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Relationship Between Strategic Agility and Organisation Performance Ogolla Judith Atieno Dr . Thomas A . Senaj

Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that pool strategic Agility and its constructs are likely to perform better than those that emphasize on traditional strategic planning. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; This study explores the Strategic agility construct and their influence on performance through organizations perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of State corporations in Kenya; hence the main objective of this study is to explore the relationship between strategic agility and performance of organizations (considering the components of both concepts and contextual variables). The population of the study included top managers and senior staffs working at the state corporations in Kenya. Results showed a significant positive correlation between strategic agility and organizational performance. All components of organizational performance had a positive significant relationship with Strategic agility. The relationship between the individual components of strategic agility and organizational performance is positiv

nfluence of Technology Adoption on Credit Access among Small Holder Farmers:A double -Hurdle Analysis. Grace Kariuki - Njogu Dr. Agnes Njeru

The proportion of bank lending to the agricultural sector is generally low across the globe, and the situation is no different in Kenya. This is despite the fact that commercial banks have continued to launch tailor-made loan products that target specific groups in the sector. Studies acknowledging low credit volume in the sector have mostly focused on supply side factors that account for the status. However, there are ex-ante factors averting potential agricultural clients from seeking commercial bank credit. This paper investigated mobile banking technology adoption as a factor influencing the level of agricultural credit demand by agricultural households. Using data from dairy farmers, the study explored the relationship between an individual’s espousal of mobile banking technology and the likelihood to access a commercial bank loan through the mobile-banking platform. Specific social-demographic factors were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between mobile-banking technology adoption and credit access. The study was anchored on the fact that the world is swiftly transitin

Unhooking the Tentacles of Dependancy:Challenges and Opportunity of public Benefits Organisation in informal Settlements in Nairobi County Kenya. Timothy Osiru Okatta Wilkins Ndege Muhingi

Financial sustainability has always been a dream for every PBO serving in Kenya and by extension in Africa. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Kenya mostly depend on foreign funding. Studies expose the declining state of foreign funding coupled with the Miscellaneous Amendment Act of 2013 both of which impose a strain to PBOs. This paper explored the challenges faced by PBOs in implementing financial sustainability strategies in Nairobi informal settlements in Kenya. It was concurrent mixed methods approach study that employed a descriptive design and was carried out between January and August 2015. The study targeted various PBO stakeholders who were randomly and purposively sampled constituting a sample size of 304. Structured questions and interviews were the methods used to collect data while questionnaires and interview guides were tools used to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data while qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis in themes. The findings showed that 90% of the PBOs that were sampled faced challenges in impleme

Africa Indigenous Management of Water Catchment Areas: Contemporary Lessons for Sustainable Development in Meru - Kenya. Dr. Kennedy Ongaro Julius M. Limbitu,

African indigenous practices had specific religious significance in managing water resources, where everything had a religious aspect. In this sense, water catchment areas were treated sacred. People in Meru held religious events under designated trees. This way harvesting trees and other natural resources was approached with religious reverence, taking care to conserve the ecological environment leading to sustainable development. There are a number of challenges facing the contemporary exploitation, protection and preservation of natural resources, including at the water catchment areas. This endangers sustainable community development. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the contemporary lessons that can be drawn from the African indigenous management of water catchment areas. Literature on African religious environmentalism and the theory of critical institutionalism including concepts of path-dependence which stipulate that people’s behavior depend on past practices passed on through teaching and mentorship were reviewed. The institutional bricolage addresses the

Twific,Twine and Student centred Learning Combining creativity and Coding in the classroom. Sarah Tytler  

This paper explores the most effective way to teach creative problem-solving in a variety of classroom environments, from a traditional face-to-face course structure to distance-learning to individual workshops. Creative problem-solving is a crucial skill in a global, local, or 'glocalised' economy. Whether creativity can be taught and if so, how, has been covered extensively (Best, 1982; Lindström, 2006; Fasko, 2001; Cropley, Westwell, & Gabriel, 2017), but very little research examines the specific use of digital media and mobile applications in an interdisciplinary learning environment (Clark, Hergenrader, & Rein, 2015). Multimodality, social media, and interactive story-telling tools such as the program Twine combine the arts and sciences in a way which allows students to learn both analytical and creative problem-solving techniques while encouraging ingenuity and self-motivated discovery. Through a combination of comparative analysis, classroom observation, and original research, this paper describes best-practices and example case studies for teachers and facilitators intereste

Nurturing Tacitk Knowledge Through a Knowledge Centred culture for organisation Agility. Ributhi Jane Njoki Dr. Eng. Thomas A. Senaji

Organizations are battling with unending demand for improved and quality service delivery from her customers. This requires new approaches to knowledge culture that facilitates sharing of tacit knowledge among all the stakeholders of an organization. Service delivery has been one of the major focus areas of organizational transformation and public sector reforms in Kenyan Government. Competition among the players pushes the organizations to come up with strategies of becoming and remaining agile. Organizations are realizing the importance of knowledge centered culture to enable them share knowledge efficiently and effectively as knowledge that is not well managed and shared corrodes easily. The concern of this paper is that existing tacit knowledge may be lost if not tapped. Failure of tapping into tacit knowledge affects organizational agility negatively. How to retain or tap tacit knowledge remains an area of interest to researchers. This paper foresees an urgent need of coming up with the most effective mechanisms for tapping tacit knowledge within the organization. Tacit knowledg

Adopting Course Book To Meet The Exploration of the Expectations of the Syllabus and the Students Local Needs.A Focus on Teacher Practise. LORNA WAFULA  

With the rapid English language teaching development, more and more books have made their way into the market and choosing the right course book to meet the expectations of the syllabus and the students’ local needs is becoming more and more important at all levels of English language teaching. This paper examined ways of adapting course books by teachers of English language in secondary school in Kenya, so as to meet the expectations of the syllabus and the students’ needs. With effort from text book writers, English language teaching researchers and classroom teachers, course book adaption has evolved from ad hoc to systematic action. Although most classroom teachers may not be involved in the production of the syllabus and the text books, they have the responsibility for course book adaptation. Reference to the term course book has expanded from books to all materials used in English language teaching. It has evolved into a great variety of resources used in language classrooms such as audio cassettes, videos, CD-ROMs, flash cards and other authentic materials such as newspapers,

Role of Papa Shirandula Television Drama Series In Framing the Position of a Man and Woman in Kakamega Town. VINCENT MUKANGAYI ACHANDO  

Television drama series has far reaching effects on the viewers` perception of social issues such as sustainable development in every culture and society. This study examined the role of Papa Shirandula television drama series in framing the position of a man and woman in Kakamega town. Specific objectives included; to examine the perception of men and women by the Viewers of the TV drama series and to assess the effect of Papa Shirandula TV drama in stereotyping femininity and masculinity on the viewers. The study employed social construction of reality theory. The research was carried out among the residents of Kakamega municipality who are audiences of Papa Shirandula TV show. A descriptive survey design was adopted. The target population was 442 from which a sample of 133 household heads were derived using simple Random sampling technique. Interviews, focused group discussions and textual analysis were used to generate data. Data analysis was done using the qualitative data analysis techniques. Reliability and validity of the Research instruments were ensured through a pilot stud

Mobile Eco-Systems Impact of Ghanaian Economy. Dr. Isaiah Onsarigo Miencha  

This paper focused the use of mobile phone in the banking industry its economic implications and general a look into the various forms of mobile banking on the security measures that makes the whole process safe for adoption. The mobile ecosystem is constantly changing. The roles of each other are of interest of researchers both in academia and globally various innovative uses the mobile phone to provide financial services to traditional banks. The mobile banking technology systems have implications for the general discussions about mobile telephone in the developing world. Existing study about the significance of mobile communications in the developing world has focused on voice and text messaging. More so emergence of mobile banking also underscore how innovations emerge from unexpected places and have the capability of reconfiguring the technology to its users offering a way to lower the costs of moving money from place to place and opening a way to bring more users into contact with new financial systems.

Mobile Commmunication and Tellecommunicating are they a necessary evil for Business community in Kenya? Ms. Alice Nambiro Wechuli Prof. Franklin Wabwob a

Telecommuting is becoming a critical human resource management strategy in many organizations due to its implications for increased employee flexibility and productivity and organizational cost savings. Mobile technology is gaining popularity among people globally, including low income earners. This is because of the vast convenience for the users brought by the mobile communication devices. Many of the mobile devices are faced out at an alarming rate due to rapid technological change. Several studied literature lead to widespread agreement that landfill of electronic waste and electric equipment is not a suitable end-of-use management choice. If landfill was diverted through the recycling of e-waste, which typically consists of the recovery of a limited quantity of metals, then it would save on many things including the health of human beings since some of chemicals contained in mobile devices are hazardous to the human body. This paper seeks to explore information on telecommuting and remote communications where benefits and challenges are considered. Also, the green implication of

An Exploration of Innovation Strategies Adopted by Telleommunication Services Providers for competitive Advantage in Kenya. Dr. Bichang’a Evans  

Innovation strategy provides a clear direction and focuses the effort of the entire organization on a common innovation goal. This study seeks to investigate the innovation strategies adopted by telecommunication service providers for competitive advantage in Kenya with special focus on Airtel Kenya. This research problem is studied through the use of descriptive research design. The target population for this study is the 68 employees of Airtel Kenya at the head office in Nairobi and 100 customer of Airtel Kenya. Stratified random sampling and purposive random sampling techniques were used to select the sample size of 158 respondents since the population of interest is not homogeneous and could be divided into three strata namely; top, middle and low level management. Primary and secondary data is gathered. Primary data was collected by administering survey questionnaires and interview schedules whiles secondary data is gathered from inside the company, libraries, annual reports, published data etc. Qualitative data was analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics using SPSS (versi


With banks being the major avenue that the CBK relies on to execute monetary policy, the paper
sought to investigate whether commercial banks are actually responsive to monetary policy.
The study used an Error Correctional Model to estimate a relationship where lending rates were
treated as the dependent variable while the independent variables were monetary policy,
specifically CBR. The model was also expanded to include additional independent variables
specifically monetary policy transmission channels. These include the credit channel which is
represented by credit to the private sector, exchange rate channel represented as nominal
exchange rate and asset price channel. For consistency, inflation and economic growth were
included in the model because these are the targets of monetary policy.The study findings
showed that there was a long run relationship between lending rates and Central Bank Rate,
Exchange Rates, Asset Price, Credit to the Private Sector, Economic growth and Inflation Rates.
The results also indicated that CBRand Inflation cause lending rates to increa


Board of directors is the decision-making organ in the organization that faces complex tasks
pertaining to strategic-issue processing. It comprises of directors from various backgrounds
hence face interaction difficulties that can prevent them from fulfilling their tasks. This study,
will investigate whether the board diversity influences CSR and firm reputation in Kenya. This
will capture the boards’ monitoring and resource provision abilities; and it will be in line with
Agency and resource dependency theories. The general objective to the study is to establish
whether board diversity influences firm’s CSR and corporate reputation in Kenya. There have
been studies on how board diversity on firm performance and CSR but no paper has been
published looking at the corporate reputation and more over concerning gender diversity on
boards in developing countries.The number of women in the board has a significant impact on
corporate social responsibility and corporate reputation. Women bring a number of strengths to
the board including an increased sensitivity to CSR and partici


There has been growing concerns about the fact that African media has failed to commit itself to ensuring that the gender question becomes a standard of measure for press freedom and access to information on the continent. The use of the female body as a mere decoration or as an attention-getting device diminishes women's self-esteem and ignores other aspects of women's personality, their human potential and contributions to economic empowerment for development. Women are underrepresented in political, social and economic reporting; this results in limiting the freedom of expression caused by self-censorship by a male dominated industry. It is a cause of concern on the portrayal of women in household-related roles, mostly in advertisements for household products, particularly because of the repetitiousness of the housewife image. The media does not fully recognize the dynamism that women display in the economic, cultural and social lives of their communities through their associations and informal networks channeled into creating new models of participation and leadership. This paper

Kenyan Efficiency in Financial Sector after the Financial Crisis Dr. Isaiah Onsarigo Miencha Dr. Bichang’a Evans

This study aims to find the efficiency of selected Kenyan sample commercial banks. As the
banking industry is the main sector that contributes significantly to the development of the
national economy and hence the efficiency of commercial banks gains significantly. The analysis
of the study, using intermediation approach, reveals the efficiency of Kenyan commercial
banks. However, the efficiency of sample banks showed inefficiency in some areas during the
study period. But small banks showed better efficiency scores during the study period

Analysis of the Role of R emittances on P overty R eduction i n Kenya Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba Mutahi Wambui

This paper analyses the role of remittances in poverty reduction in developing world in particular Kenya. Due to globalization there has been great movement of persons from one country to another in search of green pastures. The opening up of the economies leads to increase of immigrants who leave their home countries and stay in the host countries. Kenya has experienced large movement of its residents to developing countries to look for greener pastures. These immigrants have led to the increase of remittances to their home countries. It is on this foundation this paper sought to establish the relationship remittances and poverty reduction in developing economies in particular Kenya. In this paper data from Africa development indicators from World Bank and central bank of Kenya for a period of ten years are considered for graphical analysis to study the trend and annual pattern of behavior which supports the hypothesis of the paper that remittances growth is important in achieving the goals. It is expected that this study will benefit the government and the parties concern to ensure

Training and Development Practices in Public and Private Banks : A Comparative S tudy of Kenya and India Bichanga Evans Jared Bogonko

This paper was set to examine training and development in the banking sector and reaffirm the investment in training and development. In line with the assertion made by the literature and the evidences gathered in the process of the study, the following recommendations were made: It is an established fact that no serious minded organization like banks can be staffed by people with expertise and potentials in the various disciplines needed for its total functioning simply by recruitment and selection, it’s the systematic training and development of personnel on continuous basis that can harness the totality of human resources in the organization, banks should ensure that any training and development which takes place is based on proper analysis of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of banking industry. The data collected from different sources was cross checked. Different statistical tools and techniques were used like mean, mode, median, averages, t-test and chi-square. The paper concluded that investment in the area of training and development in the human resource

Board Diversity and Financial Performance; Evidence from Kenya Ombaba K. B . Mwengei  

Using panel data from firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange during the period
2004-2014, this paper examines the effect of board diversity and firm performance. Specifically the study investigates the effect of independent directors, board size, gender and financial expertise of directors and firm performance. The study finds, steadily with trends in most countries, the representation of women on the corporate board remains low. Regression results indicate that board independence has a negative and significant relationship on firm performance. The study also finds that gender diverse boards perform better as measured by Return on Assets (ROA).

Approaches to Evaluation of Training and Development in Banks: An Empirical Study Bichanga Evans Prof . S. B. Akash

This paper was set to examine the approaches to training and development in the banking sector. In line with the assertion made by the literature and the evidences gathered in the process of the study, the following recommendations were made: It is an established fact that the Kirkpatrick approach is widely used, it’s the systematic training and development of personnel on continuous basis that can harness the totality of human resources in the organization, banks should ensure that any training and development approach which takes place is based on proper analysis of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of banking industry. The data collected from different sources was cross checked. Different statistical tools and techniques were used like mean, mode, median, averages, t-test and chi-square. The paper concluded that most of training and development approaches used in the banking industry are that of Kirkpatrick. Each employer who invests seriously in the area of Training and Development needs to understand the approach to use in order to reap the benefits of an enri

Knowledge Implementation and Employee Performance Evidence from Kenya. Dr . Caroline Sitienei Koech  

Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to examine the interaction effect of employee engagement on the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance in Technical Institutions in Kenya. The study therefore, sought to establish the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance and the moderating effect of employee engagement on the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance.
Methodology– The paper adopts regression model and Baron and Kenny approach to test for moderation effects.
Findings –The study findings revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance (β =.083, p<.05). The study further revealed that employee engagement moderates the relationship between knowledge implementation and employee performance (β =-.142, p<.01). Research Limitations/implications– Given that the study looked at knowledge implementation, employee engagement and employee performance at one point in time, longitudinal time span research is recommended to p

Women in institutional boards and board effectivess in Kisii county, Kenya. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba Jackline Omuya

In this study it shows that female directors have a significant impact on board inputs and educational institution’s outcomes. From the literature, we find that female directors have better attendance records than male directors, male directors have fewer attendance problems the more gender-diverse the board is, and women are more likely to join monitoring committees. In this paper we open the “black box” of board behavior by drawing upon theories of gender differences and group effectiveness. The results suggest that gender-diverse boards allocate more effort to monitoring, women directors is positively associated with board strategic control. In addition, there are positive effects of women directors on board effectiveness as mediated through increased board development activities and decreased level of conflict.
Policy Implications: Women’s ability to make a contribution to the board may be attributable to their different leadership styles. Their presence seems to increase board effectiveness through reducing the level of conflict and ensuring high quality of board development ac

The Success and Failures of ICT Governance in Enterprises MR. JAMES NAMBUSI MAKHULO  

Most enterprises are struggling with risky surroundings and constant technological changes in order to achieve the highly expected results. ICT governance considers many types of technologies touching on various areas of interest in enterprises. A number of times we hear of negative and positive happenings in organisations due to failure or success of ICT of which the blame or praises go to ICT management or system being used and not the governance of the ICT in place. The key agenda of ICT governance include the assurance that there are positive returns on ICT investments, tone down the risks that are associated with ICT among others; Governance plays the big role and not the management. Governance being about who makes decisions unlike management which is about making and implementing the decisions. This presentation about the ICT governance; what contributes to the success of ICT governance and its possible failures that make the system in the enterprise not to achieve its objectives. It looks at the issues that contribute to effective / sustainable and ineffective / non-sustainab

The Role of University Education A Perspective of Youth Empowerment in Kenya. Stephen Kipkorir Rotich  

The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which University Education contributes to youth empowerment in Kenya. What motivates the researcher is the increasing number of youths pursuing a second degree, thinking that what they lack is education to get a job. What remains predicament is the fact that quite a number of youths still possess a mindset of permanent and pensionable job. Unemployment rate in Kenya has been increasing from 12.7% (2006) to 40% (2011). The research analyses three scenarios: university programmes, pedagogy and business attitudes of graduates. The study employed descriptive survey research design to explore the business attitudes and skills of graduates. The target population was university graduates who engage in business with a total of 75 respondents. Purposive and Snowball sampling were used to obtain 25 respondents from each county of Kericho, Bomet and Narok. The graduates who engaged in business in towns were identified and ask to identify others in turn, until the required sample was obtained. Primary data was collected using observation, int

he role of County Government on Service Provision in Early Childhood Development Education Centres in Elgeyo Marakwet County a Case Dynaline Jebiwott Kibet Moses Kapkiai

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the county government on service provision in Early Childhood development Education Centres in Elgeyo Marakwet County: Keiyo South Sub-County Kenya. To achieve this study sought to establish the extent to which devolution has enhanced availability of instructional materials in ECDE centres and to examine the influence of devolved government on infrastructural development. The study used an exploratory descriptive survey design. The entire Sub-County has 136 public ECDE centers thus the population comprised of 1 DICECE Program Officer, 136 head teachers and 408 ECDE teachers. The sample size population was 151respondents. The sample size comprised of 1 DICECE Program Officer, 14 Head teachers, and 136 ECDE1 parent representatives. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical method. Data collected was both quantitative and qualitative. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the quantitative data obtained. Qualitative data was analyzed by arranging the responses them

echnical and Visual Aid Services as Determinants to Academic Progress of Learners with Learning Impairments in Early Childhood Pamella Lugasi Kayere Sammy K. Chumba

The requirement by the Kenyan government to have equity in provision of education services has led to a paradigm shift towards inclusive education. Existing evidence however tends to suggest that children with HI, on average are not socially or emotionally comfortable in mainstream settings. Besides, although progress in the teaching and learning of children with HI exist, other evidence still emerges of the relative lack of academic improvement among this group of children. This study therefore aimed at establishing the effect of support services offered to children with HI in the inclusive context on their academic progress. It specifically sought to establish the effect of technical support and use of visual aids on academic progress of this category of learners. The study was conducted in Turbo Sub-county of Uasin Gishu County in Kenya and adopted casual comparative research design. Both stratified random and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 117 ECDE teachers and 59 head-teachers from the 76 ECDE centers in the sub-county. Mean response scores tog

Strategies Adopted by Commercial Banks in Kenya for Competetive Advantage a Case of Equity Bank Philip Bii Job Masaba

A company’s strategy is a management game plan for growing the business, starting out a market position, attracting customers, competing successfully, conducting operations and achieving targeted objectives. The main purpose of the study was to find out the strategies adopted by commercial banks in Kenya for competitive advantage, a case study of Equity bank. Thus the study sought to achieve the following objectives; to establish the strategies adopted by Equity bank for its quest for competitive advantage and to establish the role played by competitive strategies in the growth of Equity bank. The study employed survey research design and the target population comprised 28 employees of Equity bank. Face to face interviews and structured questionnaires was applied to the management and general staff to collect primary data. The generated data comprised of primary (field survey) and secondary (period survey) sources. The data was analyzed through use of quantitive and qualitative methods and the obtained findings were presented in tables and figures. The study identified the strategies

Relationships between age, gender and Financial Growth of Listed Firms in Kenya Nyandema Daniel  

The study sought to determine the relationships between board of directors’ age, gender and financial growth of companies listed in Kenya. The study was guided by the agency theory, contingency theory and stewardship theory. The study used correlational research design and the target population for this study was board of directors of 60 listed companies in the Nairobi Securities Exchange and the sample size of 18 boards of directors of listed companies was used being representative of all the sectors. Data was sourced from NSE annual reports and annually published financial statements of listed companies. In order to answer the research questions the study used cross tabulation and to determine the strength of relationship between board directors’ age, gender and firm’s financial growth, coefficient of correlation was computed. Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. The study found that there is a negative relationship between the age and the financial growth of companies listed in NSE. Gender has a positive association with profits and a negative association with EPS and DPS.

Personal Therapy: Towards Sustainability and Capacity Building among Workers in Organisations in Kenya Prisca Tarus Enos Mwirotsi

The growth and success of all organizations, depend on the health of their workers; both the physical and mental health. The counselor plays a great role in ensuring that workers enjoy good mental health through facilitation of their self awareness and life skill acquisition. However, counselor may sometimes be overwhelmed with his/her own personal concerns to the extent his/her functioning is curtailed. By becoming clients themselves, counselors gain an inner steadiness that increases their ability to help others. In learning self-acceptance and patience through personal therapy, counselors will find it easier to be patient with clients and to respect each individual’s unique process and pacing. Personal therapy helps counselors learn patience and calmness in the unpredictable waters of an organization. Without personal therapy, counselors are more susceptible to acting prematurely and subverting the difficult and fallow periods so crucial to therapeutic progress. Personal therapy is a core component of counselor self-care, which is another means of preventing client harm and enhanc

Influence of Financial Literacy on Performance of Small and Medium Entreprises A Case of Butere Sub County ,Kakamega County, Kenya Francis Mukatia Asakania  

The desire by governments all over the world to improve the standard of living of their citizens has led to growth in the number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In Kenya, economic growth forms one of the pillars to attaining vision 2030 whose aim is to enhance the quality of living standards of Kenyans. However, the success of the SMEs is dependent upon a number of factors. A key ingredient in ensuring sound performance of SMEs is the level of financial literacy of the business people. The study aimed at assessing the influence of financial literacy on performance of small and medium enterprises. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the influence of budgeting skills, record keeping skills, credit management skills and tax compliance skills on performance of small and medium enterprises. The target population of the study was 3,916 consisting of the SMEs business community in Butere sub county, Kakamega County, Kenya. A sample of 390 was used in the study. The study employed a descriptive research design. Stratified random sampling was used in identifying the responden

Environmental Effects of Coping Strategies Employed by Small Scale Farmers to Mitigate for Rainfall Variability in Bunyala Sub-County James Ojigo D r. Grace Cheserek

Farmers in Bunyala sub-county depend on rain fed agriculture and over the years frequent floods and droughts, crop failures and water shortages have become common. Research has shown that small-scale farmers in the developing countries are more vulnerable to rainfall variability due to their high reliance on rainfed agriculture and poor coping capacity. However most studies so far have concentrated on climate-driven adaptive capacity in flood prone areas and arid and semi-arid areas and have not considered the effects on livelihoods and coping strategies to this climate driven changes, especially in areas with both floods and drought regimes like Bunyala sub-county. It is against this background that this study sought to examine the environmental effects of coping strategies employed by smallscale farmers to mitigate for rainfall variability in Bunyala sub-county, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to identify the environmental effects resulting from the coping strategies employed by small scale farmers in Bunyala sub-county to counter the effects of rainfall variability. Househol

Organization al Restruc turi ng Effect on Competitive Advantage of Catholic Mission Hospitals in Nyeri Cou nty, Kenya . Masayi, B. Nyongesa  

In the recent years, the health sector has experienced escalating health care costs which have made the health care service providers seek for ways of continuously staying competitive to provide quality services to its customers. Traditionally, this is a sector that requires high level of professionalism, sophisticated equipments and advanced technology in order to stay ahead of others. Catholic mission hospitals have not been an exception to this experience. Despite the efforts, several draw backs have been noticed in the hospitals. It’s against this background that this study specifically aimed to establish the effect of investigate whether establishing whether human resource alignment had any effect on competitiveness of Catholic Mission Hospitals in Nyeri County. The target population for the study was 226 staff and a sample size of 68 was selected. The researcher used descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using questionnaires. The data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis and presente


Improving fiscal performance by reducing budget deficits has for long been at the heart of many governments in developing countries. Budget deficit in all cases whether monetized or not, tends to generate inflationary pressures triggering uncertain crisis in an economic system. Majority of the developing nations, Kenya inclusive have had a dismal performance by attracting negative budget balances over the years. To contain fiscal vulnerabilities, there is need to understand factors behind fiscal performance in Kenya. The objectives of this study are to establish the trends and extent to which these factors determine fiscal performance in Kenya. The study employed unrestricted Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model in estimating how macro-economic, political and institutional factors affect fiscal balance using longitudinal data collected, consolidated and analysed for the period 1963 to 2013. In the short run, both the first and the second lags of fiscal balance, Treasury bill, Tax revenue and inflation significantly influenced fiscal balance. On the other hand, only the first lags of rea

Assessment of Livelihood Coping Challenges and Viable Solutions available to Small - sca le Farmers Aimed at Enhancing their Resilience to Rainfall Variability in Bunyala Sub - county , Kenya James Ojigo DR. Grace Cheserek

Farmers in Bunyala sub-county depend on rain fed agriculture and over the years frequent floods and droughts, crop failures and water shortages have become common. Research has shown that small-scale farmers in the developing countries are more vulnerable to rainfall variability due to their reliance on rainfed agriculture and poor adaptive capacity. However, most studies so far have concentrated on climate-driven coping capacity in flood prone areas and arid and semi-arid areas and have not considered the challenges experienced by small scale farmers in the wake of these coping strategies and opportunities and innovations that can be explored to enhance the coping capacity to rainfall variability. The objective of this study was to establish the coping challenges and identify viable solutions through opportunities and innovations to enhance small scale farmers’ resilience to rainfall variability. Data was collected through use of questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and field observation. Bunyala Sub-County has about 15,245 households in six locations. Proportionate str

A Demand Generation Model to Stimulate Tourists Purchase Intent in Zimbambwe Mandina Siphiwe P. Masere Victoria S .

Zimbabwe is host to one of the natural wonders of the world; the Victoria Falls, thus tourism is one of the four pillars anchoring the revival of the economy of Zimbabwe. Tourism has played a very significant role in the development of the national economy taking advantage of its most diversified tourism resource base. Focus of this study is on Micro, Small and Medium enterprises (MSMEs) lodges in Victoria Falls. The crux of this paper is to stimulate demand for hotel services from both international and local tourists in line with social services and poverty eradication for MSME lodges, which in turn may reduce joblessness in the country’s MSME lodges. Hotel services are perishable therefore inevitably lead to demand and supply challenges for managers. The study seeks to encompass demand management strategies from a marketing and economics perspective. The researchers therefore propose a demand generation model for stimulating tourist purchase intent

Responsible Journalism Vincent Mukangayi Achando  

The advent of new media has completely revolutionalised journalism in the world and particularly in Kenya, with regard to sourcing dissemination and consumption of information is concerned. This is pegged on the advancement in technology through the internet that enables journalist and bloggers to publish, share news and events as well as receive feedback from the public. This scenario has changed the media landscape in Kenya in the recent years. The emergence of citizen media has been enabled by technologies such as mobile phones, blogs, micro-bloggers and video sharing platforms. Blogs have become authoritative channel through which people share ideas, news, advice and analyses on different happenings in the society. The practice has recently turned out to be journalistic, with a good number of bloggers running authoritative and influential blogs, where thousands of people flock for information. Kenya has the highest number of active bloggers in Africa and in the world. This study aims to establish roles of bloggers in responsible journalism in Kenya. The study was guided by the fo

The State Of Stakeholder Engagement In Major Private Higher Education Instituions In Botswana Ushe Makambe  

This study
sought to discover the extent of internal stakeholder collaboration in
private higher education
institutions in Botswana by determining the existence
or absence
of engagement of academic staff associations and
Student Representative Councils (SRCs).
The study adopted a multimethod research approach leading to
methodological triangulation whereby
quantitative and qualitative data were obtained through a questionnaire and
face interviews
The research participants comprised 132 memb
ers of academic staff from five
PHE insti
tions covered in this study. The probabilistic sampling procedure was used to select respondents to the
questionnaire, while purposeful sampling was used to select respondents to the in
depth interviews.
The resul
ts of
the study revealed the absence of
stakeholder engagement in the selected PHE institutions as virtually all
the institutions did not have academic staff associations, while SRCs were n

Stock Market Volatility At The Nairobi Securities Exchange Joseph Abuga Orayo  

Herding is an important factor in determining equity returns during periods of price fluctuations in the market. Increased herding behaviour among investors as a result of uncertainty causes unnecessary volatility. Therefore, this paper investigates whether herding behaviour contributes to stock market volatility at the Nairobi Securities Exchanges (NSE). First, the study evaluates whether herding behaviour exists at the NSE and the extent of such behaviour. Secondly, it explores its attributed implication on the stock market indicators demonstrating volatility. The study has utilized monthly data from firms listed in the NSE from January 2009 to December 2015. Cross Sectional Standard Deviation (CSSD) has been mainly employed as testing methodology. Panel data on individual variables was used to estimate the non- linear model of both binary and continuous nature. Coefficients by the model have statistical significant influence on CSSD confirming the presence of significant herding patterns at the NSE which influence volatility as demonstrated in the graphical analysis and consequent


Although some few studies have been done on the relationship between product differentiation strategies for competitive advantage, information on the strategies used in Kenya is ostensibly missing in the literature. This study therefore sought to determine the role of product differentiation strategy in New Kenya Corporative Creameries for competitive advantage. Specifically the study sought to determine effect of product support service, branding, packaging and labeling on competitive advantage of KCC. The study employed a descriptive research design. The study targeted a total population of 10822, comprising of 2 Marketing managers, 10 regional managers and 10 route managers from New KCC and 10800 customers buying New KCC products. The sample size was 407. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from the participants. The study established that the major product differentiation strategies used at New KCC include branding, labeling, packaging, product quality and total change in product characteristics. The study has enhanced understanding of how product differentiat

HRM Practices and Employee Performance in Agricultural Sector Haron M.Mutua Paul Geteni Makori

The purpose of this study was to evaluate HRM practices affecting employees in the Agricultural Sector. The study specifically sought to establish how HRM practices are integrated in Kenya Agriculture Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) – Katumani in Machakos County. It also examined the benefits of HRM practices in the agriculture sector as well as the challenges facing the managers when employing HRM practices. The study was guided by the theory of HRM as proposed.The target population was 220 employees and the management staff drawn from the four departments namely; Human resource, ICT, Research and production and field services. To obtain employees who participated in the study from each department, simple random sampling was applied to select 80 employees out of 220 Purposive sampling was used in order to include the managers or Heads of Departments while simple random sampling was applied to select the employees who participated in the research study. The researcher used questionnaire, and interview methods to collect data. Further, data analysis was done using descriptive


The purpose of this study was to measure the relative efficiency of the hotels in Nairobi and Mombasa using Data Envelopment Analysis. The study was a longitudinal survey in which data are collected for periods; 2007, 2008 and. The study was limited to two-five star hotels. The study sample consisted of 36 hotels. The results revealed that technical inefficiencies of the hotels were mainly due to the pure technical inefficiencies rather than the scale inefficiencies.
Key words: Bench marking; Data Envelopment Analysis; Decision Making Unit; Efficiency; Returns to Scale

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