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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LEFT ATRIAL VOLUME INDEX IN PREDICTION OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION RECURRENCE AFTER ELECTRICAL CARDIOVERSION Mehrnoush Toufana BabakKazemib

Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate of the significance of the left atrial volume index (LAVI) measurement performed before ECV in predicting the recurrence of the AF. Methods and materials: Fifty-one patients with AF, selected for ECV were studied in the cardiology department of Tabriz University of medical sciences. The clinical and demographic data of all the patients were recorded. Echocardiography was performed before and also three months after ECV. Patients were divided into two groups: those who maintained SR and those with recurrent AF based on their clinical manifestations and ECG taken after three months. Results: SR was maintained in 76.5 percent of the patients following the three months after ECV. The age, sex and the BMI were not significantly different between SR and AF groups. Two groups showed no significant differences considering pre-ECV medical history including medications and systemic diseases. The initial LAVI was significantly different between two groups. The cut-off point of LAVI value in predicting the maintenance of SR was 55 ml/m2. The LAVI of SR group decreased significantly after three months. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that LAVI is a powerful predictor of the recurrence of AF after ECV. The LAVI measurement could be a useful method in the selection of the patients with AF for ECV.

ORTAOKUL ÖĞRENCİLERİNDE SOSYAL YETKİNLİK BEKLENTİSİ VE MANTIKDIŞI İNANÇLARIN YALNIZLIĞA ETKİSİ Muhammed YILDIZ  

Bu araştırmada ortaokul öğrencilerinde sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi ve mantıkdışı inançların yalnızlığa etki
edip etmediği incelenmiştir. Araştırma Gaziantep'te öğrenim gören toplam 445 ortaokul öğrencisiyle
gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada Sosyal Yetkinlik Beklentisi Ölçeği, Mantıkdışı İnançlar Ölçeği ve
Çocuklar İçin Yalnızlık Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. İstatistiksel yöntem olarak Pearson Momentler Çarpımı
Korelasyonu, Çoklu Regresyon Analizi ve MANOVA kullanılmıştır. Sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi ve
mantıkdışı inançların yalnızlığa etki ettiği saptanmıştır. Yapılan çoklu regresyon analizinde, mantıkdışı
inançlar ve sosyal yetkinlik beklentisinin yalnızlıktaki toplam varyansın % 21.3’ünü açıkladığı
belirlenmiştir. Korelasyon analizi sonuçlarına göre hem sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi hem de mantıkdışı
inançlarla yalnızlık arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Sosyal yetkinlik beklentisiyle yalnızlık arasında
negatif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunurken, mantıkdışı inançlarla yalnızlık arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı
bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Yapılan MANOVA analizine göre kız öğrencilerin sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi
puanlarının erkeklerden yüksek, erkek öğrencilerinin yalnızlık puanlarının kızlardan yüksek olduğu
saptanmıştır. Ortaokul öğrencilerinde yaşanan yalnızlıkta hem öğrencilerin sosyal yetkinlik beklentilerinin
hem de mantıkdışı inançlarının payı bulunmaktadır.

A Critique of Alvin Plantinga’s Speech: ‘’Science and Religion: Where the Conflict Really Lies?’’ Sümeyra TURAN  

This article aims to examine Alvin Plantinga's speech at Biola University which name is: ‘‘Science and Religion, Where the Conflict Really Lies.’’ In order to achieve this purpose, after giving a description of the emergence of conflict between two disciplines, the ideas of Plantinga is examined through his speech and articles. The remainder of the article conducts a critical examination of his thesis in the light of Islamic viewpoint.

Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam By JOSEF VAN ESS. (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2017). Ömer YILMAZ  

Theology and Society in the Second and Third Centuries of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam By JOSEF VAN ESS. (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2017).

John Taylor Gatto, Eğitim: Bir Kitle İmha Silahı, Zorunlu Eğitimin Karanlık Dünyasına Bir Yolculuk, İstanbul: Edam Yayınları, 2016 Nuran ÇINAR  

John Taylor Gatto, Eğitim: Bir Kitle İmha Silahı, Zorunlu Eğitimin Karanlık Dünyasına Bir Yolculuk, İstanbul: Edam Yayınları, 2016

Sıddık BAYSAL, Kur’an’da ve Tefsirlerde Yönetsel Kavramlar- I Ulu’l-Emr Kavramı, Bilge Matbaacılık, Ajans ve Reklamcılık, 1. Baskı, Ankara 2016 Murat BIYIKLI  

Sıddık BAYSAL, Kur’an’da ve Tefsirlerde Yönetsel Kavramlar- I Ulu’l-Emr Kavramı, Bilge Matbaacılık, Ajans ve Reklamcılık, 1. Baskı, Ankara 2016, ISBN: 978-605-63513-7-2, 190 sayfa.

Muhammed Uleyş - Şer'î Delillerle Ehli Sünnet Akâidi Vezir HARMAN  

Eser Muhammed Uleyş 'in "Takribu Akaidis Seniyye bi Edilletiş Şeriyye" "Şer'î Delillerle Ehli Sünnet Akâidi" adlı eserin çevirisinden oluşmaktadır.

Zeyd bin Sabit's Farāiz and Comments by Abu'z-Zinad Mansur KOÇİNKAĞ  

One of the old law/fiqh texts is Farāiz which is thought to be written by Zaid ibn Thābit (d. 45/665). In many classic texts it has been refered to this book and it is mentioned that Zaid ibn Thābit's expertising on the ilm al farāiz. But our findings show that many of researchers who study on the history of codificaditon of Islamic law have not seen this book. In this study, because of the importance of the book, we publish Zaid's Farāiz and the comments written in very early period by Abu'z-Zinad (d. 130/748) on it. Thus, Risāla al Farāiz, one of the oldest fiqh texts written in the period of the Sahāba and expounded in the period of the Tābiūn, will be present to the interest of researchers.

"Ear" And "Sound" Expressıons Representatıons in the Qur'an Ayşe Betül ORUÇ  

The ear is one of our sensory organs that allow us to perceive our surroundings. We perceive with it the voices that the objects possess by means of the waves within the mass of air surrounding us. In this sense, the ear has an important value for being. In the Qur'an, besides being an ear or a sensory organ, it reveals a person who reflects his level of consciousness and perception, revealing his awareness. It is not just the voices heard; the ear is special importance in understanding what is being said and what is said. Other sense organs and mold are mentioned together because of the feature. Of course, the word "voice" is also on the agenda when the ear is concerned. The verses found at the base of the basic qualities that man should possess present important dynamics about sound. Beyond being a symptom of voice being an inherent symptom, the latest discovery is pointing to the dimension of telling the apocalypse. This study tries to show in what context the hearing aid ear is expressed in the verses and its distinctive features, and its associated value, as well as its inherent value.

An Internal Feud Novel That Lebanon Cıvıl War Determıned Its Narratıve Technıque: Kevâbısu Beyrût (Beyrut’s Nıghtmaırs) Adnan ARSLAN  

One of the main features that distinguish modern novel from traditional one is the use of new narrative techniques such as monologue, flow of consciousness, leitmotiv and intertextuality. These techniques relate to new approaches that take shape in formal elements such as time, characters and event patterns that make up the modern novel. Which expression technique is used in the work is often related to the form and content of the novel. This research examines the Kevâbîsu Beyrût, which uses modern and post modern expression techniques in the Arab novels of the last century, in the context of the content of the work and reveals the appropriateness of the techniques used for the purpose of the work. The authors of the novel, autobiographical, tried to convey the feelings of a civil war in many ways, and remained in the midst of conflicts. The techniques that came to the forefront in his narration have added aesthetic value to the composition of the narration and it has become one of the famous Arab novels. The introduction part of the work consists of the factors that prepared the ground for the civil war that took place in Lebanon between 1975 and 1990, the first chapter, the work of writer Gâde es-Semman, the third chapter; Kevâbîsu will investigate the relation between the narrative techniques of the novel Beirut and the factors leading to the writing of the work.

The Question Of Translation Of The Ambiguous Statements In The Qur'an Osman KARA  

The style and style of expression of the Qur'an is not chronological and detailed, especially in short stories and historical events. This is the fact that some people, places and community names are not mentioned in the Qur'an. The identification of these ambiguities is possible with narrations. For this reason, the ambiguities in the Qur'an have been clarified with the help of the narrations in the commentaries and in the works on the subject. This article deals with how to interpret whether narrations in quotations are taken into account when interpreting ambiguities in the Qur'an.

Publıcatıon and Analysıs of Poetıc Forty-Hadıth Translatıon by Naw’ı of Malkara Ali SEVER  

Love and affection for the Prophet (pbuh) has contributed to the emergence
of many literary works. One example of that is the tradition of writing
forty hadiths. Naw’i, who was one of the Ottoman scholars and mudarrises of
16th century, published various works in the field of Islamic sciences and literature.
One of his works is a poetic translation of the forty hadiths. In this article,
these hadiths are published and information is given about their content.
Most of the hadiths, which are presented within four main parts in the book,
involve narrations about morality. However, in the forth part, there are also
narratives including different topics. Translations of the hadiths in the work
and their classical sources are presented in a table. In addition, some issues
that have been lacking in previous studies about the author and his works
have been addressed and some misstatements are attempted to be corrected.

Could Māsarjawayh In The Records Of Ibn Djuljul Be The Same Person Māsarjīs In The Records Of Nadīm? Levent ÖZTÜRK Samet ŞENEL

Ibn Djuljul from Andalusia who wrote in the Western Islamic World and Nadīm from Baghdād who wrote in the Eastern Islamic World, give information about lots of physicians and translators in their books that contributed significantly to history of science. Both authors write their books at same time or very close time. Sometimes they offer similar information, but sometimes they provide different information.

One of the physicians whom Ibn Djuljul mentioned in his book, Māsarjawayh lived at the times of Umayyads. Nadīm gives information about Māsarjīs who lived at the times of Abbāsids. However, in the course of centuries, some authors combined the knowledge about these two people by giving reference to Ibn Djuljul’s and Nadīm’s work and represented as the same person. Accordingly, most of the modern scholars mentioned the two authors as a substitute.
This paper wants to keep track of this confusion and wants to clarify whether Māsarjawayh who was mentioned by Ibn Djuljul and Māsarjīs who was told by Nadīm are the same person or not.

A Field Research On The Implementation Of The Lesson Of Arabic Language Teaching Program (Tekirdağ (Turkey)/Süleymanpaşa district as a model) Osman ARPAÇUKURU  

Imam Hatip schools (religious vocational schools) in Turkey have been taught teaching Arabic for many years. However, the objectives of learning Arabic have not yet been realized. The Education Council of the Ministry of Education prepares educational plans and programs for Arabic lessons in order to increase the quality of Arabic language teaching, the first of these programs was in 1973. This research is a field study carried out in 2016 on how to implement the educational programs prepared in 2011 for Arabic lessons in Imam Hatip schools, and the problems facing the teacher in practical reality. The scope of the research is limited to Tekirdağ Anadolu Religious High School for boys, Süleymanpaşa Anadolu Religious High School for girls, Süleymanpaşa Religious Secondary school, and the teachers working in these schools. The research was based on the views of those educators as to how the educational programmes for Arabic lessons and the problems they faced during their exercise were implemented. The research was formulated through interviews with teachers. The results of the research according to the data received from the teachers were processed in the statistical program SPSS and then converted to frequency values and percentage values. These values were presented in tabular form. As a result of the findings, it was seen that most of the teachers did not read the Arabic lesson teaching program they were practicing, and they were unaware of the program’s vision, approach and goals; and they did not understand the program’s approach, vision, and objectives. Moreover, it was understood that the minds of the teachers were not clear about whether the Arabic language was a foreign language lesson or a religious vocational lesson, that the teaching practices and behaviors of teachers are incompatible with the educational program and they also had one view that the goals of the Arab lesson were largely unfulfilled. After the main results have been revealed and discussed, finally, following the disputed results, some suggestions were made to increase the quality of teaching Arabic such as making Arabic an effective, active and influential element in the lives of students and teachers through various awards and scholarships and the examination of Arabic as a foreign language in the university entrance examinations as an element of motivation and quality. In addition, in order to improve the quality of the Arabic teacher, we have made the Arabic exams as periodic, an increase in salaries according to the teachers’ receivables score, the continuation of in-service trainings, etc.

Mysterıes of Worshıps in Qadı Burhanadden’s Work of Ikseer As-Saadat Nizamettin Karataş  

İksîrü’s-seâdât fî esrâri’l-İbâdât was written by Burhaneddin Ahmed es-Sivasî who is one of the most important figures of Turkish Islamic history and a scholar, sufi, poet, judge and ruler on the year h.798/m.1396 in Sivas. In this book, mysteries of the worship are explained after three complementary introductory chapters regarding the conception of being. The author first deals with the being, its nature and its reason in order to clarify the mysteries of the worship in human mind with a meaningful framework. Then he explains the mysteries of worship by means of verses from the Quran and hadiths. Kadı Burhaneddin interprets the real meanings of worship for human being with the concept of poise. He thinks that worship is the most important means that secure human being against deviations from poise. Putting forward why the religious orders are imposed is a scholarly activity and this activity is broad enough as comprising all religious decrees. Wisdoms, beauties, benefits and utilities within religious orders are known through this activity. This book which is the basic reference of our paper can be included within the scope of the science of hikmetü’t-teşrî (reason of legislation) that explains the causes behind the orders and prohibitions of the religion. Some explanations put forward here should be evaluated having regard to theories of appearance and manifestation.

The Translation Problem Of The “بصر/ba-sa-ra” Verb And its Derıvatıves in Turkısh Quran Translatıons Habip GÜL  

“بصر/Ba-sa-ra” verb and it’s derivatives constitutes an important place in the Qur'an. For this reason, this verb and it’s derivatives need to be carefully analyzed in order for the verses to be understood correctly. These verbs and it’s derivatives are used in the meanings such as eyes, sense of sight, knowing, contemplating, taking a lesson, seeing with pride, heart eye. Most basic meaning of “بصر/ba-sa-ra” verb and it’s derivatives is the emergence and emergence of something. It acquires other meanings in relation to this meaning. In the Holy Qur’an, the verb “بصر/ba-sa-ra” verb means not only to see with eyes, but also to see with mind and heart, understanding, mental understanding. But these verbs and their derivatives are usually translated by being associated with the meaning of seeing in the Quran translations. There is no emphasis generally on the knowing and understanding. For this reason, we will try to focus on this translation problem in our article.

Khunaji's al-Jumal in the Context of Logic Studies in the Seventh and Eighth Century (AH) and the Commentaries Written on His Work Ramy Mahmoud  

The science of logic has occupied an important role in Islamic history. Especially when al-Gazali 505-1111 has come and claimed that who learned Islamic sciences, without learning the Logic we cannot trust in his knowledge. From this time The science of logic has been flourished and quietly began to include in many sciences even Tefsir and Fiqh. After that, Al-razzi 606/1210 has established a big school in Islamic philosophy in general and in logic in particular. al-Khonaji 646/1248 one of his important students. Who moved from Iran to Egypt and became Qadi al-Qudat (Chief Islamic justice). He has improved The science of logic by his books; like Keshf al-Asrar. In the sixth/twelfth one of his books has been spread in Muslim world and became the first step for who wanted to learn Logic. Beside that we have a lot of scholars has made commentaries on this book. In this article we focused on (Metn al-Jumal) by al-Konaji with his spreading in the Sixth. Seventh h.centuries.

The Semantic Rewiev of the Root “Shb” In Quran Ali KAYA  

As in all languages, Arabic and accordingly Quran which was revealed in a clear, fluent form of Arabic language, have words and concepts that are used in various meanings. The root “SHB” is one of these words which express different meanings depending on its context. This word is used ninety seven times in name and verb form in Quran to express “the togetherness/conversation which is constituted in different places and times, by people who have different ideas and beliefs, among themselves (believer- believer or nonbeliever – nonbeliever) and with others (believer – nonbeliever) in this world and in the Hereafter”.

In this study, the basic/root meaning of the root “SHB” is identified firstly by the help of classical dictionaries, commentaries of Quran, and poems. Then the use of this word in Quran in name and verb forms is pointed, and its meanings which differ according to the verse, to the attaching words and to the context are identified.

Zihniyet-Din Ve Toplumsal Değişim İlişkisi: Ülgener Örneği Köksal PEKDEMİR  

As a result of the dynamic structure of society, there is a constant change in social life and researching the change is among the unit analysis of the field of sociology that takes society as a subject matter for itself. There are various ways to examine the change that has taken place in society. One of them is the implicit reference system thereby examining mindset structures. There are many factors such as economy, culture, and education which constitute mentalities and one of them is religion. Religions because of their unique characters have an aspect to influence mentalities. From this point of view, the first issue in this article to be examined is the relationship between mentality-social change. Subsequently, insights will be given about mentality-religion relations, and lastly, an attempt to unearth the impact of religion-social change relations on mentalities will be made. For further clarification of all this process through an example, Sabri F. Ülgener's Zihniyet ve Din (Mentality and Religion) will be examined and Ülgener's views will be analyzed on the ground of religion-change relation.

HOSPITAL WASTE AND TYPHOID FEVER, A PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM IN HOSPITAL: CASES OF NURSES IN FOUR CARE INSTITUTIONS IN KINSHASA (RD.CONGO) Kasuku, W. Bouland, C.

The present study aims to determine the activity of gatifloxacin against Salmonella typhi at the base of typhoid contracted by nurses following the management of hospital waste in a Kinshasa health facility in RD.Congo. The management of hospital waste solid or not does not follow the standards issued by the WHO (garbage are not in the standards, the staff has no protective equipment and everything is done by hand). Of the 38 nurses who were followed, 94.74% were completely cured and all
symptoms disappeared after three days of taking the antibiotic.

USE OF LOCAL FEED SOURCES AS FEEDSTUFFS FOR JAPANESE QUAILS (CORTURNIX CORTURNIX JAPONICA) Udoyong, A.O., Augustine, C.,

Six weeks feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the utilization of maize offal, rice offal and local sorghum beer residue as feedstuffs for Japanese quails. Ten percent (10%) each of maize offal, rice offal and local sorghum beer residue were included in diets two (T2), three (T3) and four (T4), respectively. Diet one (T1) had zero inclusion level and served as control. Sixty Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to the four dietary treatments with three replications of five birds each in a
complete randomize design with pen location serving as the blocking factor. The result of feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio showed no significant (P>0.05) difference at both phases of growth. Daily feed intake, daily weight gain and
feed conversion ratio ranged from 7.72 to 8.33 g, 2.50 to 2.55 g and 3.05 to 3.31 for treatments one (T1), two (T2), three (T3) and four (T4), respectively. Mortality rate of 3.33% was recorded during the experimental periods. This study revealed that, maize
offal; rice offal and local sorghum beer residue can be included in the diet of Japanese quail at 10% without any adverse effect and is therefore recommended for inclusion in the diets of Japanese quail

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GMELINA (GMELINA ARBOREA) FRUITS AND LEAVES AND THEIR ADOPTION AS LIVESTOCK FEED RESOURCES IN MUBI AREA Augustine, C., Khobe, D.,

Gmelina arborea fruits and leaves have been neglected in the feeding of livestock in Mubi area of Adamawa State, Nigeria and this therefore necessitated the need to conduct studies on their chemical composition, level of awareness and adoption
of their utilization as livestock feed. A laboratory analysis and field survey was conducted to evaluate the chemical properties of Gmelina arborea fruit and leaves, assess the level of awareness and adoption of the fruits and leaves as livestock feed
resources in Mubi Area. The proximate composition, amino acid profile and levels of anti-nutritional factors of Gmelina arborea leaves and fruits were determined in triplicates using standard laboratory procedures. Structured questionnaires were used
to collect data from livestock farmers in Mubi area of Adamawa State. Eighty (80) livestock farmers irrespective of type of livestock kept were randomly selected and interviewed using structured questionnaires and the data collected were analysed and
summarized in Tables using simple descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentages). The result of the laboratory analysis revealed that Gmelina arborea fruit
and leaves have good nutritional value with protein content of 21.50% and 13.20%, respectively. However, the fruit and leaves were observed to contain some toxic components whose concentration in the fruit include tannins (3.20g/100g), oxalates (6.70g/100g), flavonoids (5.30 g/100g), phytates (5.80 g/100g) and saponins (4.60 g/100 g), respectively while the leaves showed concentrations of 1.20, 1.80, 3.10, 0.85 and 0.72 g/100 g of tannins, oxalates, flavonoids, phytates and saponins, respectively. The outcome of the level of awareness and adoption of Gmelina fruits and leaves as livestock feed resources indicated that greater proportion (73.25 %) of the respondents interviewed are not aware while only few (15 %) of them are aware. Majority of the respondents (72.50 %) showed willingness to feed their animals with gmelina fruits and leaves, 13.75 % fruits only and 6.25% leaves only and 7.50 % showed no interest. It can
be concluded that Gmelina fruits and leaves may have the potentials as livestock feed resources when they are properly processed before feeding to livestock. Therefore, more
studies are required to determine the best processing method(s) that will detoxify the fruits and leaves. Furthermore, the fruit and leaves should be used in a feeding trials in Mubi area, with a view to evaluating their feeding values

PLASMA LIVER ENZYMES STATUS IN SUDANESE RHEUMATIC ARTHRITIS PATIENTS TREATED WITH METHOTREXATE Nada Yousif Awad Alla Hassan Maissa. K. Albagir

Background: Methotrexate, a drug used for rheumatic arthritis treatment is suspected to has hepatotoxicity.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess liver enzymes activity in plasma as indicator of MTX hepatotoxicity in RA Sudanese patients.
Methodology: It is a Descriptive cross sectional study, conducted in Khartoum state from January to September 2016 in RA patients treated with MTX, the plasma AST, ALT and ALP activities were measured in study groups. Then, the Generated data
analyzed using the statistical package (SPSS).
Result: Plasma AST, ALT activities were higher in MTX treated group than healthy group .Plasma ALP activity was not significantly differ between the study groups.
Conclusion: MTX increases plasma AST and ALT activity in RA patients, but it has no effect on plasma ALP.

NUTRITIONAL VALUES IN SHELL AND FLESH OF THE GIANT TIGER PRAWN PENAEUS MONODON (FABRICIUS, 1798) Vijaya Pratap, G., Ramesh Babu, K.

The current study was aimed to provide the nutritional information of the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The samples were collected from the fishing harbour at Visakhapatnam, east coast of India. Twenty different samples were selected randomly for the biochemical analysis. The nutritional parameters like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, moisture and ash were estimated both in shell and flesh of the
shrimp. The protein content in the flesh (51.34±0.51) was higher than that of shell (37.49±0.32). Similarly the carbohydrate content of the flesh was higher (3.38±0.05) than the shell (2.49±0.02). The lipid content was lower in flesh (4.72±0.11) than that of shell
(6.95±0.21). Highest level of moisture content was noticed in the flesh (15.59±0.42) than that of shell (13.70±0.18). The ash content was minimum in flesh (12.38±0.72) in contrast to the shell of the shrimp (22.41±0.29). Based on the above results we recommended that shrimp contains good amount of nutritional substances which are required for the good choice of food supplement in human nutrition

NUTRITIVE VALUES OF FISH CATLA CATLA FROM INLAND WATERS OF NELLORE, EAST COAST OF ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA Harinath. P  

The fish samples of Catla catla were collected from local markets of Nellore city from January to December 2017. In the present investigation the nutritional parameters of fish includes proteins, fats, moisture and ash contents were analyzed in powder sample (dry sample). The average percentages of the proteins, fats, moisture and ash contents were identified as 20.34±1.01, 1.69±0.29, 77.83±1.01, 1.0±0.09 respectively

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MARINE GASTRIPOD PURFURA BUFO FROM VISAKHAPATNAM, EAST COAST OF INDIA Darwin, Ch., Kavitha, K.

The present study was aimed to provide basic information regarding antimicrobial activity of marine gastropod i.e. Purfura bufo. The antimicrobial activity was estimated in extracts of body tissues of Purfura bufo against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and fungi like Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium notatum. The maximum inhibition zone was observed in Klebsiella pneumonia (26 mm) and minimum in Penicillium notatum (11 mm). It is evident from the current study that significant reduction in growth of bacteria and fungi was observed with methanolic extracts only

COMPARITIVE STUDY ON IRON, COPPER, ZINC AND LEAD METALS IN TWO COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT SHRIMPS PENAEUS MONODON AND PENAEUS INDICUS Suravi Muduli Lakshman Nayak

This study was focused on the iron, copper, zinc and lead in penaeid species
i.e. Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus. The observed mean concentrations of metals
(Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) for Penaeus monodon were 2.28±0.85, 1.01±0.42, 1.96±0.33,
0.81±0.17 respectively. Whereas in case of Penaeus indicus the mean concentration of
Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were 3.47±0.73, 0.98±0.37, 2.01±0.21,0.62±0.56 respectively. In the
current investigation the recorded heavy metal values were compared with the national
and international standard permissible concentration levels recommended for safe
consumption of crustacean species for human health. Except lead the remaining three
heavy metals were below the standard recommendations suggested by WHO (world
health organization) The values of the lead were slightly higher than the permissible
limits of WHO.

SEASONAL CHANGES IN WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF MALIDEVI ESTUARY (NELLORE) EAST COAST OF ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA Sobha Rani, S.  

From January 2016 to December 2016 the investigation was conducted in
Malidevi estuary. Transparency values ranged from 0.58±0.21 to0.97±0.21. Mean values
of pH was varied from 7.2±0.20 to 9.2±0.32. Atmospheric temperature varied from
25.8±1.17 °C to 32.9±1.07 °C. Surface water values ranged from 24.7±2.01 °C to
31.9±0.92 °C. Salinity of Malidevi estuary varied from 19.33±0.76 to 34.68±1.00 (‰).
Dissolved oxygen was ranged from 3.31±0.26 to 7.92±0.54 mg/l. The rainfall was varied
between 0.21±0.01 to 194.4±0.86 mm

Problematika Hukum dalam Penerapan Pasal 109 Ayat (1) Undang-Undang Nomor 8 Tahun 1981 tentang Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Acara Pidana Pasca Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 130/PUU-XIII/2015 Ditinjau dari Putusan Pengadilan Negeri Pekanbaru Nomor: 27/Pid.Prap/2017/PN.PBR Revendra. M  

The legal problem in the application of Article 109 paragraph (1) of the CPC is: the absence of legal sanctions for investigators which does not inform the commencement of the investigation of an incident which is a criminal offense to the prosecutor, the reporter and the victim/complainant; the occurrence of extension to things that become the object of pre-trial; lack of legal protection against the reporter/victim; the absence of the principle of legal fiction by investigators; and not yet optimal method of investigation. The ideal concept of law in the application of Article 109 paragraph (1) CPC is: the existence of legal sanctions for investigators who do not inform the commencement of an investigation of an incident which is a criminal offense to the prosecutor, the reporter and the victim/complainant; the existence of special rules regarding pre-trial object boundaries; optimal and genuine role of the state in providing legal protection to the reporter/victim; law enforcers in the implementation of their main duties and functions shall apply the principles of legal fiction; and changes to the method of investigation so that there is no gap for the suspect to use pretrial facilities in an effort to escape from the law.

Tinjauan Yuridis terhadap Pengaturan Corporate Social Responsibility dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 40 Tahun 2007 tentang Perseroan Terbatas Dikaitkan dengan Prinsip Kepastian Hukum di Indonesia Hafis Vivaldi Akbar  

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an obligation of company in developing policies, decision making, and implementation that can give benefits to the community. Fact shows that a lot of companies only do operational activities but less attention on social and economic community around them. The purpose of this research is to find out regulation and ideal concept of CSR. The methodology used is normative or literature research. Research shows that there are so many problems in CSR, so the government has to make comprehensive regulation. Thus legal certainty to the rule of CSR and implementation can be started well and will not have a polemic in the community.

Upaya Hukum Masyarakat Kecamatan Rumbai Pekanbaru dalam Pemenuhan Hak Masyarakat Melalui Program Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Andrew Shandy Utama Rizana

The purpose of writing this article is to describe the efforts of the District Rumbai Pekanbaru public law to fulfill the right of society through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In principle, corporate social responsibility is an ethical and legal responsibility. Social responsibility is seen as ethical because that law subject to one another that is inherent in social relationships as naturally exist within the subject. Social relations has remained in the subject and legal-formalized, in order to be obeyed by all legal subjects. Local regulations governing CSR in Pekanbaru City area refers to the regulations issued by the Province of Riau namely Riau Provincial Regulation No. 6 of 2012 on Corporate Social Responsibility in Riau Province. Obligations of all companies involved, particularly around the District Rumbai must comply with these rules. Companies that do not obey or do not fully comply with the local regulations, according to Article 32, the company may be subject to administrative sanction by the Riau provincial government in the form of a written warning and other forms of appropriate sanctions. Legal effort can be done by the community in District Rumbai for companies that do not implement CSR that the public can submit its aspirations to the Riau Provincial Parliament recommended that the company receives an administrative sanction from the government.

Penyelesaian Tindak Pidana melalui Mediasi Penal di Kabupaten Pelalawan Riau dalam Perspektif Hukum Progresif dan Restorative Justice Novi Yulianti  

The purpose of this research is to know the mediation of penal in settlement of crime which happened in Pelalawan related to progressive law and restorative justice and, to know the legal implication due to peace done by the police to criminal acts happened in Pelalawan related to progressive law and restorative justice. Homelessness and Domestic Violence perpetrated by society are also seen as unlawful acts therefore for the perpetrators will be subject to strict sanctions. The police are trying to overcome by mediating the settlement of the case with a peaceful path but although peace is done on the normal offense the process is still carried out until it is terminated in court only that peace can be recommended as a matter of judicial consideration in deciding the case. Penal Mediation began to flourish especially after the issuance of Chief of Police Chief of Police Chief No Pol: Vol.I/No.5/Oktober-December/2013 B/3022/XII/2009/SDEOPS dated December 14, 2009, on Case Handling Through Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). The partial nature and the principles of penal mediation referred to in this Chief of Police emphasize that the settlement of criminal cases using the ADR, must be agreed by the litigants, but if no new agreement is settled in accordance with the applicable legal procedures professionally and proportionately.

Rekonstruksi Penyidikan dalam Sistem Peradilan Pidana Berbasis pada Prinsip Negara Hukum Pancasila Mukhlis R  

The Criminal Procedure Code (KUHAP) regulates Police Investigators as the main investigators, and investigators of civil servants in coordination umbrella with Police Investigators. The development of laws outside KUHP and KUHAP regulates several Investigative Institutions (Police Investigators, Civil Service Investigators, Prosecutor Investigators, KPK Investigators, BNN Investigators, and Investigators of Financial Services Authorities). Differences in top management as well as differences in authority and work in investigations have led to conflicts between the Investigating Institutions, which have an effect on the achievement of the objectives of the integrated criminal justice system. The approach used in this research is qualitative, with the type of doctrinal / normative research, with secondary data base and analyzed qualitatively. In reality the Investigative Institution consists of Police Investigators, Civil Service Investigators, Prosecutor Investigators, KPK Investigators, BNN Investigators, and Investigators of Financial Services Authorities. Each investigator has different top officials (Chief of Police, Attorney General, Minister of Law and Human Rights, Commander of the Indonesian National Army, Chairman of the Corruption Eradication Commission and Chairman of the National Narcotics Agency) and has different authority and conduct in conducting Investigations. Reconstruction of authority among the Investigating Institutions, conducted using Pancasila as a test stone, gave birth to a new construction of investigative authority within the integrated Criminal Justice System.

Copyright Protection in Indonesia: Study of Amendment of Act Number 28 of 2014 on Copyright Deslaely Putranti  

The purpose of this study is to review the regulation related to Copyright and Neighboring Rights in the new Copyright Act, and; to review the form and substance of copyright protection to the Author and the owner of the neighboring rights in Indonesia in accordance with the new Copyright Act. This study is a normative juridical which used literature as the main foundation. The legal materials used in this study are primary legal materials which include the Civil Code and related legislation. Secondary legal materials consist of literature books, journals, and articles are used to describe the primary legal materials. The study found that (1) Act Number 28 of 2014 on Copyright accommodates the interests of the Author and the Owner of the Related Rights by providing better protection in its Articles, and (2) Some crucial changes related to Economic Rights and the change of Criminal offense to Complaint offense gives more protection to the Author and Related Rights’ Owner.

Penegakan Hukum terhadap Kekerasan pada Anak Menurut Hukum Adat Siak Sri Indrapura Nabella Puspa Rani  

The purpose of this paper is to determine law enforcement against child abuse according to the customary law of Siak Sri Indrapura. Bab Al-Qawa'id is written laws used to regulate in the area of the Siak Sri Indrapura Kingdom. Article eight in Bab Al-Qawa’id specifically regulate the prohibition of child abuse. Factors of law enforcement against child abuse in Siak Sri Indrapura can be seen from factors of legal, law enforcer, facilities or support facilities, community and culture. Another factor is the political factor of customary law in Siak Sri Indrapura that customary law does not become the main reference in the resolution of the law against child abuse, due to the dominance of national law for customary law.

Peran Pemuka Adat sebagai Mediator terhadap Penyelesaian Konflik dalam Proses Perkawinan pada Masyarakat Muna di Sulawesi Tenggara Nur Intan  

This study aims at how the role of traditional leaders as mediators to resolve conflicts in the process of marriage in Muna society in Sulawesi southeast. This research was conducted in Muna Regency, which is in Lawa and Wadaga sub-districts. This type of research, namely the juridical sociological research. Sampling was done by purposive sampling. Data were obtained through interviews and documentation study. The data were analyzed ie qualitatively and presented descriptively. The results showed that the Indigenous Leaders to function as a mediator, facilitator, negotiator, and arbitrator. Practice Indigenous Leaders generally use this together approach, especially in the private and public conflict resolution. Settlement reached by the parties in conflict is the settlement amicably by mediation in order to seek the best solution, it is necessary for the role of Indigenous Leaders acting as mediators with the consideration that they are people who know in depth about the philosophy of Muna customary law, has the authority, charisma, honored, respected, and obeyed his words.

KLAUSULA BAKU PERJANJIAN KREDIT ANEKA GUNA BANK RIAU KEPRI DITINJAU DARI UNDANG-UNDANG NO. 8 TAHUN 1999 Martha Hasanah Rustam  

According to law number 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection, raw clause is any rules or terms and conditions have been prepared in advance and set unilaterally by businessmen who poured in a documents and binding agreement/and must be filled by the consumer. Because the raw clause used in the credit agreements are unilateral where the bank that determines the content of the clause while the customer had no choice to change it because of the position of the customer in a weak position. This Research method using normative. From this research it can be concluded that there is a position that is not balanced between the banks as creditors with the customer as debtor and Credit Agreement Assorted raw clause in order to Bank Riau Kepri still contrary to the provisions of article 18 law number 8 of 1999 on Consumer protection.

Effect of Risk Management on Corporate Governance in Savings and Credit Co-Operative Societies in Nairobi County- Kenya Kennedy Mwengei B. Ombaba  

Corporate governance an integral part of the firms in both the public and the private sectors. Saccos need to improve their corporate governance in order to compete globally. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of risk management on corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County. The study was guided by the credit risk theory. This study adopted descriptive research design. The study targeted 45 licensed SACCOS in Nairobi County with a population of 180 respondents who worked for 45 licensed SACCOS by SASRA in Nairobi County. The sample size for the study was 124 respondents. Purposive technique and simple random sampling was used to select a sample size that represented all employees in filling questionnaires. In order to establish the validity and reliability of the instruments, a pilot study was carried out in Eldoret town. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study findings indicated that there was a statistical significant relationship between risk management and corporate governance in Sacco’s in Nairobi County (t=2.226, P<0.05). The study recommended that the SACCOs should adopt risk management and effectively used to identify risk exposure in order to strengthen corporate governance. The policy makers should ensure that risk management is incorporated in all management decisions being taken to enhance corporate governance

E-procurement and Organisational Performance. Is e-invoicing Significant. Evidence from Public Hospitals in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Rasto N. Chegugu  

Integrating e-procurement in hospitals’ supply chain units has made it possible to conduct procurement practices effectively as compared to the manual methods of recording procurement and general conducting of procurement functions. However, the performance of hospitals in delivering high quality of services has reduced due to lack of an e-procurement system in some hospitals. Hospitals with e-procurement systems also face challenges. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of e-invoicing practices on organizational performance. The study adopted the use of diffusion of innovation theory institutional theory to relate to the study. The study employed a descriptive survey of 5 hospitals. The sample size was 367 respondents. Questionnaires were the main types of data collection tools. The main findings of the study were as follows: In relation to e-tendering, the main findings of the study was that majority of the respondents strongly agreed that there is increased competitiveness in the tendering bid for the hospital. The result on inferential analysis was that e-invoicing is positively and significantly affecting organizational performance (β = 0.805; P < 0.05). The study findings will be of great significance to Uasin Gishu County Hospitals as it was deemed to shed light on how e-procurement practices could have affected the performance of the supply chain; to hospitals in other counties. The study recommended that the best models to be adopted when creating e-procurement practices systems relationship with suppliers and also emphasize the need to create the relationship models with the suppliers; to other future study and scholars, the study was expected to explain the concept of e-procurement practices and its impact on hospital performance while at the same time act as a basis for future research

Effect of Liquidity Management Strategies on Sustainability of Table Banking Groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Kimani E. Maina  

Financial management strategies are crucial determinants of sustainability of table banking groups. It enables groups set clear goals, efficient utilization of resources, proper decisions in sourcing of finances and dividends decision making. The main purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between liquidity management strategies and sustainability of table banking groups in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study was founded on liquidity preference theory and life cycle theory. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The target population were all table bank groups in Kenya. The accessible population was 538 registered table bank groups in Uasin Gishu County. A sample of 230 groups was involved in the study. Two stage sampling technique was used to narrow down the sub-counties. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 3 sub-counties out of six sub-counties in Uasin Gishu County. Simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for the actual study. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistical tools included frequencies, percentages, mean, variance and standard deviations. Inferential statistics included Pearsons Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings were presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study established that liquidity management strategies positively and significantly influence sustainability of table banking groups (β=0.535; p < 0.05). It was concluded that proper financial management strategies could enable table banking groups to enhance their sustainability. The study is expected to guide organizational policy makers and investors as well as financial advisors and consultants on financial management strategies. The study recommended that risk management strategies should be incorporated in financial management strategies. It was also recommended that theories anchored this study should be applied so as to enhance sustainability.

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