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Association of coronary artery disease with psoriasis in a group of patients in queen alia heart institute (qahi) in jordan Ramzi a .hiary  

Objective: The aim of our study is to demonstrate the association between psoriasis and CAD in a group of patients at QUEEN ALIA HEART INSTITUTE (QAHI)..
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at QUEEN ALIA HEART INSTITUTE from April 2012 to August 2016. 167 psoriatic patients (with moderate to severe psoriasis) and 197 non-psoriatic patients (control group) were matched by sex, age and risk factors of CAD. All patients underwent coronary angiography, and the incidence of coronary artery disease was compared between the two groups.
Results: After analysis, the p-value of CAD risk factors in both groups (psoriasis and controls) were: age (41.3 year, 35.4 ,0.04) , male (67% , 64% ,0.06), smoking (60.5% , 56% , 0.4) , HTN (40.5 % , 43% , 0.29 ) ,DM (37.5% ,36.3% ,0.3), hyperlipidemia (20.3% , 17.8% , 0.41), family history (36.1% ,34..4 ,0.05). After matching for all these risk factors, the rate of CAD in psoriasis patients was (8.2%) and (2.1%) in non-psoriatic patients with p-value less than 0.001.
Conclusion: Psoriasis (moderate and severe) is an independent risk factor for increasing the risk of coronary artery disease in (sex, age, and other risk factor for CAD) matched patients.

Comparing between varicocele surgery and embolization , our experience in King Hussein medical center Mohannad Al-Naser  

ObjectiveOur objective was to compare between endovascular varicocele embolization Vs varicocele surgery , for the treatment of varicocele . varicocele is considered the most common surgical cause of male infertility .
Methods : Retrospective review of the prince Hussein Medical Center varicocele database . We reviewed a total of 265 patients , All of the patients in the database had clinical varicoceles confirmed by scrotal ultrasonography , a total 45 patients underwent unilateral varicocele embolization, and a total 220 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral varicocele surgery in Prince Hussein Center of Urology and Organ transplantation , between January 2015 and March 2017 . Patients have been followed up at the urology outpatient clinic , and by their semen fluid analysis to assess the results .
Results : In patients who underwent varicocele embolization , the failure rate was 3 % , and the recurrence rate were 3 % , sperm motility improved in all patients , with no complications related to the procedure . In the other hand , in patients who underwent varicocele surgery , the recurrence rate was 7 % , sperm motility improved in all patients too , and there are no documented complications in all patients .
Conclusion : Both methods , have similar result regarding semen fluid analysis improvement , and recurrence rate ( in the international studies . recurrence rate between 5 and 10 % ) . but the surgical option is is less than embolization

Performance of Nitrogen Phosphorus compound fertilizer in Boro rice Mosud Iqbal  

Objective: Evaluation of new nutrient sources plays an important role in crop production. A field experiment was conducted at BRRI, Gazipur and at BRRI regional station, Sonagazi, Feni during Boro season of 2014-15. A new fertilizer, NP compound (NPC) was evaluated and compared the performances with di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Test crop was BRRI dhan29. At Gazipur site, phosphorus (P) control plot produced only 1.97 t ha-1 grain yield that increased with added P along with two N rates. At lower N doses, application of P either from DAP or NPC produced similar grain yield. It was observed that 30% less N produced statistically similar grain yield to 100% N, irrespective of P sources. It can be inferred that 30% N could be saved without significant reduction of rice yield. At Sonagazi site, application of P either from DAP or NPC could not increase rice grain yields compared to P control plot. From the results of both sites it can be concluded that NPC and DAP performed equally either with 100% N or 30% less N rates.

The Occurrence of Calcaneal Spurs In Plantar Fasciitis Patients Raad Jaradat  

Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the occurrence of calcaneal spurs in plantar fasciitis patients.
Methods: Patients with planter fasciitis were diagnosed in the rheumatology clinic at Prince Rashed Hospital and Prince Hashem Hospital. Only 140 eligible patients were exposed to careful examination and hind foot lateral radiographs. All patients were observed in regards to their age, weight and calcaneous bone X-Ray. For calcaneal spurs occurrence, the patients were divided into two groups; (present, absent). Data analysis was done based on simple statistical methods and Chi-squares tests.
Results: Planter fasciitis occurrence increase with the increase in age and weight (80%, 76% respectively) (Ps < 0.05). 98 patients out of 140 of patients with planter fasciitis were diagnosed with calcaneal spurs (70%) (Ps < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows that there is a positive relation between calcaneal spurs and planter fasciitis.

Aggressive Ulcerating Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising In Old Burn Scar: A Case Report Masoud Shayesteh Azar  

Carcinoma arising in posttraumatic ulcers and chronic wounds was first described by Jean- Nicholas Marjolin in 1828. Marjolin’s ulcers are malignant neoplasms that originate from chronic irritation such as burn wounds, venous stasis ulcers, traumatic wounds, osteomyelitis, fistulas, and lacerations, Burn wounds are the most frequent underlying etiology of Marjolin’s ulcers. We reported Marjolin’s ulcer that arising from very old burn scar in foot.

A Case Series of Portal Vein Thrombosis Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Omar Al-Shawabkeh  

Background: laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is presently the most common bariatric surgery at our center (King Hussein Medical Center). Portal vein thrombosis is a rare surgical complication with an insidious presentation and a high risk of bowel compromise. The aim of this study is to present a series of patients who developed portal vein thrombosis post sleeve gastrectomy, and to describe the overall incidence, associated risk factors, clinical presentation and management.
Case Reports: Four patients developed portal vein thrombosis post laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at King Hussein Medical Center during the period (Jan 2006 to Feb 2017). All patients presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting and decrease oral intake. The abdominal Computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis in all of them. One patient required medical treatment along with operative intervention and bowel resection. The other three patients were treated conservatively with anticoagulation and fluid resuscitation.
Conclusion: Portal vein thrombosis is a rare but severe complication after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Familiarity with this high-risk entity is critical. Early diagnosis and management, initiated by a high index of suspicion, is crucial.

Meningitis retention syndrome: a case report Farhang Babamahmoodi  

Urinary retention is a urologic emergency that is defined by an inability to voluntarily void urine, which can be acute or chronic. Benign inflammatory nervous diseases also cause acute urinary retention, in which patients lack apparent urethral outlet obstruction, but exhibit minor neurological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. The development of urinary retention in the context of meningitis and CSF pleocytosis without any lumbosacral radiculomyelitis is known as Meningitis Retention Syndrome (MRS). We report a 24-year-old male with complaints of urine dribbling, fever and also complete urinary retention a few hours later and nausea/vomiting, headache and flank pain. The general and genitalia examinations, routine laboratory tests, diagnostic ultrasound, and brain MRI were normal. But HSV Ab (IgG) and PCR HSV were positive in CSF analysis. Finally, Urologist performed the Urodynamic study and flaccid neurologic bladder was reported due the patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir 500 mg, every eight hours, with the diagnosis of MRS. MRS is a rarely described clinical entity with features of meningitis and acute urinary retention. The most common cause of urinary retention is benign prostatic hyperplasia. Other common causes include prostatitis, cystitis, urethritis, stones, and vulvovaginitis; receiving medications in the anticholinergic and alpha-adrenergic agonist classes; and cortical, spinal, or peripheral nerve lesions. Since MRS has a benign and self-remitting course, the effectiveness of immune treatments (steroid pulse therapy) remains unclear, although such treatments may shorten the duration of the disease. Management of the acute urinary retention is necessary to avoid renal injury due to hydronephrosis.

Comparison of PCR and culture methods for detecting of Listeria monocytogenes in vaginal samples Mohtaram Nasrollahi  

Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic intracellular pathogen that has become an important cause of human food borne infections worldwide. The aim of this study is the determinate sensitivity of diagnostic methods of this organism and achieving a test that can detect Listeria monocytogenes in all circumstances in clinical samples. Materials and Methods: In this study 88 vaginal swabs were collected from women with age of (15-45) referred to gynecologic clinics in the hospital (Sari, Iran). Vaginal swabs were examined by culture on specific PALKAM agar medium and PCR technique by specific primers. Results: Out of 88 studied vaginal swabs, 8 cases with culture method and 27 cases were positive with PCR technique. The sensitivity of PCR and culture is reported %100, %29 respectively. Conclusion: The results show that PCR is a more sensitive, easier, and faster method in comparison to in clinical samples.

Determining the Moral Sensitivity of Intensive Care Nurses Bilsev Araç  

Introduction: Intensive care units are defined as clinics that aim to support and cure critically ill patients, have a priority with their allocation in terms of patient care, are equipped with advanced technology devices, follow patients‟ vital signs for 24 hours and provide a multidisciplinary service. This study was conducted for examining the moral sensitivity of intensive care nurses in moral decision-making.
Method: The sample of this descriptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 84 nurses who worked in intensive care units of university and public hospitals in the province of Malatya between February - March 2015 and accepted to participate in the study. The data were collected using Socio-Demographic Data Form and Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. Statistical analyses of the data were evaluated using computer-aided SPSS program, descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, minimum and maximum values, standard deviation), Anova variance analysis and Student t test.
Findings: 70,2% intensive care nurses who were included in the study were in the age group of 18-34, 54,8% were married, 91,7% had bachelor's degree and 53,6% had studied ethics. While the total moral sensitivity score of intensive care nurses ranged from minimum 51 to maximum 131; the average score was 87,30±17,03. Average scores obtained by intensive care nurses from the lower dimensions of moral sensitivity were as; 18.32±5,84 (autonomy), 11.41±4.40 (benefit), 10,67±2,97 (integrative approach), 13,46±4,78 (conflict), 11,05±3,08 (application) and 8,47±3,33 (orientation). It was determined that there was no difference between the total scores obtained by nurses from moral sensitivity and their educational background, duration of working in intensive care units, the unit where they worked and the state of studying ethics before and after graduation (respectively p:0,265, p:0,555, p:0,299 and p:0,439), however, there was a significant difference between the scores of some lower dimensions of moral sensitivity according to their age and marital status (respectively p:0,036, p:0,037).
Conclusion: It was determined that intensive care nurses had a moderate level of moral sensitivity. Thus, it is recommended to plan and conduct continuous curriculums containing information and personal development aimed at increasing the moral sensitivity of intensive care nurses. Besides, it is considered important to conduct studies in larger groups for the moral sensitivity of intensive care nurses.

Arthroscopic Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament by Hamstring Graft; Endobutton vs Rigidfix Salman Ghaffari  

Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common sport injury. In recent years hamstring ligaments have become the most widely used graft for ACL reconstruction. One important issue is type of femoral side graft fixation. We compared the clinical outcomes of two femoral side fixation methods, endobutton and Rigidfix.
Methods: From March 2014 to March 2016, 147 patients with ACL tear were treated by arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using autogenous quadruple hamstring graft. Femoral side fixation was performed with endobutton or Rigidfix. Demographic and perioperative data were collected from hospital documents. Patients were evaluated using objective and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm Knee Scores.
Findings: 87 (59%)cases (48 endobutton and 39 Rigidfix) were accessible for final evaluation. Mean duration of follow up was 18(range 17-22) months. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding age, gender, body mass index (BMI), damage mechanism, activity level and postoperative pain, limp, subjective IKDC and Lysholm scores. Pivot shift test was normal in all cases of both groups. Anterior translation of more than three millimeter in comparison with intact knee in 30o and 90o of flexion was seen in 3(6.25%) and 3(7.69%) of endobutton and Rigidfix cases,respectively.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference between endobutton and Rigifix using subjective scores. Rotary and anteroposterior stability was similar. Both fixation methods result in a stable knee.

The Effect of Delivery Type on the Indices of Term Newborn Infants’ Umbilical Vein Blood Gas Daryoush Zohouri  

Introduction: Caesarean section (also known as C-section or caesarean delivery) has undergone an enormous increase over the recent decades, particularly in Iran where the rate of C-section is five times larger than that of the global standards. Moreover, according to several studies, there is the possibility that caesarean delivery can affect umbilical vein blood gas. Accordingly, the present study was conducted aiming to examine the impact of delivery type on the indices of term newborn infants’ umbilical vein blood gas.
Methods: The present cross-sectional study explored a total of 222 newborn infants born in Shahid Motahari Hospital, Marvdasht, Iran in 2015 based on three delivery-type groups, namely, natural delivery, general anesthesia-used caesarean and spinal anesthesia-used caesarean. Of all the infants, an amount of 0.5cc umbilical vein blood was taken and then examined in terms of blood gases. The two groups were compared with each other with regard to 1st and 5th minutes’ Apgar score, anesthesia duration as well as its influence on blood gases. The data was then analyzed using SPSS software.
Findings: Mean and standard deviation values for Apgar score in natural delivery at the beginning of birth equaled 8.8 ± 0.59, suggesting a significant difference between natural delivery and other caesarean groups (P= 0.01). It should be noted that no significant difference was reported in infants’ umbilical vein blood in the two groups in terms of pH (P=0.08), PO2 (P=0.79) and PCO2 (P= 0.85). Likewise, there was a significant difference in umbilical base excess of natural delivery and caesarean groups (P=0.03).
Conclusion: Based on the research results, compared to infants in caesarean groups, those born naturally enjoy higher Apgar score and base excess.

Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Thigh , an unusual localization: a case report Feras Almbaidin  

Introduction: Subcutaneous musculoskeletal hydatid cysts are rare ,representing around 1-5%.It mimics a soft tissue tumor ,so preoperative radiological diagnosis is important to choose the treatment.
Case Presentation: This case was presented to clinic in Prince Ali Hospital in Karak . A 78 years old female patient was presented complaining of right medial thigh swelling which appeared a few weeks ago.The swelling caused discomfort and pain .On exam ,a lump was located in the medial aspect of the right thigh,round,soft,non mobile. Her US revealed multiple well defined cystic lesions in the posterior aspect of the thigh, with internal septae mostly representing a hydatid cyst. A MRI was ordered and showed a large,multi-lobular, thin walled and non-calcified fluid containing cyst. The appearance was consistent with a hydatid cyst.Next,the patient underwent abrain,chest and abdominal CT to check if there was aprimary source,the results were negative.An Echinococcus Granulosa titer test was ordered, the result was negative. Treatment options were discussed.we preferred to start with the conservative approach.So,a high dose of Albendazole was started,with regular follow up in the clinic,but conservative treatment failed so we decided to continue with surgical treatment by complete excision.
Conclusion: Echinococcal disease should be considered in any patient who presents with a cystic mass despite body location. Especially in endemic areas.

Comparing The Pipelle With Dilatation And Curettage (D&C) In Diagnostic Power Of Sampling For Evaluating The Patients With Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Tahereh Gelini Moghaddam,  

Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and serious problem in the women of late reproductive age, and an indication for biopsy.
Common diagnostic methods in Iran including the endometrial biopsy with dilatation and curettage (D&C) are the gold standard for diagnosis. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic power, complications, and duration of endometrial biopsy caused by two diagnostic methods of endometrial sampling of pipelle with dilatation and curettage (D&C) in patients with AUB.
Methods: This single blinded- parallel randomized clinical trial was performed at the Iranian Center for Clinical Trials (IRCT). The research population is the patients referring to the specialized clinic of Mostafavian and Baghban 1 in Sari with complaints of AUB from October 2016 to September 2018. The patient selection was available for study. The patients were divided in simple random method into two groups of D&C and pipelle alternatively. The samples were sent to pathology after sampling, and when sampling is done, the patient was examined for complications such as uterine bleeding or vasovagal shock symptoms for the cervical stimulation, then, the results were compared with D&C, and also it was compared with the sample histopathologically.
Findings: A number of 70 patients were included, while many of which were excluded, and finally 50 patients were completed the study. First, the biopsy with pipelle and then biopsy with D&C were performed on all the patients. The mean age of subjects was 47.5 years old. The highest number of patients (28%) was in the 40-45 group. The mean thickness of the endometrium in patients was 11.5 mm. In the pipelle group, 34% of the cases of insufficient samples were obtained, while using the biopsy, only 4% of the insufficient samples are obtained. A total of 23 samples from 50 patients undergoing pathologic diagnosis were obtained from two similar sampling methods. In the pipelle group, the insufficient sample with 34% proliferative, and then the secretion and proliferative samples were the second and third (prophylactic and secretion pathology are considered as normal tissues that was calculated 56% in this study) in the diagnosis, and accommodation of the pipelle and D&C samples in proliferative has allocated the highest percentage of 9%, and the lowest accommodation was in the in atrophy and polyps and hyperplasia. The average duration of the procedure in the pipelle group was significantly lower than D&C. The pain was significantly higher in pipelle group than D&C (P <0.05). Conclusion: Pipelle is a cheap, fast, outpatient method with low side effects without the use of anesthesia and operating room facilities for diagnosis of hyperplasia and cancer with lower susceptibility to D&C. In the D&C with acceptable susceptibility and specificity, the pain was lower, number of insufficient samples was lower, and diagnosis of polyps was higher.

Evaluation Of Ct Scan Results In Patients With Minor Head Trauma Based Its Indications And Final Clinical Results In Patients Referred To Emergency Department Of Namazi Hospital In 2016 Kazem Jamali  

Introduction: There is much controversy over whether or not to use CT scan in patients with minor traumatic brain injury. The present study was conducted aiming to examine the results of CT scan in minor traumatic brain injury on the basis of the required indications and final clinical results.
Methods: A cross sectional study, the present study was conducted in the emergency section of Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Patients with traumatic brain injury and Glasgow Coma Scale scores 13 to 15 were included. The clinical and CT scan results of patients were collected, compared and analyzed using SPSS software. P-values less than 0.05 were regarded as significant.
Findings: Out of 263 patients, 182 (62.6%) and 81 (30.8%) were male and female, respectively. Also, the mean age of participants was 21.36±21.79. The most prevalent indication in patients was vomiting (56.3%) and the most prevalent unnatural indication was linear skull fracture. The present study reported that there is a significant association between unnatural CT scan results and indications of loss of consciousness level (P<0.01), headache (P=0.01) and post trauma seizure (P=0.04). Conclusion: The present study came to the conclusion that the four indications, namely, consciousness level, headache, post trauma seizure and vomiting can well predict the necessity for using CT scan in patients with minor traumatic brain injury.

Diagnostic value of clinical examinations in confirming fracture of elbow bones Farzad Bozorgi  

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of diagnosis of extension, supination, ecchymosis, hematoma and local tenderness in elbow injury in patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari..
Methods: This study is a prognosis test that evaluates the clinical findings of physical examination and imaging results in predicting elbow bone fractures in patients aged between 18 and 60 who suffer from blunt trauma referring to the emergency department of Imam Hospital. Initially, the first examinations of the patient's joint wound were assessed by assessing the range of motion including extension, supination, and pronation, as well as the presence of localized tenderness in radial head, ulna and epicondyle hemorrhoids, and examining the presence of ecchymosis and hematoma in the articular region by the expert Emergency medicine is done, the results of the examinations are recorded in the questionnaire form. Then, the standard geometry of the elbow joint is requested and the results are analyzed separately by the two radiologists. After collecting and entering the data, SPSS

Comparison of primary maladaptive Schema in patients under methadone maintenance treatment and healthy people in MMT clinics Mohammad Khademloo  

Introduction: The aim of this study was to Comparison of primary maladaptive Schema in patients under methadone maintenance treatment and healthy people in MMT clinics.
Methods: The study population consisted of all addicts and non-addicts under methadone maintenance treatment in MMT clinics in Sari formed of 200 people (100 people addicted and 10 normal men) were selected with available sampling procedure. Young schema questionnaire was used to collect data in 5 areas (areas of cuts and rejection, Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain, direction and other fields, hyper vigilance and impaired inhibition and field constraints) with 75 questions.
Findings: Face and content validity according to the standard tools of the sighting several professors and its reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient α; 0.968 is obtained. To analyze the data, independent t-test was used. The results showed that, in the domains of basic incompatibilities between addicts and healthy subjects undergoing methadone maintenance treatment MMT clinic there is a significant difference.
Conclusion: in are

Study of DMFT index in First grade children in Sari in 2016 Negin Meschi  

Introduction: DMFT is an index in which the number of decayed and lost teeth due to caries is calculated. Caries and lost teeth cause functional and aesthetic problems and also lower level of personal and social health. By obtaining a true measure of this index and factors enhancing it, a careful planning for reducing caries as well as improving the level of community health is possible.
Methods: This is a descriptive study and is conducted using a cross-sectional method. The population of the study consisted of male students of first grade of elementary school who referred to the examination center in summer. A total of 767 students were examined. Examinations were performed on an ordinary chair in natural light using mirrors and disposable catheter by senior dental students and data was recorded in special forms. The index is calculated using descriptive statistics and algebraic summation of Total of decayed, extracted and filled teeth and then mean and standard deviation are obtained for groups.
Findings: The amount of DMFT of all students was obtained as 93/2 ± 08/4 in in which

Evaluation of the effects of anticoagulant drugs on the rate of bleeding of oral surgeries and warfarin alternatives Amirhosein Pakravan Tahmine Bamdadian

Introduction: Today, with advances in the treatment of cardiovascular patients such as intravascular stents, cardiac valves and intracavitary pacemakers and cardiac transplantation, many cardiovascular patients should use anticoagulants such as warfarin, aspirin, Plavix and Sosix, Ticlopidine and other drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coagulation drugs on the rate of bleeding of oral surgeries and warfarin alternative.
Methods: For access to studies on anticoagulant drugs and their effect on the bleeding of oral surgery in heart patients, the PUBMED, MEDLINE, MAGIRAN, SID, ELMNET and GOOGLE databases have been used since 1998 to 2015. Keywords include oral surgery, anticoagulants, warfarin, dentistry and bleeding.
Findings: In the investigations done on the studied articles, it seems that patients with anticoagulant drugs that are supposed to undergo minor dental surgeries do not require discontinuation, dose reduction, or even control of coagulation factors and bleeding can only be controlled by local dental procedures such as suturing, mouthwash, gel


Relations between Turkey and the EU, which express a difficult process, are important in every period of history. Relations that started with the Ankara Agreement passed through different phases over time, resulting in changes in mutual expectations of the parties. Turkey has not been able to give up on entering the EU. Similarly, the EU was able to see Turkey completely out of the union. Turkey has not been among the candidates for full membership with the 1997 Luxembourg Summit, and Turkey has tried to follow the policy of cutting the relations by reacting to the EU. After this unfortunate situation, the EU announced that it would prepare an accession partnership document by accepting the candidacy of Turkey with the 1999 Helsinki Summit. This has led to a shift in relational obligation and expectations.

Management Related Challenges that Inhibit the Integration of ICT into Secondary Schools Financial Accounting Systems in Kenya. Dr. Kapkiai Moses Kogei  

Information communication technology (ICT) is a major drive in global economies. It has been used in most sectors of the world economies. In most developed countries it is yet to be optimally incorporated in the education sectors as a tool for Education management. The purpose of this qualitative study was geared towards establishing management related challenges that inhibit the integration of ICT into secondary schools financial accounting systems in Kenya, taking North rift region of rift valley as case. The study sampled 60 from the targeted 1200 schools and by extension, the respondent using purposive sampling technique. Generic qualitative design and interpretive research methodology were adopted. Data was collected using interviews, observations, documentary analysis and structured questionnaires. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using frequency tables, percentages and bar graphs. The findings showed that the major managerial challenges included among others; secondary schools’ leadership ignorance of ICT policy in education, absence of IC

An Exploration of Innovation Strategies Adopted By Telecommunication Services Providers for Competitive Advantage in Kenya.A study of Airtel Kenya Dr. Bichang’a Evans  

Innovation strategy provides a clear direction and focuses the effort of the entire organization on a common innovation goal. This study seeks to investigate the innovation strategies adopted by telecommunication service providers for competitive advantage in Kenya with special focus on Airtel Kenya. This research problem is studied through the use of descriptive research design. The target population for this study is the 68 employees of Airtel Kenya at the head office in Nairobi and 100 customer of Airtel Kenya. Stratified random sampling and purposive random sampling techniques were used to select the sample size of 158 respondents since the population of interest is not homogeneous and could be divided into three strata namely; top, middle and low level management.

Analysis of Socio-Economic, Factors Influencing Adoption of Biogas Technology among Farm Households in North Rift Region, Kenya. DR. Charles Obunde Ongiyo  

Biomass is one of the main sources of energy in Kenya accounting for over 68% of the total primary energy consumption. The continued dependency on biomass energy has resulted to land degradation, deforestation, drought and famine. The adoption and continued use of biogas energy technologies within the developed and developing countries is of great social, economic and environmental benefit. Although the positive benefits of using biogas is clear, in Africa and Kenya the households’ biogas adoption level is low. The main purpose of this study was to analyze social, economic factors that influence adoption of biogas energy among farm households in Nandi, Uasin-Gishu and Trans-Nzoia counties in North Rift region of Kenya. The target population was all the farm households in the three counties. The study employed farm household multistage research design mainly cluster, and simple random sampling techniques to get a sample size of 295 respondents for the study. Farm households were used as units for analysis. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and infe

Developing Information for Disasterand Risk Management in Public Universities of Kenya:An Emerging Role of Information Profession. Henry Lucheli Lusala  

Disasters entails factors that are coupled with naturally occurring hazards such as droughts floods, fire, war, terrorism, HIV/AIDS, landslides and epidemic outbreak among others which are risks to human life. Disaster management is the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response, and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. It usually refers to the management of natural catastrophes such as fire, flooding, or earthquakes. Related techniques for disasters management include crisis management, contingency management, and risk management. Developing an Information for disaster and risk management in universities of Kenya is framed within an environment where senior managers in the university need to integrate with low level staff as they face the pressure to professionalize; explore the world of risk, trust, and the distribution of power to allow confrontation and flow of information as they gather daily intelligence on acts of disasters. Unfortunately this objec

Characteristics and Performance of C02 Heat Pump at 50% Overcharged Conditions. Paul Maina  

A CO2 water to water heat pump system was used to investigate the effects of throttle valve opening and water flow rates at higher charge capacity (149% of the full charge). It was observed that the throttle opening affects the gas cooler pressure (and inlet temperature) where the less the opening the higher the pressure. Although the increase in gas cooler pressure was improving the gas cooler heat output and therefore the system efficiencies, there is an optimum pressure which when exceeded, the system performance deteriorates. This optimum pressure also is related to a certain throttle opening which is approximately at 20% in this
study. Similarly, as the throttle valve is reduced, the overall system becomes more ideal as indicated by Lorentz efficiency. On the other hand, the higher the flow rates the higher the performance although it’s better to keep the chilling water (evaporator) flow rate low and cooling water (gas cooler) flow rates high than vice versa for the best heat pump performance. However, if the main intention is to idealize the system, then it’s better to keep th

Effect of Mentorship Programs on Early Pregnancy Prevention among Secondary Schools Girls in Homa Bay Sub-County. ISABELLAH W. WAINAINA  

Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in developed and developing countries. Numerous prevention strategies have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, many girls still cannot complete school due to early pregnancies. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of mentorship and role modeling programs on pregnancy prevention among secondary school girls in Homa Bay Sub-County. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and guided by the feminist theory. The study was carried in girls’ schools and mixed schools only because students in boys’ schools only are not directly affected by the phenomenon under study. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used for the purpose of collecting data. Two sets of questionnaires were administered for the heads of guidance and counseling department and the class teachers. Interview schedules were administered to the principals and the sub-county director of education. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequenc

Meeting Health Needs of the Marginalized Health Implications of Children Living in the Streets in Eldoret,Kenya. Carren Morangi Onwong’a  

Globally, millions of street children live in the streets where they are deprived of social, economic, education and health opportunities for their survival. Street children grow up in an environment where equanimity and psychosocial stability is frequently threatened. To the worst, their health is compromised by shoddier and everyday deteriorating environmental conditions. This is compounded by inadequate research on health issues of street children hence, lack of enough data in planning effective interventions for them. This paper is an extract of a larger study that was conducted in Eldoret town and partly looks into the health implications of children living on the streets in Eldoret town, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. A cross sectional descriptive type of study was conducted among 45 street children between the ages 8 to 16 years who were available at different bases of Eldoret town. Study findings show that street children in Eldoret face myriad health challenges which included poor access to health facilities where they were discriminated against and were also required to buy med

Cyberbullying:Effect on Work Place Production MR. JAMES NAMBUSI MAKHULO  

Cyber bullying affects many adolescents and teens on a daily basis; it is a form of violence that can do lasting harm to people at different ages and social status in a society. Cyber bullying is real experience that has been in existence for a quite a long time; Bullying statistics show that cyber bullying is a serious problem among teens and gaining roots among adults. By being more aware of cyber bullying, teens and adults can help to fight it. Cyber bullying involves using technology, like cell phones and the Internet, to bully or harass another person. The introduction of social media and other communication systems has seen several people being bullied online by those who are already proficient on the platforms. The reasons behind cyber bullying might or might not be mala-fide but its existence isn’t in the best interest. It has been looked at mainly from the teens’ effect both in physical and psychological perception not realizing that adults are also equally affected. The impact on adults comes in different forms and has serious impact on the families and work places. The imp

Endogenus Factors Influencing Collective Bargaining Process in Industry Relations: A case of Tea Estates in Nandi County, Kenya. VINCENT BOSIRE OCHOI  

Although the aim of collective bargaining is to eventually reach a mutual agreement, there is usually a degree of conflict in Kenya between the involved parties with regard to the means by which agreements may be reached and the terms on which it is reached. As a result of this, very few collective bargaining agreements are attained as compared to the number of industrial disputes raised. It was on this basis that the study sought to find out the endogenous factors inhibiting CBP in Nandi Tea Estates. The study was guided by Cole’s collective bargaining theory and employed a descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule from union officials. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques and presented in frequency tables. The study revealed that trade unions do not undertake adequate training in industrial relations negotiation skills. Trade unions also prefer retrospective implementation of CBP agreements as opposed to the employers who prefer prospective implementation. Unions in most cases negotiate for awards instead

Teachers Factors that Influence the Choice of Teaching Methods used by Early Childhood Development Education Teachers un Keiyo South District. Betty Jebet Cheruiyot  

The untrained early childhood development education (ECDE) teacher tends to escape from children’s problems instead of dealing with them. They do not know how to deal with different age groups since they do not know what tasks to give which group of children. The type of training enables a teacher to escape the constraints of a curriculum. Once this issue can be established, preferably by research, it will ease the inconsistencies in the ECDE teacher training in Kenya. The purpose of this study was to establish teacher factors that influence the choice of teaching methods used by ECDE teachers in Keiyo South District. This study was guided by the Learning Styles theory by McCarthy (1980) and adopted a descriptive survey design. The study targeted 126 public ECDE centres, 252 ECDE teachers and 126 ECDE head teachers in the public EDCE centres in the district. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 38 public ECDE centres. The study used the questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist to collect data. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential stati

Solution to the Challenges Facing School Principals as Human Resource Managers(HRM) in Secondary Schools in Nandi County,Kenya Emily Chemutai  

With the ongoing changes in Human Resources Management (HRM), it’s important that managers, executives and HR employees, specifically, be aware of the challenges that today’s HRM team may face. This should then be coupled with the solutions to containing these challenges. While there are certainly other issues, it is common to most of any type of business or size of company to having policies in place to ensure these challenges are met head-on to make the workplace more settled and peaceful for everyone. The principals as human resource managers should embrace change which of course is not limited to these challenges. This is because their roles keep on changing from the administrative and teaching roles to human resource roles. This will help them sustain adverse consequences resulting from there changing roles if poorly managed. This study is set to establish the ways in which School Principals and other stakeholders can curb the increasing challenges faced by them as HRMs. The study used a Survey research design with a target population of 140 secondary school principals drawn fro

Service Providers Challenges in Addressing the needs of Street Children in Eldoret Town,Kenya. CARREN MORANGI ONWONG’A  

In the recent decades, children service providers have struggled to assist street children to come out of their negative situations on the streets due to a myriad of challenges. In Kenya, street children are considered illegal and discriminated against in their attempts to access services and treated with violence and contempt by state authorities and other service providers. This paper examines the challenges faced by service providers in addressing the needs of street children. A descriptive survey research design was conducted among 45 street children between the ages 8 to 16 years who were available during the time of the study at different bases in Eldoret town. Study findings show that there were several service providers identified by the street children who included NGOs, FBOs, Business Community and Good Samaritans. However, some of the services provided by the business community and Good Samaritans were identified, by Social Workers, as a factor that led to more children coming to the streets of Eldoret town. Street children revealed that they needed to be more involved in

Sustainablity of Public relations Practices in Creative Arts Industry in Kenya. Mathew Ayal  

This paper discusses the role public relations can play in the creative arts industry. It examines the objectives, strategies that arts organizations can use in communicating with their diverse audience. The paper argues that creative arts industry in addition to entertaining the audience is a medium of communication that be used for social and economic development. Therefore, those working in this sector at an organizational and practitioner level need to embrace public relations and marketing tools. In order to maximise their creative opportunities and communicate effectively with their publics.

Role of ECDE Administration on Choice of Teaching Methods used by Early Childhood Development Education Teachers in Keiyo South Districts. Betty Jebet Cheruiyot  

The untrained Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) teacher tends to escape from children’s problems instead of dealing with them. They do not know how to deal with different age groups since they do not know what tasks to give which group of children. The type of training enables a teacher to escape the constraints of a curriculum. Once this issue can be established, preferably by research, it will ease the inconsistencies in the ECDE teacher training in Kenya. The purpose of this study was to establish teacher factors that influence the choice of teaching methods used by ECDE teachers in Keiyo South District. This study was guided by the Learning Styles theory and adopted a descriptive survey design. The study targeted 126 public ECDE centres, 252 ECDE teachers and 126 ECDE head teachers in the public EDCE centres in the district. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 38 public ECDE centres. The study used the questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist to collect data. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and presented

Subsidized Education and Quality of Education in Secondary Schools in Eldoret Sub-County. Barno Grace  

The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of subsidized secondary education on quality of education. The study sought to determine general teacher to student ratio; teacher to student ratios in urban and rural schools, student to book ratio before and after implementation of subsidized secondary education and the availability of physical facilities in secondary schools in Eldoret East sub-County. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Sample selection was made using stratified sampling, simple random sampling, and purposive sampling. Self-administered questionnaires and document analysis were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics data, and the significance of the results determined using t-test at 95% confidence level. The findings of this study revealed that the teacher to student ratio had increased implying that with the increase in student enrolment the number of teachers had remained the same (p≥0.5). The Government subsidy on textbooks had effectively improved the textbook to student ratio. The study recommended that the gov

Effect of Finance Availability on The Performance of Post Retirement Business Enterprise in Ugunja Sub County,Siaya County. Odhiambo Norbert Omuga Likalama Alice

The study sought to assess the influence of finance availability on the performance of post retirement businesses in Ugunja Sub-county, Siaya County. It adopted a descriptive survey research design and inferential statistics. The target population for the study was 80 retirees. The researcher used census and collected data using questionnaires. The instrument was validated by the supervisors. Reliability of the instrument was determined through a pilot study where a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.708 was obtained from the instrument. This indicated that the instrument was reliable. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics and presented in tables. The study established that finance availability with p-values (p= 0.000) significantly affect performance of post retirement business enterprises. The study recommends that the government and other organization should facilitate loans for the retirees to enable them have sufficient funds. They should also be taught the importance of saving which provides capital for enterprises. They should know

Effectiveness of Guidance and Counselling types in Enhancing discipline among Secondary School Students in Olokurto Kamundia I. Robert Maria Ntarangwe

While education is expected to change the behaviour of learners positively by moulding them into self- respecting and self-reliant individuals, discipline related issues have been at the fore of educational debates as students encounter challenges associated with adolescence. Cases of truancy, drug abuse, immorality, destruction of property and loss of life, are however, indicators of the existence of a conflict between educational aims and discipline among secondary school students. This is despite the provision of guidance and counselling services in schools, hence the need to examine the effectiveness of guidance and counselling in enhancing discipline among secondary school students. The objective of study was to establish the effectiveness of guidance and counselling types employed towards enhancing discipline among secondary school students in Olokurto Division, Narok County, Kenya. Descriptive survey design was employed in the study and questionnaire used obtain data from respondents. Person centred theory advanced by Carl Rogers guided the study. The study population comprise

Effect of Knowledge Management Practices on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Performance in Migori County Oyoo Maurice Ochieng Prof. Richard Nyangosi

In the last decade the role of knowledge management practices in business organizations has been emphasized by practioners, academics and entrepreneurs. Ironically, most of these studies have focused on large organizations, yet others have predominantly focused on secondary literature of past studies for their findings. In addition, some studies have focused on particular aspects like tacit or explicit knowledge without giving a clue on the relationship to performance using both. This study sought to find out the effect of knowledge management practices on organizational performance with particular reference to MSMEs, thereby filling the gap on smaller organizations. The study was also empirical and addressed both tacit and explicit forms of knowledge. The study was guided by knowledge based view theory of the firm. The objective of the study was to find out the effect of organizational learning, knowledge sharing, and knowledge acquisition on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise performance in Migori County, Kenya. The study was conducted by cross- sectional survey, data being collect

Effect HR on the Competitive Advantage of Catholic Mission Hospitals Job Masaba Benard Masayi

In the recent years, the health sector has experienced escalating health care costs which have made the health care service providers seek for ways of continuously staying competitive to provide quality services to its customers. Traditionally, this is a sector that requires high level of professionalism, sophisticated equipments and advanced technology in order to stay ahead of others. Catholic mission hospitals have not been an exception to this experience. Despite the efforts, several draw backs have been noticed in the hospitals. It’s against this background that this study specifically aimed to establish the effect of investigate whether establishing whether human resource alignment had any effect on competitiveness of Catholic Mission Hospitals in Nyeri County. The target population for the study was 226 staff and a sample size of 68 was selected. The researcher used descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaires. The data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis and presente

Effect HR on the Competitive Advantage of Catholic Mission Hospitals Job Masaba Benard Masayi

In the recent years, the health sector has experienced escalating health care costs which have made the health care service providers seek for ways of continuously staying competitive to provide quality services to its customers. Traditionally, this is a sector that requires high level of professionalism, sophisticated equipments and advanced technology in order to stay ahead of others. Catholic mission hospitals have not been an exception to this experience. Despite the efforts, several draw backs have been noticed in the hospitals. It’s against this background that this study specifically aimed to establish the effect of investigate whether establishing whether human resource alignment had any effect on competitiveness of Catholic Mission Hospitals in Nyeri County. The target population for the study was 226 staff and a sample size of 68 was selected. The researcher used descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaires. The data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis and presente


This study was set to find out the psychosocial effects of cattle rustling culture among adolescent students in public secondary schools in Baragoi District, Samburu County, Kenya. For many years, Baragoi has experienced a series of serious conflicts based on cattle rustling. The worst incident was the Baragoi massacre that led to mass deaths and injuries of soldiers. The study employed quantitative and qualitative research paradigms focusing on the cross-sectional survey and phenomenological methods respectively. Probability sampling methods used included stratified and simple random sampling. A non- probability sampling method; criterion sampling was also employed. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions for students and interviews for teacher counsellors. Questionnaires had both closed and open-ended items. Quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and were presented using frequencies, means and percentages while qualitative data were analysed and categorized into themes

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