C, 180°C ve 230 °C) ve iki farklı sürede (2 ve 8 saat), inert (azot) ortamda ısıya maruz bırakılmıştır. Isıl işlemli örnekler bir ay (30 gün) higrotermal yaşlandırma koşullarına (destile suda ve 20 oC’de) maruz bırakılmıştır. Higrotermal yaşlandırma sonrası, örneklerin renk ve sertlik değişimleri ASTMD 2244-2 ve ASTM-D 2240 standartlarına göre belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar her grupta kontrol örnekleri ile karşılaştırılmıştır.

 
Effect of heat treatment on colour and glossiness properties of zebrano, sapelli and merbau woods Ümit Ayata Tuğba Gürleyen

Heat treatment is one of the methods of wood modification and it is known that it changes the technological properties of wood. In this study, the determination of the colour and glossiness values on the wood species which heat treated according to ThermoWood method (at 212oC for 1 hour and 2 hours) that is obtained from, zebrano (Microberlinia brazzavillensis), sapelli (Entandrphragma cylindrocum) and merbau (Intsia bijuga) was aimed. The colour and glossiness values were determined on samples prepared from different tree species. Lightness (L*) and yellow colour (b*) tone values were decreased by heat treatment. The glossiness values of the test specimens were also changed by heat treatment application. According to these results; the highest total colour difference value (ΔE*) was determined on merbau samples, the lowest total colour difference value (ΔE*) was determined on sapelli samples. According to obtained data; it can be said that the colour and glossiness values of wood of zebrano, sapelli and merbau was affected by heat treatment.

 
Kayın ve kavak odunlarında bazı fiziksel özelliklerle yoğunluk ilişkisinin belirlenmesi Bekir Cihad Bal İbrahim Bektaş

Masif ahşap malzeme geçmişten günümüze birçok farklı alanda kullanılmıştır. Özellikle, kolay temin edilebilmesi, ucuz olması, kolay işlenebilmesi, estetik bakımdan cazip olması gibi birçok üstün özelliklere sahiptir. Odunun özellikleri üzerine ağaç türü, rutubet miktarı, odun türü (genç odun-olgun odun veya öz odun-diri odun) ve odun kusurlarının etkili olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada, odunun fiziksel özellikleri ile yoğunluğu arasındaki ilişki belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu amaç için, kayın (Fagus orientalis L.) ve kavak (Populus x euramericana I-214) odunları üzerinde denemeler yapılmıştır. Denemelerde, odunun tam kuru yoğunluğu, genişleme yüzdesi, lif doygunluk noktası ve rutubet miktarı belirlenmiştir. Denemelerde TS 2470, TS 2471, TS 4083 ve TS 4084 numaralı standartlar kullanılmıştır. Tam kuru yoğunluk ile diğer fiziksel özellikler arasındaki ilişki regresyon denklemleri ile belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu ilişkiler dağılım grafikleri ile gösterilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre; tam kuru yoğunluk miktarı arttıkça genişleme yüzdelerinin arttığı ve rutubet miktarının azaldığı belirlenmiştir.

The effects of some tool paths adjustments of CNC machines on surface roughness and processing time of fiberboards Bekir Cihad Bal  

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines have been used in different manufacturing industries for years. These machines have some properties such as superior sensitivity, high manufacturing speed, and unlimited repetition of operations. Some important adjustments have to be made to operate of CNC machines. These are spindle speed, cutting depth, step over, feed rate, machine safe height, clearance strategy, and so on. These adjustments have an effect on the surface roughness of the material being processed and on the processing time for each part. In this study, the influence of the step over (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) and feed rate (1, 3, 5 and 7 m / min) settings on the surface roughness of medium density fiberboard and the processing time were investigated. The test specimens were processed using the raster strategy with the pocket processing method. Surface roughness measurements were made according to TS 971. Three roughness values were determined, with an average roughness (Ra), a 10 point roughness (Rz) and a root mean square average (Rq). According to the obtained data; as the feed rate and the step over are increased, the surface roughness is increased and the processing time is decreased. In addition, it has been determined that the step over is more effective than the feed rate on the surface roughness and the processing time.

Biyopsikososyal Açıdan Dinin Engellilik ve Farklı Sağlık Problemleri Üzerindeki Etkisi Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Bahçekapılı  

Engelli ya da engelsiz tüm insanlar yaşamlarını sınırlayan farklı engellemelerle yüz yüze
gelmekte, biyolojik, psikolojik ve sosyal sorunlardan biri veya birkaçı ile başa çıkmaya
çalışmaktadırlar. Bu çalışmada biyopsikososyal açıdan dinin engellilik üzerindeki
etkilerini ortaya koymak amaçlanmakla birlikte, dinin insan yaşamı üzerindeki etki
alanını daha net göstermek için insanların maruz kaldıkları diğer sağlık problemleri
üzerindeki etkileri de yapılan bilimsel araştırmalardan hareketle açıklanmaya
çalışılmıştır.
Dinin insan yaşamına olan etkisini anlamaya yönelik pek çok model olmakla birlikle, bu
çalışmada Cohen ve Koenig (2003) tarafından geliştirilen “biyopsikososyal model”in
kullanılması tercih edilmiştir. Ayrıca bu çalışmada yöntem olarak literatür taramasına
başvurulmuştur. Bu bağlamda dinin genel olarak insan hayatındaki özelde ise engelliler
üzerindeki etkisi, tıp, gerontoloji, psikoloji ve din psikolojisi vb. alanlarda yapılmış ve
dinin insan yaşamına sunduğu katkıları farklı başlıklar altında inceleyen araştırmalarda
ulaşılan veriler ışığında açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Yapılan alan araştırmaları neticesinde,
bireylerin hayatlarının belirli dönemlerinde karşılaştıkları sorunlar karşısında dini başa
çıkma yöntemlerini kullandıkları, bu sayede fiziksel, ruhsal ve duygusal sağlık
problemlerinin üstesinden geldikleri veya bu problemleri en aza indirdikleri tespit
edilmiştir.

IMPACT OF SOAKING PERIODS ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COFFEE SENNA (SENNA OCCIDENTALIS LINN) LEAVES Augustine, C Igwebuike, J.U

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of soaking period on the
proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors of
Senna occidentalis leaves. Fresh leaves of Senna occidentalis were divided into five
representative batches. The first batch was air-dried under shade designated as T1,
while the second, third, fourth and fifth samples were soaked in water for 10, 15, 20
and 25 hours, respectively. At the end of each soaking period, the sample was
removed, drained, properly sun-dried and milled into powder. All the processed
samples were analyzed for their proximate composition, amino acid profile and
levels of anti-nutritional factors using standard laboratory procedures. The results
indicated significant (P<0.05) variation for the proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of the anti-nutritional factors. The dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, nitrogen-free extract and ash were observed to decrease from 92.40 to 86.45%, 17.45 to 15.55%, 13.71 to 12.18%, 3.35 to 1.18%, 37.18 to 35.01 and 6.65 to 4.70% in treatments T1 to T5, respectively. The amino acid profile and levels of antinutritional factors showed similar trend as that of the proximate composition. Lysine and methionine decreased from 3.20 to 1.44g/100 g and 1.20 to 0.95g/100 g in treatments T1 to T5, respectively. Percent reduction for Oxalates, tannin and phenols increased from 5.74 to 46.36%, 6.01 to 38.61% and 8.38 to 25.51% in T1 to T5, respectively. In conclusion, Senna occidentalis leaves can be soaked for up to 15 hours with minimal level of nutrient depreciation and appreciable reduction in the levels of anti-nutritional factors.

JERUSALEM AS THE CAPITAL OF ISRAEL; INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL REPERCUSSIONS ON RELOCATION OF THE UNITED STATES EMBASSY Sayed Amir Hussain Shah Muhammad Umair Rafique

Middle East retains great strategic, economic, military and political
significance in the global order. The region is abounded with energy resources upto
two third of the world‟s total oil production. The area has certain domestic and
regional conflicts between the states which has serious implication to the rest of the
world. Arab-Israel conflict or Israel-Palestinian conflict is not a new phenomenon.
Roots and causes of this skirmishing issue can be traced hundred years back in the
famous British agreement titled as The Balford Declaration 1917. However,
presently, the world has witnessed the historical and most controversial move of
United States embassy to Jerusalem. One of the US president election campaign
promise became true after this event, however, the consequences of the same will be
illuminated within due course of time. The article aims to sort out the repercussions
of recognizing Jerusalem as sole capital of Israel and its impact on US relations with
the Muslim world especially Middle East. The study will also investigate the
regional and international implications of this diplomatic symbol‟s relocation. The
ultimate purpose of this paper is to provide a neutral overview of a century old
dispute in the contemporary changing regional dynamics.

FORMULATION OF SOLUTIONS OF STANDARD QUADRATIC CONGRUENCE OF COMPOSITE MODULUS AS A PRODUCT OF TWO ODD PRIMES AND FOUR Prof. B. M. Roy  

In this paper, a formula for solutions of a solvable standard quadratic
congruence of even composite modulus as a product of two odd primes and Four is
discovered. It solves the problem directly. It saves time in calculation. No need to
use Chinese Remainder Theorem. This is the merit of the paper.

SIMULATION OF EARTH PLANETARY ORBITS USING A MODIFIED INVERSE SQUARE MODEL Igba, D.S. Otor, D.A.

This paper is aimed at simulating earth planetary orbits using a Modified
Inverse Square Model. The environmental and climatic challenges as currently
witnessed appear to suggest that the usual Inverse Square law of earth planetary
motion may be far from being correct. The modified Inverse Square Model was
simulated using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method implemented through the
ode45 solver of the Mat lab. The parameter β in the Model acts in switching on the
modification of the Inverse square Law. When β =0, there is no modification of the
model and the usual earth elliptic planetary orbit was ensured. With B > 0, the orbits
of the earth showed interesting patterns (depending on the strength of β). The earth
at certain period of the year moves very close to the sun and very remote from the
sun at some other times. The results obtained shows that the intensity of the sun is
very high which induces high temperature, rapid vaporization to the earth which
causes sea level to rise and change in the amount of and pattern of precipitation or
rainfall and expansion of subtropical deserts, retreat of glaciers etc; it also causes
changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, and changes in
agricultural yields or suppression of vegetation. It is suggested that illegal bush
burning and deforestation should be avoided to decrease Global warming (GW) and
depletion of Ozone layer such that the earth will not be close to the sun but remote
from the sun for the comfortability of earth satellites.

DYNAMICS HISTORY ANALYSIS FOR MULTI-STORY STRUCTURE BUILDING IN YEMEN Khaled Zaidi Liu Yanhui

One of the significant difficulties in performance-based earthquake
engineering is to create simple and practical methods that will be able to estimate the
capacity level. The primary role of this paper is to operate and compare different
nonlinear evaluation strategies for evaluating the seismic performances of structures.
For these purposes, simple models are considered to symbolize low-rise structure.
This consist of a moment resisting reinforced concrete structures with no shear walls,
placed in a high-seismicity region of Yemen in Dhammar City. They are designed in
accordance to (ACI-318-11) - (UBC-97) codes, considering each seismic and gravity
loads. In this paper, the reliability of the DAP in locating out the seismic response of
building moment resisting reinforced concrete frames responding inside inelastic
range is verified. Therefore, (IDA) by way of skill of applying a large set of original
records, and FEMA 440 static pushover are carried out for comparison. The capacity
curves of the structure, as determined by utilizing of each DAP and FEMA440
pushover bends are compared with IDA envelopes by using a SeismoStruct. The
performance stages of systems are also expected and in assessment using way of
acting DAP and Incremental Dynamic evaluation the usage of the SeismoStruct
software.

ALGAL GROWTH IN INDOOR CULTURE OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI (BOONE, 1931) HATCHERY WITH REFERENCE TO TEMPERATURE AND LIGHT Siva Reddy, K.V. Ramesh Babu, K.

Phytoplankton comprises the base of the food chain in the marine environment. It is an indispensable food source in the commercial rearing of many cultivable species. In the present study culture of algae carried out in Indoor culture system. During culture of microalgae environmental parameters like light and temperature was alter for every two days. After observation against temperature changes from 200C to 350C, maximum growth was at 260C and 270C i.e. 5.9 million cells/ml and 6.67 million cells/ml. The cell growth is minimum at 200C and 350C in all the containers-small flask, big flasks and carboys (R2=0.727; P<0.0001; R2=0.697; P<0.0001; R2=0.794;P<0.0001) respectively. Similarly light is adjusted from 500 to 5000 lux maximum cell density was observed at 2000 lux as 5.7 million cells/ml, 6.29 million cells/ml, 5.57 million cells/ml in all the containers-small flask, big flasks and carboys (R2= 0.587; P<0.0003; R2= 0.606; P<0.0003; R2=0.704; P<0.0003) respectively. These results in the formation of peak which indicates that maximum growth has been observed up to 6.29 million cells/ml at optimum light intensity which is 2000 lux, minimum growth was observed at 500 lux and 5000 lux.

SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN CONTENT IN MUSCLE AND INTESTINE OF PENAEUS INDICUS (H. milne Edwards 1837) Ludiya Podili Rani  

The present investigation focused on the monthly variations in protein content in two selected tissues i.e. muscle and intestine of Penaeus indicus was studied during the year 2016. It is evident from the present findings that the maximum protein content in muscle tissue was recorded all around the year compared to the intestine. The highest protein content in muscle and intestine tissues of Penaeus indicus were recorded as 138.58±0.89 mg/g, 97.59 ±0.42 mg/g respectively.

MORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SEAWEED BIODIVERSITY AT VISAKHAPATNAM COAST, BAY OF BENGAL, INDIA Vishnupriya Sowjanya, I. Raja Sekhar, P.S.

In the current study the morphological investigations were made on marine algae (seaweeds), these are very prominent resources of the ocean. Seaweed utilization for variety purposes has gained importance as their composition having several applications in various beneficial purposes to mankind. This necessitates the need for understanding the morphological characteristics of seaweed flora. In this paper, we focused on describing morphological features of seaweed flora distributed at Visakhapatnam coast.

VARIATIONS IN BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN LIVER OF TWO FRESH WATER PRAWNS MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII AND MACROBRACHIUM MALCOMSONII Harinath, P.  

Fresh water prawns consists of good number of nutritional substances required for making byproducts for poultry and piggery industry and also recommended diet for human consumption. In this investigation we focused on the major biochemical constituents like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, moisture and ash contents in two different fresh water prawns i.e. Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium malcomsonii with special reference to liver.Carbohydrates exhibited inverse relationship with protein content. The average values of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, moisture and ash contents were recorded as 2.48±0.05, 11.15±0.62, 7.05±0.27, 78.15±1.49 and 78.15±1.49 respectively.

STUDIES ON BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MARINE GASTROPOD PURPURA BUFO OFF VISAKHAPATNAM COAST Darwin, Ch, Suneetha, K.

Now-a-days research works on nutritional value of molluscan species have gained
importance because of their high rate of nutritional substances and used as food in many
counties all over the world. But in India, consumption of molluscans as diet is very recent.
Hence in this study we made an attempt to examine the biochemical constituents from
Visakhapatnam was studied with reference to Pufura bufo. In the present study carbohydrate,
protein and lipid content in Purfura bufo was recorded as 20.3±0.87; 22.45±1.02% and
4.56±0.54 respectively

The Role of Specialized Yogasanaas and Siddha Aspects with respect to Dental Care. P. Mariappan P.Robin Jude

In between the present modern world and the growing Siddha System of Medicine,
there are many areas to be focused. One such area is “Dental care”. Today’s treatment for the
Dental disease is one among the areas of high expenses. While coming across many literary
collections, Yoga for Dental care gave the new area of interest. The Siddha System offers
classification of dental diseases and wide treatment modalities. The tooth paste and mouth
wash which replaced the usage of Neem sticks have majority of its ingredients from natural
origin. The main concept assumed here is the “Combination of a medicine (internal /
external/ preferably both) and the Yoga could really have positive effect in the prognosis of
the disease”. This idea is much beneficial and cost effective. This paper highlights the aspects
of Dental diseases in Siddha System, role of Sarvangasanam, Abaana muththirai and
Vaadha Nasaa Muththirai for the dental care and the Siddha drugs that possess the ability to
prevent and fight against the dental diseases.

Beneficial Effects of Yoga in Clinical Conditions – A Review Gohila. M NaliniSofia.H

Good health is our greatest asset, without good health we can hardly expect succession
any walk of life. The body is important as the soul, divorced from the body the soul is naught.
“If the body is destroyed, life is destroyed
Nor will life come by true wisdom firm
Knowing means, the body is foster
I foster the body and the life.”
-Thirumanthiram verse 727.
This message proclaimed by Thirumoolar in Thirumanthiram. Our body is affected by various
types of diseases, which also affects our soul. Yoga is a holistic science, which was originated in
ancient India. Yoga could cure all the disease is presented to the public, scientific, rationale and
persuasive manner. Yogasanam brings about their fine effects on soothing, relaxing and
loosening of nerves, muscles and joints of the body respectively. It also gives both physical and
mental health. This paper concentrates the effects of Yoga for the Gynecological problems, Liver
diseases and Thyroid dysfunction.

Hatha Yoga Therapy for VathaSthambam [Low Back Pain] J.MelbaJesinth K. Shyamala

Vatha sthambam [low back pain] (LBP) is the second most frequent reasons for hospital
visits and third most common cause for surgery nowadays. Yoga therapy is the non-invasive
efficacious cost effective amongest complimentary and alternative therapies (CAM). It strengthens
the physic as well as mental stamina to cope up with LBP. There are various options for LBP, but no
single therapy stands out as being the most effective. Yoga interventions are the most effective LBP
treatment approach. The objective of this paper is to review the literature supporting the efficacy of
Yoga for LBP.

An Overview of Breathing Exercise (Vasiyogam) in Siddha Concept- A Literature Review K Vignesh S.Yaminipriyadharsini

The Siddha system is a unique and historical medicine system with strong
philosophical foundation behind its medical science. According to siddhars, a healthy living
indicates not only the physical health but also social and spiritual well-being which will
remain as a tool to attain the “External bliss”. Yogasanam is the one of the method for
attaining external bliss. The origin of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-vedic
Indiantraditions as it is mentioned in rig-veda.So now-a-days, yoga is a part of education in
the school itself.

Role of Yoga in Siddha Diseases based on Thirumoolar Concept P.Sivasakthi M.Keerthana

Yoga is essentially spiritual discipline based on extremely subtle science which focuses
on bringing harmony between mind and the body. The term yoga which means “yuj” to join .
Siddha is an ancient system of medicine that originated in South India. In this there are three
humors called vadha, pitha, kabha. Siddha medicine believes that when there is imbalance in
three humors of our body that individual harmony is disturbed. The balance can be restored
by correcting the three humors- vadha, pitha, kabha. In this article we have classified the
categorized diseases based on three humors and also we have listed out some asanams with
appropriate duration when they have to be done for those diseases based on literary evidence
by Thirumoolar.

Yoga as an Ancillary Preventive Therapy in Managing Cardiovascular Disease- A Review Lakshmipriya S TharshanodayanNjq

Siddha, the traditional system of medicine is widely practiced in south India. In this
system, our forefather’s implemented much special therapies to enhance the health of an
individual in respect to diet, yoga etc. Yoga is regarded as a type of physical activities as well
as a stress management strategy which dealt with mental concentration and later it also
implies to control senses and thoughts with an extensive knowledge. With the turn of the
century cardio vascular diseases have now become the leading cause of mortality in India due
to day to day correctable life style modification such as physical inactivity, unhealthy diet
(diet with high fat combined carbohydrate), being overweight, etc., Several studies shown
that yoga can control causative risk factors for cardio vascular disease like hypertension, type
II diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, palpitation induced by thyroid disorders and
psychosocial stress. Even though in our Siddha literature, Siddhar Thirumoolar elaborately
expound the role of yoga in the form of meditation as a secondary therapy in order to
managing Cardio vascular disease by relieving stress, palpitation and also suggest in reducing
blood pressure. Also some of the older studies revealed that meditation may be extremely
useful in secondary prevention of managing cardio vascular disease in extend. Generally
while practicing yoga meditation for stress induced disorders, the result would be renewal
and stabilization of nerve cells, relieving of tension, mental, muscular or nervous and
attaining of complete physical and mental relaxation. However it is found to be an initiatory
Siddha Papers 2018 (13)(2) Lakshmipriya S et al,
innovative way to deliver this effective meditation therapy in reducing stress induced cardio
vascular disease among the whole population as per Siddha literature.

Effect of KorosanaiMathirai on Pediatric Care- A Systematic Review NjqTharshanodayan P Rohini

At present, there are Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and DeshiyaChikitsa in Sri Lanka.
According to Siddha, 108 diseases are said to occur during childhood. Agathyar classified the
pediatric diseases into many subtypes based on the clinical symptoms/signs. The
KorosanaiMathai (K.M) is a mixture of Korosanai, some herbal material and minerals.
Ayurvedic practitioners in Jaffna peninsula of Northern Sri Lanka have been
prescribingK.Mfor pediatrics for their respiratory disorders, fever, cold, gastro intestinal
problems and skin diseases with suitable Anupanam. The objective of the study to list out the
ingredients of the K.M in various Siddha text books and to describe the way of curing the
pediatric diseases by their pharmacological properties. A comprehensive systematic review
was conducted in the following thesis, research articles and the journals were referred
through globally accepted websites. To obtain additional data, a manual search was
performed using the reputed siddha literatures. K.M formulations were found from various
Siddha text books. Most of the formulations were consisted of Capra aegagrus, Saussurea
costus, Parietaria judaica, Nigella sativa, Quercus infectoria and Piper longum. K.M were
mostly using in gastrointestinal problems, respiratory disorders and skin disorders. The
ingredients of K.Mformulations had many pharmacological activities. According to our
findings pharmacological properties of K.M is more effective on pediatric disease
management.

Literature Review on Siddha Formulation of KoliyavaraichChaattruEnnei for Skin Diseases Jegatheeswaran.V Kanagasundaram. S

Skin diseases are the most common problem. Several drugs are available in Siddha
system of medicine. Skin diseases have been treated by internal and external medicines.
Koliyavaraich Chattru Ennei (KCE) is one of the important drugs for skin diseases. It can be
treated following diseases. There are all types of Kiranthi, Kuttam, Sori, Siranku, Thinavu,
Pun and Karapan. In skin diseases Piththa thosham and Raththa thaathu are going to
imbalance from the ordinary equilibrium. So ingredients of Koliyavaraich Chattru Ennei
neutralize Piththa thosham and Raththa thaathu. Eattu Maruthuvam text book has been
referred for this study.
Effects of the drugs were evaluated by using the characters of ingredients have
44.45% of bitter taste, 25% of sweet, 36.12% of astringent, 30.55% of Pungent, 2.77% of
Sour. According to the potency ingredients, they have 58.34% of Seetha veeriyum (Cold),
41.67% of Ushna veeriyum (Hot).
Acccording to the actions of ingredients, they have disinfectant – 21.49%, Astringent
– 14.23%, Diuretic – 15.84%, Laxative – 13.48%, Anthelmintic- 16.67%, Blood purifier –
6.39%, Antipruritic – 3.56%, Antibilious – 2.78%, Alterative – 5.56%. Through the results
ingredients can neutralized the Piththa Thosa, Purify the blood, easy to evacuation in the
body. As well as disinfection in affected part of skin, improve the colour complexion of skin,
Siddha Papers 2018 (13)(2) Jegatheeswaran. V et al,
rearrange the character of skin. Therefore Koliyavaraich Chattru Ennei is very effective
medicine for skin.

Glimpses on the benefits of Siddhars’ Yogam in Antenatal Care with special reference to food practices. V. S. Nandini G. Sabaridevi

Life of a human being originates from a mother. It initiates from a matured zygote to
a developed foetus inside the womb. At the end of tenth month, the foetus comes out of the
womb and life begins. It is called as Antenatal period (Makapperu kaalam). This period is an
important one for the health of the mother and development of the unborn child. A good
Antenatal Care (ANC) can be provided by maintaining a good health by Yogic practices and
food habits, living in a clean environment etc. It plays an indispensable and vital role in the
antenatal period. The Siddha literatures have mentioned about many Gynaecological
ailments, Pre-natal and Post-natal responsibilities and care, Herbal, poly-herbal and herbomineral
formulations for those ailments etc. Siddhars have also mentioned about the Yogic
practices in many of their literatures; especially for antenatal care which would be followed
by a mother for a salubrious pregnancy. Also, they have mentioned and described briefly
about the food habits that have to be followed and those which have to be avoided. In this
paper, we have briefly described about the Yoga practices and food regimen to be carried out
during pregnancy.

The Natural Herb on Water Purification NjqTharshanodayan P Rohini

Generally, from the unprotected sources such as open dug wells or small streams and
ponds the water supply comes to the rural population.Requiring immediate attention for
development and distributed over a large promotionof destroyingbacteria techniquesfor rural
areas. Siddha text book “Noi Ilia Neri” indicated, ancient people allowed growing the
E.officinalis near to natural water resources for purifying the water naturally. Keep the tender
branches of E.officinalis in to the water source to make a likable flavor to the water. After
the purification process of waterturbidity, odor, colour, bacterial impurities, hardness and
toxic elements were changed and fit to be used. E.officinalis, FamilyEuphorbiaceae,
gooseberry in English. E.officinalishaving valuable phytochemical and physicochemical
properties.Scientific studies that proven reduces the hardness of water by having effective
chemical constituents.These enhance themorbidity and mortality in Anopheles stephensi. And
also contains Larvicidal, pupicidal, and ovicidalactivities.In contaminated water resources
chemical components of the plant inhibit the growth of E. coli.Pharmacological actions of
E.officinalisare antimicrobial, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepato-protective ,
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-ulcerogenic activities . Review was the
stated to explore the intended result of E.officinalisin water purification in various sources.
Aim of this study was to assess the degree to E. officinalis is successful in producing a
desired result of natural herbs in water purification. E.officinaliswas found most effective for
natural water resource purification. Water purification by using nature can also help to
produce the utilization of something for the peoples living areas.

A Literature Review on Pranayama for Obtaining Physical, Mental and Spiritual Health ManjuPriya. M Dharshini. S

Yoga being originated before thousands of years in India, it has created a great impact
in prevention and management of diseases. Pranayama, a beneficial yoga practice is helpful
in maintaining physical and mental health to mankind. Pranayama is a conscious
prolongation of inhalation, retention and exhalation. With constant practice of Pranayama,
one can be free from the chronic disease and slows the aging process. It reduces stress and
anxiety and improves the autonomic functions by initiating neuro-hormonal mechanisms by
reducing sympathetic activity. It provides a source of eternal peace and freedom and also the
pain management for specific illness. In this paper, we have dealt with the aspects of
Pranayama and its usage for convalescent activities on health .This paper provides
information in practicing Pranayama and gaining its benefits to the fullest.

Enlightment through AshtaangaYogam- A Review on Siddha Literatures K. Swathi C. Samuel Justin Raj

Human beings are the God's unique creation. He can do anything as he wishes.
Everyone is provided with their own mind that carries out actions through thoughts. The life
which we need is just a temporary one where we live in a small circle giving place only to
Maayai (unreal happiness). We fail to realize ourselves to embody mental emotions with the
physical one to attain spirituality. Human beings are created with the motive to exempt their
Karma and lead a birthless life. For this, Siddhars have mentioned a discipline of eight steps
that is mentioned as Ashtaanga Yogam. They have mentioned this for the sake of uniting the
body with the soul. In this paper, we have discussed in brief, the eight steps of Yogam, by
which people could come into an understanding that Yogam is something that is apart from
aasanam.

Eye Disease Herbs in Siddha – A Review Selvam.M Kingsly.A

Nowadays, most of the people are facing eye diseases like vision problem, burning
sensation of eye, cataract, redness of eye, Night blindness and etc. The most of the eye
diseases cured in modern medicine are by wearing lens and surgery. In Siddha, Siddhars
prescribed some herbs to cure the eye diseases without surgery. General usage of the term
“herb” differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs. Any parts of the plant might be
considered as “herbs” including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark
(cambium), resin and pericarp. Tabernaemontana divaricata, Alternanthera sessilis, Eclipta
prostata, Strychnus potatorum, Phyllanthus emblica, Azadirachta indica were used in the eye
disease. It cure the eye diseases without any adverse effect. Eye diseases can cause damage
and blindness if not treated soon enough. This review deals about some particular herbs
among eye disease herbs for their specificity. This work will be helpful for better therapy to
eye disease and further studies in future.

Supremacy of Siddhar’s Karma Yogam - A Requisite for Successful Medical Practice. C. Samuel Justin Raj K. Swathi

“Do your duty and leave the rest to God” is the essence of the Bhagavat Gita.
Selfless service for a right cause and completely focusing towards it without any expectation
should be the ultimate aim. The outcome of any work will be positive only when the work is
done selflessly without any expectation. Disinterested work will not pave way to the
achievement the goal. One should deeply get involved in any action which he/she is doing.
We should overcome the obstacles in order to reach the destination. The destination is
nothing but the eternity. Siddhars have mentioned about Gnyaana and Kanma Yogam in their
Literatures and also they have followed it to attain the eternity. In the literatures, it is
mentioned as Gnyaana maarkkam and kanma maarkkam. Each and every man should follow
Kanma Yogam and should not deviate from that so as to maintain peace and health. In this
paper, we have mentioned about the Kanma Yogam, their outcomes and benefits, Kanma
diseases based on Siddha texts, and their corrective measures (Kanma nivarthi) and the
current scenario.

 
Analgesic Activity of Siddha Formulation of IngiChooranam in Swiss Albino Mice A.NahithaLubana S.Justus Antony

The Siddha drug Ingi chooranam (IC) is used in treating of vatha diseases. The aim of
the study was to investigate the efficacy of the Siddha drug Ingi chooranam (IC) in swiss
albino mice. The analgesic effect was found out by Acetic acid writhing reflex method using
diclofenac sodium as standard drug. The control group-I was given normal saline, group-II
serves as standard received diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg) and the two test groups –III, IV are
treated by Ingi chooranam (IC) at dose level of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg respectively. One hour
before acetic acid administration Siddha formulation Ingi chooranam was administed. Onset
on writhing is noted. Contractions of the abdomen, twist of the trunk, hind limbs extension
were noted within 10 minutes how many animals showing such response were also noted and
the result reveals that the both doses of Ingi chooranam possess significant analgesic activity.

Anti-Microbial Assay of Ayushsiddha Herbo-Mineral Formulation against Nosocomial Infection D.S.Vaniswari K.Shyamala

Nosocomial infection by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli deserve special
attention in hospital environment because of their frequency and because they are caused by
strains resistant to various antibiotics. The aim of the present study is to screen In-vitro
Anti-microbial activity of Ayush Siddha formulation against human pathogenic micro
organism causing nosocomial infection.

Study On Acute Toxicity of Siddha Formulation “UppuChenduram - II” in Wistar Rats Bhuvaneshwari. T SubashChandran. G

OBJECTIVE : To study the acute toxicity of siddha formulation Uppu Chenduram – II in
wistar rats.
METHODS : The Uppu Chenduram(test substance) dissolved in distilled water, to be
administered at the dosage of 2000 mg/kg/bw. Healthy Wistar rats (5 females) were selected
and allowed for an acclimation period of 7 days. The animals were fasted overnight prior to
treatment. Feed was made available ad libitum immediately after the treatment. Before
commencing the experiment, the body weights of rats were recorded. All the animals were
treated with 2000 mg/kg/bw of Uppu Chenduram. The test substance was administered by
oral gavage.
RESULTS : Single dose oral administration of Uppu Chenduram @ 2000 mg/kg/bw
caused no adverse toxic effects on the body weight / body weight changes, feed and the
gross anatomy of treated female Wistar rats. The animals did not show any changes in
respiration, circulation, autonomic and central nervous system, behavioral pattern.
CONCLUSION: The acute oral LD50 of test substance (247) in Wistar rats was observed to
be greater than 2000 mg/kg b.w. This indicates the safety of Uppu Chenduram-II through
oral administration.

Standardization of KalamegaNarayanaChendooram, A Siddha Classical Preparation based on ChikichchaRaththinaTheepam Kanagasundaram. S Jegatheeswaran.V

Siddha system is one of the ancient system of medicine. In this system the knowledge
of drugs is not only limited to herbs, but also expands to metals and minerals. Kalamega
narayana chendhooram (Kmnc referenced from classical text Chikichcha Raththina Theepam
ennum Vaiththiya Nool Authored by Vaiththiya Viththuvan. Mani S.Kannuchamipillai Pp.
247, Published B.Rathnanayakar and Sons, Chennai – 600 079) is one of the minero metallic
formulation which is indicated for the treatment of more than three hundred diseases.
Standardization of Siddha drug is a burning topic in herbal drug industry today.
Standardization is difficulty because the Siddha formularies are usually mixtures of many
constituents and the active principle in most cases is unknown, however, it is possible to
generate a physico - chemical finger print for the standardization.

Functional Group Analysis of AyakanthaChendhuram by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy JencyRisha.T Thiruthani.M

Siddha system is one of the ancient traditional systems of medicine for treating various
disease conditions by the herbals and herbo – mineral drugs. Today, there is a need to
evaluate our ancient knowledge on modern parameters to establish Siddha medicine as a
main stream medical science. Standardization are essential analytical tools to upgrade the
medicine. FTIR showed the peak values which are the functional groups present. Ayakantha
Chendhuram is used in the treatment of various disorders especially Anaemia (Paandu noi)
and its related pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to standardize the
Siddha herbo – mineral formulation (Ayakantha Chendhuram) by doing the Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and the results were noted. This study will highlight
the functional groups by using the standardizing technique for the herbo – mineral
formulation and brings it to the next level of research.

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