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Ultrafiltration of Orange Press Liquor: Effect of Operating Conditions on Membrane Fouling and Permeate Flux René Ruby-Figueroa, Carmela Conidi

Abstract: Orange press liquor, a by-product of the orange juice production, was clarified by cross flow ultrafiltration (UF),
on laboratory scale, by using polysulphone hollow fibre membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 100 kDa. The effect
of operating conditions, such as transmembrane pressure, feed flow rate and temperature, on fouling index, total
resistance and permeate flux was investigated.
Analysis of the results revealed that in the range of operating values investigated permeate flux increased with
temperature, pressure and feed flow rate according to concentration polarization models. Total resistance and fouling
index increased with pressure and decreased with feed flow rate. An increase of temperature in the range 15-35 °C
reduced the value of total resistance but enhanced the fouling index.
According to the experimental results the optimum conditions to maximize permeation fluxes were found to be 1.4 bar of
pressure, 35°C and a feed flow rate of 245 L/h; on the other hands, operating conditions of 0.2 bar, 15 °C and 245 L/h
were identified as the best ones to minimize membrane fouling.

Pure Hydrogen Production from Steam Reforming of Bio-Sources G. Bagnato A. Iulianelli

Abstract: Two synthetic mixtures simulating biogas (CH4 /CO2 = 66.2/33.8) and bioethanol (H2O/EtOH = 13/1) have
been used for producing hydrogen by steam reforming reaction in a commercial dense self-supported Pd-Ag membrane
reactor. The experimental campaign was subdivided into two parts. Firstly, we studied biogas steam reforming reaction,
evaluating the reaction pressure influence (between 200 and 350 kPa) at 450°C, H2O/CH4feed molar ratio = 4/1, GHSV
=2370h-1, sweep gas flow rate (N2) = 28.55 mL/min and countercurrent configuration. As best result, we reached 60%
CH4 conversion and 40% hydrogen recovery at 350kPa.
Successively, we carried out bioethanol steam reforming reaction studying the influence of reaction temperature
between 350 and 400°C at 300 kPa of reaction pressure, GHSV=700 h-1 in the presence of sweep gas (N2 = 28.55
mL/min) and countercurrent configuration, obtaining - at 400 °C - maximum ethanol conversion, hydrogen yield and
recovery equal to 70%, 50% and 65%, respectively. In addition, we compared the membrane reactor performance with a
traditional reactor exercised at the same conditions, only varying the reaction pressure between 200 and 300 kPa. The
aim of this work is constituted by the pure hydrogen production from bio-sources exploitation in membrane reactors at
bench scale, starting with the utilization of commercial membranes available in the market and in the perspective of
scaling up the process for potential industrial development.

Membrane Bioreactor in China: A Critical Review Olusegun K. Abass Xing Wu

Abstract: The application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment and reuse has received ample
scientific and industrial considerations due to its potential for improved effluent quality, strong anti-shock loading
capacity, less residual sludge and small footprint. Particularly in 2006, since the first operation of a large-scale MBR in
China, it’s acceptability for wastewater reclamation had nearly tripled in recent years. This rigorous review work focus on
the overall operational chain for the MBR system with attention placed on the Chinese MBR market, fouling
characteristics, energy costs, and application trend in China. Recent developments in membrane materials,
compositions, and properties are summarized. Roles of cake-layer formation, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)
and hydrodynamic effect on membrane fouling are critically assessed. Lastly, future perspective regarding long term
development of MBR applications in China and potential areas of fouling mitigation are identified

Supported Liquid Membrane Composed of Tertiary or/and Quaternary Amine for the Extraction of Lactic Acid B.S. Chanukya Navin K. Rastogi*

Abstract: The present work deals with the extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution, fermentation broth and
buttermilk by supported liquid membrane. The mixed amine extractant system of tertiary amine (Tri-octyl-amine) and
quaternary amine (AliquatTM 336) in xylene was used in the supported liquid membrane The parameters such as effect of
mixed amine extractant system, its ratios and concentration, stirring speed, strip: feed phase volume, and solute
permeability as well as extraction efficiencies were calculated. The extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth using
standardised supported liquid membrane conditions showed 17.3% and 31.9% extraction with deionized water and
Na2CO3 solution as the strip phase respectively and from buttermilk: 67 and 65.9% extraction with deionized water and
Na2CO3 solution as the strip phase, respectively. The present study demonstrates the potential of supported liquid
membrane composed of a combination of tertiary amine and quaternary amine as carriers for lactic acid extraction from
aqueous and real systems.

A Comparative Study on Sulfonated PEEK and PVDF Blend Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Göknur Dönmez Hüseyin Deligöz

Abstract: Various polymeric blend membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) and
poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) are prepared by solution casting method for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).
Physicochemical properties of the membranes are studied after blending sPEEK with PVDF in different ratios. It is found
that the thermal stabilities of all blend membranes are above 200oC which is sufficiently high for use in DMFC. Water
uptake values of the blend membranes vary between 9-20% as a function of the blend composition. Similar to the water
uptake property, proton conductivity values and surface hydrophilicity of the samples increase with sPEEK portion in the
blend. Water uptake of sPEEK30/PVDF70 blend membrane is about 9.2%, the proton conductivity of this membrane is
0.8, and the methanol permeability of sPEEK30/PVDF70 blend membrane is about 1/10 that of untreated
Nafion®117 reported in the literature. Based on the results, it is concluded that the sPEEK/PVDF polymer blends can be
considered as a candidate membrane for DMFC applications considering their controllable properties, cheapness and
easy preparation

Optimal Design of Thermal Membrane Distillation Systems for the Treatment of Shale Gas Flowback Water Nesreen A. Elsayed Maria A. Barrufet

Abstract: Shale gas production is associated with the significant consumption of fresh water and discharge of
wastewater. The flowback wastewater is tied to the hydraulic fracturing technology used for completing and stimulating
the horizontal wells in the very tight formations characterizing the shale formation. Treatment and reuse of these large
volumes of wastewater can lead to substantial savings in fresh water usage and reduction of the negative environmental
impact thereby enhancing sustainability of the shale gas industry. Such treatment requires selective and cost-effective
Thermal membrane distillation (TMD) is an emerging technology that offers several advatanges such as high selectivity
in separating water from inorganic solutes and modular nature that can accommodate a wide range of flows. It can also
utilize low-level heats that are typically available from shale-gas production and processing.
The objective of this work is to develop an optimization approach for the design of TMD systems to treat flowback water.
A multi-period formulation is developed to account for the time-based variation in the flowrate and concentration of the
flowback water. Modeling equations are used to relate design and operating variables to performance and cost. The
optimization formulation also accounts for the period-based changes in the required design and operating variables and
reconciles them over the selected periods. Other constraints include quality of the permeate and water-recovery ratio.
The optimization formulation and design approach are applied to a case study for the treatment of flowback water for the
Marcellus Shale Play. For 75% water recovery, the cost of the permeate is about $2.6/m3. As higher recoveries are
sought, the cost per m3 of permeate increases due to capital productivity factors in dealing with the decreasing amount of
flowback water over time. The results are reported using a Pareto chart that trades off recovery objectives with cost of
treated water.

Hydrogen Production: Overview of Technology Options and Membrane in Auto-Thermal Reforming Including Partial Oxidation and Steam Reforming S. M. Sadati P. Vousoughi

Abstract: Hydrogen, a constituent in many chemical compounds in nature, is a key component for several chemical
processes such as hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and hydrotreating, or even for fuel. On the other hand, Synthesis gas
containing hydrogen, which is one of the most popular intermediate products are used in many industries. There are
many ways for production of hydrogen such as reforming of hydrocarbons (e.g. natural gas), partial oxidation,
autothermal reforming, membrane reactors, and thermal gasification of biomass and waste. In the world, more hydrogen
is produced from natural gas. In this study, several methods of hydrogen production have been considered and all
advantages and disadvantages of listed technologies have been expressed. Finally, according to these points optimum
technology for hydrogen production has been proposed.

Investigation on the Radon Emanation for Domestic Gypsum Boards Cheol Min Lee Yeong Don Kwak

Abstract: The present study investigates radon emissions from commercial gypsum boards currently available on the
domestic market in order to provide accurate information to the public. Gypsum boards that have been manufactured
domestically since 2012 were used for the study. Measurements and analyses were performed using the closedcontainer
method with Nuclear Track Detectors (NRSa), which are long-term passive measuring devices. Of the 19
containers used, 2 were used as background concentration, without inserting samples. The average concentration of
radon within the air of the enclosed container was measured as 28.5 Bq/m3, and the maximum concentration was 132.0
Bq/m3. It was found that the radon emission per unit area of the gypsum boards was 0.0223 ± 0.0258 mBq/m2·h and the
emission per unit weight was 0.0037± 0.0046 mBq/kg·h. Gypsum boards manufactured over a three-year period, from
2012 to 2014, were categorized by one-year terms, and the difference in the radon emission according to the year of
manufacture was examined. It was found that three years of continuous radon emission from building materials did not
cause a natural decrease in the radon exhalation rate. It was also found that there is no difference in the radon
exhalation rate caused by the characteristics of the gypsum boards, that is, by general or waterproof gypsum boards.

Recycling of Polysulfone: Study Properties of Membranes Mayank Saxena Saroj Sharma

Abstract: Many significant developments regarding membranes have been taken place in past few decades. The wet
phase inversion is a simple method to prepare asymmetric polysulfone membranes. Membranes were fabricated from
polysulfone using N,N dimethyl formamide (solvent) and water (non-solvent) and permeation properties were
investigated. We have explored the differences in performances of the membranes prepared from consecutive phase
inversion of polysulfone. The effect of addition of sodium lauryl sulphate and their multi stage phase inversion were also
studied. Functional group ruination/formation, Morphology, hydrophobicity, MWCO were analysed from different
analytical instruments (viz. SEM, FTIR-ATR, TGA, contact angle, GPC). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectra
of polysulfone membranes were analysed to identify the variations of the bonds. The results obtained from water
permeation experiments showed that consecutive phase separation of polysulfone increased the water permeability of
the membranes. The polysulfone membranes resulted from multistage phase separation showed decreasing trend in
separation for polyethylene oxide (PEO, 200kDa) as well as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA, 66 kDa).

Impact of Coenzyme Q10 on the Physical Properties of Model Lipid Membranes Ajda Ota Marjeta Sentjurc

Abstract: We investigated the influence of coenzyme Q10 on structural changes of model lipid membranes formed by
1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and by a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin (2.4:1).
Structural changes in the membranes were measured using electron paramagnetic resonance and differential scanning
calorimetry. Two spin probes were used to monitor membrane characteristics: MeFASL (10,3) to monitor the changes
close to the water-lipid interface, and MeFASL (2,11) to monitor the changes in the middle of the bilayer of the model
lipid membranes. These data show that perturbation of CoQ10 in the lipid membranes, promotes a decrease in the
dynamics of the lipid acyl chains, i.e., it increases the ordering of the membrane interior. The results from DSC
measurements suggested that the CoQ10 in the bilayer does not significantly perturb the thermal and enthalpic stability of
DPPC (the gel-to-liquid transition does not change) but additionally stabilizes the lipid bilayer due to the aggregation of
CoQ10 within the lipid bilayer. The CoQ10 fraction in an aggregated state increased in proportion to its concentration in the
DPPC multilamellar liposomes.

Evaluation of Performance of Sequential Membranes Used in Pilot Scale Biogas Plant: A Case Study for Laying Hen Manure Duygu Karaalp Elif Aksöyek Pekgüzel

there is significant amount of waste disposal problem. One of the environmental assesment options for the use of this
waste is environmentally friendly biofuel production such as biomethane. High nitrogen content is one of the important
challenges to transform chicken manure to biofuel. For this reason, significant amount of dilution water is required in the
systems using manure as mono substrate and thereby very large storage volumes (storage time 4-6 months) are needed
for the enormous amount of effluent after anaerobic digestion process. These two subjects are threatening the economic
viability of the biogas production. Furthermore, need for dilution water is an economic burden to the businesses in
countries where the water scarcity is a serious concern. On the other hand, integrated use of membrane system offers
possibility of using the digestion effluent as dilution water over and over where nitrogen is removed selectively by
membrane assisted biogas reactor configuration. In this way, significant economy could be provided in the overall project
budget by eliminating the final storage needs as well as water saving. For this purpose, the performance results of a pilot
plant scale membrane system consisting of micro (MF), ultra (UF), nano (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are
presented in this study to be used in real scale applications. The feasibility of continuous reuse of digestate as fresh feed
water was suggested. For this purpose, NF90 and X20 type membranes were found to be most effective ones for the
recovery of ammonium (88% and 98%) from the digestate,

Siloxane Diacrylate-based All-Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries Matteo Destro Claudio Gerbaldi

Abstract: Fully solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes were prepared by UV induced free radical polymerisation
(UV-curing) of acrylated siloxane polyalkyleneoxide copolymers in the presence of different lithium salts. The main chain
contains locally mobile segments of ethoxy groups as part of the copolymer, and these moieties can provide coordination
sites for the mobility of Li+ ions. The materials are produced through a solvent free procedure, and used as ionconducting
media as well as a separator in high temperature lithium-based batteries. The preparation process is easy,
simple and versatile. The final product obtained demonstrates good mechanical integrity due to the highly cross-linked
nature of the polymer network, and wide thermal stability. The membranes are also soft, easy to manage and
transparent. They also exhibit acceptable ionic conductivity and wide electrochemical stability window.

Transportation Characteristics of Bisphenol A Affected by Humic Substances Through Ultrafiltration Membrane with Low Molecule Weight Cut-Off Congcong Tang Wei Zuo

Abstract: The hydrophobic interaction properties between bisphenol A (BPA) and humic substances (HS) were
investigated using an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane with 1000Da Molecule Weight Cut-off (MWCO). Expect for other
influences, the Stokes radius of the hydration molecule of the BPA affected by HS was calculated with the hydrodynamic
model by simulation of BPA transportation in the membrane. It was found that the rejection efficiencies of BPAs visibly
increased in the presence of various HS (humic acid and fulvic acid). Simulation results showed that the effective radius
of the hydration molecules was increased accordingly. It is proposed that the HS addition may improve the
hydrophobicity and hydration of the BPA hydration molecules, which increased the effective radius of the BPA
molecules. This research helps to understand the interaction between hydrophobic molecules and natural organic
matters (NOMs) during the removal of emerging hydrophobic contaminants using a membrane with low MWCO.

Pure Hydrogen Production via Ethanol Steam Reforming Reaction over a Novel Pt-Co Based Catalyst in a Dense Pd-Ag Membrane Reactor (An Experimental Study) A. Basile V. Palma

Abstract: In this work, a novel Co based catalyst containing 10 wt% of Co and 3 wt% of Pt Supported on Al2O3 pellets
coated with CeO2-ZrO2 and Al2O3 was prepared. This catalyst has been utilized in dense Pd-Ag membrane (MR) and
traditional (TR) reactors for ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. In particular, ESR reaction was carried out between
400 and 490 °C and in a pressure range of 100 - 300 kPa with an ethanol/water feed molar ratio of 1/13 and GHSV of
805 h-1. The pressure in shell side of the MR was kept constant at 100 kPa during the whole experimental campaign.
The experimental results in terms of ethanol conversion, hydrogen recovery, flow and yield as well as products
compositions are reported. Moreover, a comparison between MR and TR at 490 °C and the same operating conditions is
realized, pointing out that the MR is able to give higher ethanol conversions and hydrogen yields as well as lower CO
content than the TR in all the reaction tests. The best results were observed at higher temperature and pressure for the
MR and at lower pressure for the TR. By using the aforementioned catalyst, ethanol conversion and hydrogen recovery
of 90% and 67% were achieved respectively at 490 °C and 300 kPa during ESR reaction in the MR, whereas a
conversion of 75% was observed in the TR at the same temperature and at 100 kPa.

Discrimination of Conductance of Lower and Higher Oligomeric Alamethicin Pores Dinara Aliverdieva Dmitry Mamaev1

Abstract: Experimental studies of antimicrobial peptides having a pore-forming mechanism of action have recently
attracted increasing interest due to their broad spectrum of activity and numerous clinical applications. Alamethicin has
been widely studied as an antimicrobial peptide and a model for ion channel-forming proteins. However, the lack of
simple analytical tools for studying mechanisms of interaction of pore-forming peptides and biological membranes at very
low peptide concentrations remains a problem. Here in a short report, we describe an experimental approach for
performing time-dependent discrimination of transmembrane current induced by fractions of lower- and higher-order
oligomeric alamethicin pores using mitochondria.

Synthesis and Characterization of Solid SiO2/P2O5/ZrO2􀀁PVP Membrane for Fuel Cell Applications T. Uma T. Mahalingam

Abstract: A novel polymer network membrane composed by SiO2/P2O5/ZrO2􀀁PVP was prepared to improve the proton
conductivity of PVP membrane. Its physico-chemical properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and
solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). XRD data shows that the crystallinity increases with increase in
concentration of SiO2 and ZrO2. Our results indicate the formation and interconnection of ion clusters. It is observed that
this new membrane exhibits better proton conductivity as compared to the pristine membrane making them suitable for
fuel cell applications.

Biodegradable Barrier Membranes Based on Nanoclays and Carrageenan/Pectin Blends Isabel M. Coelhoso Ana Rita V. Ferreira

Abstract: The aim of this work is the study of the barrier properties of biodegradable membranes based on commercial
pectin and kappa-carrageenan and organically modified nanoclays. Membranes (67% k-carrageenan, 33% pectin) with
different amounts of nanoclays (1, 5 and 10%) were prepared by the solution intercalation method and casting. The films
exhibited enhanced gas and water vapour barrier properties when compared to the ones without nanoclay particles. A
water vapour permeability reduction of 35% for a nanoclay loading of 10 % was observed. The positive impact on the
films’ barrier properties of the organic nanoclay particles inclusion, results from a combined effect of increased tortuosity
and reduction of water sorption due to the hydrophobic nature of the clay. The permeability to carbon dioxide has been
significantly reduced (50% reduction for 1% nanoclay content).
Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated the presence of
under exfoliated nanoclay aggregates at 10%. The membranes have also shown a decrease of their stiffness and an
increase of the elongation at break with the inclusion of nanoclay particles. An attenuation of the membranes
transparency was observed, however, the colour measured after the application of test membranes on coloured paper
sheets, did not change significantly with the inclusion of nanoclay particles.

An Overview on the Bioethanol Production using Membrane Technologies S.M. Sadati.T1 K. Ghasemzadeh

Abstract: Membrane process is a novel effective technology that can improve the efficiency of a bio-refinery plant. In
this study, an overview of the main subjects dealing with the coupling between bioethanol production plant and
membrane process is presented as a new technology. Nowadays, several methods to improve existing processes in
industrial environments are studied. For example, methods such as flow back to increase the efficiency and the use of
more advanced devices has always been a goal of managers. However, using of membranes and membrane processes
can be very efficient and includes a lot of advantages. Indeed, a bio-refinery is one of the suitable choices that can apply
membrane technology to improve the conditions for the biofuel production. To achieve these goals and advantages
being aware of their useful parts is necessary. Frequently, by helping a bio-refinery, sugar is changed into ethanol in one
step using yeast during the fermentation process. Moreover, needed sugars are often provided by Biological sources or
starch, cellulose and lignocellulosic materials. Hence, by changing the type of feedstock, the steps to achieve the
product can be different in the agenda. Therefore, the improvements by the introduction of membranes in the bioethanol
production process are discussed, in terms of efficiency and final product purity

Numerical Ways to Characterize the Deterioration of Nanofiltration Membranes S. Déon P. Dutournié

Abstract: In this study, a transport model is used to characterize structural and physico-chemical changes in a
nanofiltration membrane during the filtration of ionic mixtures. The membrane state is analyzed by a set of four model
parameters identified from glucose and salts filtration: the membrane water permeability (Lp), the mean pore radius (rp),
the membrane charge density (Xd), and the dielectric constant of the solution inside pores (􀀁p). The study of these
structural and physico-chemical properties allows us to determine if deterioration or fouling occurred during filtration. Two
distinct identification procedures from filtration of synthetic solutions are investigated in this paper. One is based on the
filtration of single salt solutions, whereas the other lies in parameters identification from mixtures containing at least three
ions. These methods are applied here to characterize influence of fouling deposit formation and membrane cleaning.

The Technology in the Programs of Life Sciences in Turkey and Sachunterricht in Germany Tuba Keskin  

The purpose of this study is to compare the gains of the Life Sciences program in Turkey and the Life sciences program (Sachunterricht) used in the state of Niedersachsen in Germany. The study aiming to compare the technology-related acquisitions in Life sciences program in Turkey and Germany is a comparative education research that used qualitative method and descriptive approach. In the study, the Sachunterricht (Life sciences) course’s technology acquisitions and the use of technology in Germany were briefly mentioned and then the differences were evaluated by comparing to the usage of Life sciences course technology in Turkey. It was found that, the acquisition groups in Germany focus on technical perception and solving of the problems, describing the use of simple materials, having basic knowledge about transportation of wastes, having knowledge about the assembly, being well-informed about the effects of technical inventions, and becoming familiar with the energy and water supply. When the related gains were examined, the gains in the production area were observed to remain superficial in the Life sciences program according to the Sachunterricht program. The students in the Life sciences program only have a role to observe production, while the students are performing the production itself in the Sachunterricht program.

Analyzing The Elementary Social Studies Book in terms of Graphic Design Principles Kahraman Kılıç  

The aim of this study is to examine the social study book in terms of graphic design principles. This research is a qualitative study. Qualitative research is a type of research in which perception, events or circumstances are revealed in a realistic and totalitarian way. In this study, Document Analyses Technique is used as a data collection tool. In this respect, graphic principles criterions are determined firstly and then the images that are used (506 images) in the elementary school social study book are examined. The results show that social study books are found to be of a very low level, in terms of graphic design principles. It turned out that all parts of the social study book show a lack of implementation of graphic design principles. While the most used graphic design principles are: integrity, emphasis and balance, the least adopted ones are: alignment, line spacing, blanks and kerning. In the context of the research, these suggestions are brought forward: a social study lesson book should be made more interesting and should be according to graphic design principles. Priority should be given especially to the chapters where there is a lack of use of graphic design principles. Graphic design principles that are used the least such as line and measurement should be implemented more.

Use of Games in Education: GeoGuessr in Geography Course Mustafa Girgin  

Almost all of the studies which are about the learning effects of the games emphasize as if, they have all agreed on all hands that the games contribute to the child’s spiritual and educational development. No matter at which age group it is, to claim that game derived gains couldn’t be gained by no other way, wouldn’t be exaggeration indeed. The ones who spend their time playing games are known to be ahead from the ones who don’t in a lot of areas like 3D thinking, reasoning and having responsibilities aside from having fun. When units and gains observed in geography courses, it is seen that there is no reference to gaming. In fact, gaming affects all students’ learning performance of all ages positively. The geography game “Geography Prediction” spread on the internet with the slogan “Discover the World” named GeoGuessr, takes its players to many places from Australia’s play the game in which one has to figure out a location based on five randomly given pictures by using various geographical indicators, players put a mark on the World map and gain point according to the proximity of their mark to the location. It is looked for an answer to the question of “Which geographical indicators used by the students in this GeoGuessr exercise?”. It was asked to play this game from a group of 140 first grade Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University, Faculty of Education students. They all have encountered the game for the first time and have never played before, they are asked 6 questions like how many times they have played the game, the reason they got low points, the highest point they got, which indicators they have used and the place of the game in teaching geography. All of the participants shared the highest point they got on their own blog and made evaluations about the game

On triple sequence spaces of sliding window rough λ-statistical convergence for measurable function of probability defined by Musielak-Orlicz function Ayhan Esi Subramanian Nagarajan

We introduced the triple sequence spaces of sliding window rough λ-statistical convergence for measurable function of probability defined by Musielak-Orlicz function and discuss general properties of among these sequence spaces.

Pilomatrix carcinoma of face; a case report Hayat AL-Khasawneh  

Pilomatrix carcinoma is an exceedingly rare malignant tumor derived from hair follicle. Although it has been described at various anatomical sites, fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the face and scalp. The diagnosis of pilomatrix carcinoma is based on histological examination of skin biopsy. . We report a case of pilomatrix carcinoma in an 85 year old male patient presented with cheek nodule.

Case report: A 27 years old woman with brain metastases of synovial sarcoma Nosrati Anahita  

A 27- year old lady with severe headache, nausea, vomiting and impaired cerebellar function. She had a history of a left arm synovial sarcoma and she was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that shows a gadolinium enhanced mass measuring about 7 mm in diameter with both solid and cystic portions in left cerebellar hemisphere causing mass effect. Histologic evaluation confirmed poorly differentiated type synovial sarcoma composed of tumor cells containing pleomorphic round to oval hyper chromatic to vesicular nuclei with coarse chromatin and a little light eosinophilic cytoplasm. The IHC stain is done and showed EMA, CK and vimentin positivity in tumor cells. The patient was treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the follow up study at 6 month post chemotherapy evaluation computed tomography (CT scan) showed pulmonary metastases and transthoracic biopsy revealed the same pathologic feature. According to our patient, brain metastasis could occur even in extremities synovial sarcoma and so CNS imaging as screening may be introduced in follow up plan of these patients.

Evaluation of Self-Immolation Suicide attempt in Sari City (north of Iran) between 2011 to 2014 Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini  

Objective: Self-immolation is one of the terrible way of suicide. Lack of data about suicide by Self-immolation method in Sari city (north of Iran) caused we designed this study to evaluation of self-immolation suicide attempt in Sari City (north of Iran) between 2011 to 2014.
Methods: In a retrospective study we review the medical record of 74 cases that attempt to suicide by self-immolation between 2011 and 2014 in Sari City (North of Iran). The medical record of all these patients included age, sex, marital status, residency in urban or rural, the season in which they attempt suicide, length of hospital stay, history of psychiatric diseases, history of underling disease, history of addiction and results of suicide attempt were collected. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 18.
Results: 74 patients included 52 females (70.3%) were attempt suicide by self-immolation method. The female to male ratio was 2.36. the mean age of all patients was 32.32±12.89 years old (between 12 to 75 years). There was no significant difference between mean age of women and men (32.55±13.64 vs. 31.77±11.20 years respectively, P=0.81). the prevalence of self-immolation was higher in spring (36.5%). Majority of the cases were married (59.5%). 19 patients (25.7%) was addicted to drugs included 16 opium addiction (84.2%) and 5 crack addiction (15.8%). 25 cases (33.8%) had history of psychiatric disease and 13 cases (17.6%) had history of seizure. Finally, 68 cases (91.9%) from 74 patents were die.
Conclusion: The prevalence of self-immolation was higher in women, spring, between drug user and in married patients. Suicide by self-immolation was associated with high rate of mortality.

Compare the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional radiography in diagnosis of distal radius injury before skeletal maturity Seyyed Mehran Razavipour  

Objective: Physeal injuries in childhood may produce irreversible damage to the growing cells, resulting in growth disturbance. The aim of this study is compare conventional radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of distal radius epiphyseal and physeal injury.
Methods: 31 cases with distal radius trauma were examined with conventional radiography and MRI. One blinded experienced radiologists and one blinded experienced specialist in orthopedics separately evaluated the results.
Results: The main age of our patient was 11.74±2.98 years. The results of MRI showed 90.32% injury in all patients whiles conventional radiography showed 64.51% injuries (P=0.014). In survey the physeal injury by conventional radiography we have 6 Salter–Harris II fractures. Meanwhile, the MRI showed 9 physeal injuries that included 6 Salter–Harris II fracture and 3 other fracture with physeal injury (all of them had distal radius microfracture with mild physeal injury) (P>0.05). In patients that conventional radiography showed they were normally, MRI showed 4 Bone Bruising and 4 microfracture. The other results were similar. The sensitivity, specificity, Positive predictive value, negative predictive value and total accuracy of conventional radiography in diagnosis of physeal injury were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 88%, 90.32%.
Conclusion: our study showed MRI and conventional radiography had almost similar power to diagnosis growth plate injuries in distal radius trauma. When we considering high cost of MRI, it’s seems that conventional radiography was beneficial than MRI to use in distal radius injury.

The Effect of Music Therapy on the Vital Signs of Patients in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit Seyhan Çıtlık Sarıtaş  

Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of musicotherapy on the vital signs of patients in a surgical intensive care unit.
Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted at Inonu University Turgut Ozal Medical Center General Surgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The study population consisted of patients who had been hospitalized in the ICU during the last 24 hours, who remained at least one day in the ICU, and who agreed to participate in the study. They were over 18 years of age, and their levels of consciousness were 5 or higher according to the Glasgow Coma Scoring System. The sample was collected from 202 patients who were hospitalized at TOTM general surgery ICU after power analysis. Patient identification forms and the registration forms containing vital signs before and after the intervention were used for data collection. Information from patient identification forms and registration forms indicating vital signs (pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation level) before music therapy was recorded on the second day after admission to general surgery ICU. This information about the patients was recorded again after music therapy. The data were evaluated with descriptive statistics and a paired t test.
Results: Pulse rates, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowered by music therapy, and low oxygen saturations were raised by music therapy.
Conclusion: The results show that music therapy is effective.

Histopathologic discrepancy between prostatic core biopsy and open radical prostatectomy specimens in clinically localized prostatic cancer Abdullah Rababaah  

Objective: 1. To assess the histopathologic discrepancy between prostatic needle biopsy and open radical prostatectomy specimens in terms of Gleason score upgrading and bilaterality
2. To evaluate the impact of this discrepancy on the surgical margin status of radical prostatectomy specimens Methods: This study was conducted at Prince Hussein Urology Center, Amman, Jordan. Between May 2010 and August 2015, 74 patients underwent open radical prostatectomy for localized prostatic cancer diagnosed by prostatic needle biopsy based on high PSA level. We compared histopathologic findings regarding Gleason score and bilaterality between prostatic biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, and then we evaluated the impact discrepancy between them on the surgical margin status of radical prostatectomy specimens.
Results: 52 patients (70%) had upgrade in Gleason score with mean increase by one. All 34 patients who had bilateral disease on prostatic biopsy had bilateral disease on radical prostatectomy, but of the remaining 40 patients with unilateral disease 18 patients (45%) had bilateral disease on radical prostatectomy specimen. Surgical margin was involved in 3 patients (4%), all of them had Gleason score > 7 and bilateral disease on both biopsy and surgical specimens.
Conclusion: In spite of the significant histopathologic discrepancy between prostatic needle biopsy and open radical prostatectomy specimens, however in clinically localized prostatic cancer this discrepancy has no impact on surgical margin status.

Illness behaviour: normal to abnormal- a selective systematic review of research from india Geetha Desai  

Objective: Illness behaviour is an important concept studied across various medical conditions. It determines the ways person respond and react to their health status and has significant impact on the health systems and individual. However, there are no systematic reviews on this important topic. To do a selective systematic review of researches done in India on illness behaviours across different health conditions.
Methods: Journal articles were identified through search on the PubMed, Medline, PsychInfo electronic databases from 1970 to 2015 with the search terms (Illness behaviour, India, Abnormal illness behaviour). The full articles were reviewed to identify measures used and important findings were extracted and summarised.
Results: There were 15 studies which were based on patients and two review articles (non-systematic). The studies on illness behaviour focused on somatoform disorders, tuberculosis and stroke. Scales used for assessment included Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ), Illness Behaviour Assessment Schedule (IBAS) and Screening for Illness Behaviour Questionnaire (SIBQ). No studies were found on intervention for abnormal illness behaviour.
Conclusion: Illness behaviours are an important aspect of somatoform disorders. It is difficult to draw conclusions due to relatively small number of studies. More studies including randomised control designs are needed to understand patterns of illness behaviour across disorders.

Controversy Concerning Constitutional Cancer: Historical Review Wilson I. B. Onuigbo  

Objective: The general pathology of cancer was long in turmoil over the two extremes of constitutionalism and localism. Therefore, my mini-Library of historical works was searched so as to obtain a good idea as to the ultimate development.
Methods: Many different literatures on the subject matter were reviewed and used.
Results: Two major issues were delineated. The constitutional theory saw cancer being a whole body affair with some local manifestations whereas the localists believed in a focal origin which may go on to manifest widely. Naturally, there was the midway group called the dualists who managed to hold both concepts
Conclusion: The controversy that reigned in the history of these concepts are deemed to be worthy of documentation. By 1900, the localists gained the upper hand principally on the principle of embolism.

Bloody diarrhea: A rare chief complain of leptospirosis Narges Najafi  

Objective: Leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonosis diseases that presents by involvement of different systems. This infectious disease ranges from mild to very severe but bloody diarrhea is not a known clinical primary manifestation of the illness.
Case Presentation: We describe a patient with leptospirosis who was admitted because of bloody diarrhea in the beginning. The patient admitted as a probable shigellosis case. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed based on result of Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT). After 7 days treatment he made a complete recovery and was discharged.
Conclusion: Although leptospirosis with presentation of bloody diarrhea is an unusual report. Leptospirosis should be considered in all febrile patients particularly in farmers endemic area.

Dysphagia in an elderly patient suffering from long-lasting rheumatoid arthritis. Manzo Ciro  

idiopathic esophageal achalasia (IEA) is a rare motor disorder whose initial manifestation is dysphagia, sometimes versus liquids. IEA can be an uncommon manifestation of some rheumatic inflammatory diseases such as Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, sclerodermia, rheumatoid arthritis. IEA is considered a precancerous condition and the possibility that it represents a risk factor for development of esophageal carcinoma (EC) has been more and more descripted. These same rheumatic diseases - when long-standing and/or aggressive - can give an esophageal amyloidosis (EA) with AA amyloid deposits . EA is very rarely descripted as unique manifestation of systemic amyloidosis during these diseases. IEA has a typical manometric pattern whereas in EA the anarchic arrangement of amyloid can produce unforeseen and uncharacteristc motility patterns different from the idiopathic one. Both IEA and EA are very rare conditions. For IEA, it has been extimated an annual incidence of 2/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 10/100,000 with a peak incidence between 30 and 60 years of age. The prevalence and incidence of EA are uncertain. The surgical experiences in esophageal pseudoachalasia are aneddhotic. We describe the clinical case of an elderly woman suffering from long-lasting rheumatoid arthritis in which an EA overlapped an IEA, causing the sharp worsening of dysphagia and poor prognosis despite surgical approaches. According to our knowledge, this overlap has been never descripted.

Improvement of sperm parameters after varicocelectomy: a single center study during six years Ayoub Barzgarnezhad  

Objective: One of the causes of male infertility is varicocele that has negative effects on sperm parameters.By doing varicocelectomy that it is an effective method for the treatment, there will be significant recovery in sperm parameters. The aim of this study is to evaluate sperm parameters before and after Varicocelectomy and a pregnancy rate in patients.
Methods: This cross-sectional study has been performed on patients with primary and secondary infertility who underwent varicocelectomy during 2009-2014 in hospitals of Sari, north of Iran. Demographic data has been extracted from hospital records and necessary information about spermogram has been gathered according to a checklist designed for this purpose. We used a questionnaire that contained demographic characteristics of patients and values of variables before and after varicocelectomy. Finally all data have been analyzed statistically using SPSS ver.20.The significance level was set at 0.05.
Results: of51 studied cases with the mean age of 37.3 years 50.98 percentswere above 40 years of old. 24 patients had varicocele grade II and 27 ones had grade three. Bilateral varicocelewas the dominant type in patients. The final finding represented that sperm indexes improved significantly after the varicocelectomy (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Results of our study showed that varicocelectomy leads to significant differences in sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology), while the fertility rate also significantly increased.

Mycosis Fungoides Skin Wound Management With Skin Graft Post Ultraviolet Radiation therapy. Shefaa almashagbeh  

Objective : To assess the survival rate of skin graft management in skin lesions of mycosis fungoides patients after therapy with ultraviolet radiation.
Methods : Between February. 2011 and June 2015, 89 [8- 81 yrs. ] mycosis fungoides patients were followed up at dermatology clinic, the initial investigations were skin biopsy and the most common used therapy is photo therapy with ultraviolet radiation ( according to stage in the histopathologic reports )
Results : Of the 89 patients that we followed , 90% treated with phototherapy (80 patients ), 35% of them ( 28patients ) of these patients were managed by skin grafts of skin lesions and ulcers , 10% of them ( 3patients ) the skin graft didn’t survive without previous therapy with ultraviolet radiation , 90% (25patients ) of them the grafted areas survived after phototherapy of UVA ,UVB radiation to the potential donor site, the other 65% (52patients ) of the followed pts were managed without skin graft for the ulcerated skin lesions , 38% of them healed spontaneously , others didn’t healed for a long time and need skin graft.
Conclusion: Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T lymphoma, pts who received phototherapy to the potential donor site has proven beneficial for skin graft survival , since ultraviolet radiation A,B ,decrease the cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and decrease inflammatory cells in both graft and donor tissues , with decrease in the antigen presenting cells expression, which leads to decrease in the delayed type hyper sensitivity reaction and increase graft uptake.

The Effect of MMP9 in the Development of Colorectal Cancer Progression Anahita Nosrati1 Omid Emadian2

Objective: Matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9) is a group of proteolytic enzymes that mediate breaking down the components of the fibrillar extracellular matrix during tissue rearrangement,physical,biological and pathological conditions such as growth, wound healing, inflammation and tumor progression. To investigate the association of these markers with clinicopathologic features and survival of colorectal cancers(CRC),we examined its expression in colorectal cancer tissues.
Methods: The expression of MMP9 in 91 paraffin embedded specimens of colorectal cancer and normal tissue adjacent to the tumor of patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari,Iran was studied immunohistochemically and the relationship between the clinical data and pathological features were considered,too.
Result: 91 samples (43 women and 48 men) were studied including 6 mucinous carcinoma and 88 adenocarcinoma. MMP9 expression was negative and positive in 31 and 66 cases respectively. Expression of MMP9 in normal tissue around the tumor was 5.5%. Our finding revealed that the MMP9 correlated significantly with tumor depth (p-value: 0.033) and metastasis to lymph node (p-value: 0.007). The association of MMP9 expression with the other clinicopathologic factors was not statistically significant (p-value> 0.05).
Conclusion: According to this study,the relationship between the expression of MMP9 with lymph node metastasis and depth of tumor was observed. To confirm the result, vast studies with more samples and also with the other matrix metalloproteinase proteases is recommended.

Impetigo in children in sector Gaza ThaerAlmomani  

Objective: To present a profile of impetigo in children in sector Gaza.
Methods: All patients that were seen in the outpatient clinic in Jordanian hospital in Gaza between 25/11/2010 and 24/01/2011and presented with skin rash were examined for impetigo. Patients were divided into three age groups: group I: 0-5 years, group II: 5-9 years and group III: 9-14 years.
Results: A total of 6530 children were seen in outpatient clinic for various diseases and conditions during study period. 165 cases of impetigo were reported with 108 males and 57 females. Impetigo was higher in age group II: age 5-9 years, followed by group III: 9-14 years. The incidence of impetigo among children seen in clinic was 0.02% and was higher in males. Commonest manifestation was blisters or sores on the face, neck, hands, and diaper area.
Conclusion: Impetigo is a common disease among children in Gaza. Major contributing factors to this disease are: crowding, poor hygiene, scarce water supplies, low socio-economic class, warm weather and presence of already irritated skin by problems such as eczema and insect bites.

Formulation and physiochemical evaluation of honey-containing gel mask, PVA, and total hydro-alcoholic extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss for the healing of minor wound Mohammad Ali Shatalebi  

Objective: One of the aims of medicine is to heal wounds in a shorter time and with fewer complications. In the studies on the effect of Scrophularia striata Boiss on the probability of mitigation of infection, reduction of the wound healing period, inflammation and scar remaining from the wound have been shown. Gel mask formulation, enjoying PVA polymer, creates a natural scaffold on wounds, causing the cells to migrate in an organized fashion towards the wound's bed and proliferate. By introducing the plant's extract in this base, its effect on reduction of the healing time and mitigation of the scar remaining from the wound becomes predictable.
Methods: The total plant was extracted through percolation using ethanol 70%. The plant's standardization was done through determination of the total polyphenols' percentage using folin-ciocalteu reagent. The extract was then concentrated and the amount of the dry extract per each 100 g of the plant's powder was calculated. Next, different formulations with different percentages of PVA, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol, and glycerin and other substances available in the base were prepared and then evaluated in terms of formation of medicinal film, drying time, pH, and other physiochemical parameters. Thereafter, drug diffusion was investigated using Franz cell and drug diffusion kinetics from the base.
Results: The amount of the plant's polyphenols was 25.1% and the amount of the plant's dry extract was 12.5%. The optimal formulation is a clear gel that forms a medicinal film after application of wound and following 10 minutes of use. It contains 7.5% pva, 15% alcohol, 10% isopropyl alcohol, 0.5% xantam, and 3% glycerin. The pH of the formulation was 5.65 and had the stability required in physiochemical evaluations and stability experiments. Drug release was done within 35 min as much as 90%, with the drug's release model following Higuichi model.
Conclusion;The optimal gel mask formulation containing 10% the extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss plant indicated a desirable stability in physiochemical evaluation. Considering the synergistic effect of the base and the extract in shortening the wound healing period and mitigation of remaining scar, clinical studies should be conducted.

Survey the complications of femoral neck fracture Masoud ShayestehAzar  

Objective:Femoral neck fracture is associated with several complications and poor prognosis. This study design to survey the complications of femoral neck fracture.
Methods: We design a descriptive analytical study. All patients with femoral neck fracture from March 2012 to March 2014 who referred to Imam-Khomeini Hospital of Mazandaran University of medical sciences at Sari city were enrolled to this study. Patients were follow for 12 months. Patient’s demographic data, radiologic data, type of treatment (surgery or supportive Therapy) and type of complication were recorded.
Results: from 72 patients how referred to our center, 50 patients (28 men) with mean age of 58.43±6.73 years complete the study. There was not significant difference between men and women age (56.5±21.17 vs. 59.72±16.38 years, P=0.55). 22 cases (40%) (7 men) by arthroplasty, 13 cases (26%) (10 men) by cannulated screw fixation and 15 cases (30%) (11) by dynamic hip screw (DHS) were treated. 14 patients (28%) including 4 men and 10 women were afoul complications that included avascular necrosis (3 patients), dislocation of prosthesis (2 patients), pulmonary embolism (one patient), intraoperative femoral shaft fracture (one patient), relocation of screw and shortening of the femoral neck (2 patients) and death in 5 patients who all of them were women (mean age of 79.35±5.81 years) and surgery by arthroplasty technique. morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in women (p=0.007)
Conclusion: morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in women. arthroplasty associated with high rate of complication and death, especially in older patients.

Apt Acknowledgements Arose During the Development of Pathology in the 19th Century Wilson I. B. Onuigbo  

Objective: There are different aspects of the history of pathology which are rewarding. Therefore, my mini-Library of historical works was searched so as to obtain a good idea as to the ultimate development.
Methods: Different aspects of the literature on this subject matter were reviewed and used.
Results: There were apt acknowledgements of certain themes which are worthy of documentation.
Conclusion: The harvest included the co-authorship of pathologists, the quotations being used to eliminate the suspicious of plagiarism, the contribution of microscopy and illustrative plates, as well as the watching of postmortems, the receiving of research grants, and, finally, the pleasure of working under the Director of the Laboratories Committee of the Conjoint College in England.

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