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Title Author 1 Author 2 Abstract PDF
Improved Compound Multiphase Waveforms with Additional Amplitude Modulation (periodic mode) for Marine Radars Vitaliy Koshevyy Olena Pashenko

This paper has presented the basis of a compound multiphase waveform design with additional amplitude modulation, capable of controlling a waveform pick-factor, suitable for use with marine radar. The waveform shows good Doppler tolerance, with the low side-lobes performance maintained over the central zone of an ambiguity function. A clear waveform design procedure has been presented that does not require the implementation of numerical optimization procedures. It has been shown that a compromise between side-lobes suppression and the value of pick-factor can be found. These waveforms allow achieving better results as compared to compound multiphase waveforms without additional amplitude modulation under mismatched weighting filtering. In this article we considered periodic mode of Radar

The Sunshine Duration Error Rates were calculated with Gradient-Descent Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm for Use of Solar Energy Yalçın Kaplan  

In this study, which is a source of renewable energy required to take advantage of solar energy to the maximum duration of sunshine was estimated. In the study, values were used of the city of Amasya. Artificial neural networks (ANN) backpropagation gradient-descent(GD) learn algorithm and genetic algorithm(GA) were used. Three hidden layer network model was designed with two inputs for ANN and GA. Between 2000 and 2010 values were used as input data monthly sunshine duration and humidity values. Output data was obtained monthly sunshine duration of 2010. The values obtained were compared with the actual values and the root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated. Result of the study, GA was used to calculate the values that are needed for solar energy.

INTERLOCK OPTIMIZATION OF AN ACCELERATOR USING GENETIC ALGORITHM İbrahim Burak Koç Anas Al Janadi

Accelerators are systems where high-tech experiments are conducted today and contain high-tech constructions. Construction and operation of accelerators require multidisciplinary studies. Each accelerator structure has its own characteristics as well as similar features of accelerator structures. Control systems come to the forefront as one of the most important structures that make up accelerators. Since control systems have critical importance for accelerators, in such systems when a problem occurs, there is a danger of environmental and human safety as well as machine system. For that reason interlock systems are being developed in different structures. In the literature, FPGAs and PLCs in such interlock systems have been shown to be suitable for use in accelerators [1,7].

In this work, we describe an interlock system that evaluates the operation and protection modes of devices used in an electron accelerator. In order to ensure that this system can operate at minimum cost and maximum safety, the defined system is divided into 3 subsystems. The error messages from the control devices in the accelerator control systems are the input to the interlock system. The purpose of the interlock system that evaluates error messages is to ensure that the accelerator closes safely.

The purpose of this study is to specify which of the 3 interlock subsystems which are defined for minimum cost and maximum security should be connected to the fault outputs from the control devices. As an evaluation criterion, 6 features are defined for the control devices and each control device is weighted according to the importance of the task. In the solution of the problem, genetic algorithms were used for assigning 74 controller outputs to 3 interlock subsystems. Thanks to the Genetic Algorithm used in the study, 94.3% success rate was obtained in terms of cost and safe system.

Short-Term Load Forecasting Model Using Flower Pollination Algorithm Volkan Ateş Necaattin Barışçı

Electricity is natural but not a storable resource and has a vital role in modern life. Balancing between consumption and production of the electricity is highly important for power plants and production facilities. Researches show that electricity load consumption characteristic is highly related to exogenous factors such as weather condition, day type (weekdays, weekends and holidays etc.), seasonal effects, economic and politic changes (crisis, elections etc.). In this study, we propose a short-term load forecasting models using artificial intelligence based optimization technique. Proposed 5 different empirical models were optimized using flower pollination algorithm (FPA). Training and testing phase of the proposed models held with historical load and weather temperature dataset for the years between 2011-2014. Forecasting accuracy of the models was measured with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and monthly minimum approximately %1,79 for February 2013. Results showed that proposed load forecasting model is very competent for short-term load forecasting.

IMPACT OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE AND TQM ON THE SMEs OF MEXICO José G. Vargas-Hernández Vanessa Yesenia

The purpose of this research is to analyze the degree of effectiveness of TQM in SMEs in Mexico as a function of Business Performance, considering that Business Performance is related to Total Quality Management. This research is analytical and descriptive, since no statistical method is used, only the variables and the research problem are analyzed in detail and in a detailed manner, and descriptive because tables and tables can be found to help facilitate understanding of these important concepts. This research will analyze the impact of both variables, and with this, the entrepreneurs can make the necessary changes in their production line or in their employees to obtain better and greater positive results.

Strategies That Transform the Retail José G. Vargas-Hernández María Luisa Anaya Rosas

The objective of the present investigation is to analyze the strategies that the companies implement and the changes that originate in the retail trade and the retail trade and in the commercial establishments in the developed countries. Based on a literary review, it identifies the framework of the current situation, encompassing all the social products and services that cause the new mechanisms of sale of products and services by the firms and the different ways of buying products and services by Los Consumers Concluding that this variation is mainly present due to the technological level, the culture of the purchase and the strategies of sale, that owns and develops the consumers and the companies.

THE IMMIGRATION AND REFUGEES IN THE FLUID MODERNITY ANALYSIS OF ZYGMUNT BAUMAN AS ‘SOCIOLOGIST - PHILOSOPHER’ Emre ÖZTÜRK  

Zy
gmunt Bauman is a sociolog
ist
-
philosopher
who calls sociology (with a critical insight) to comprehend the
basic dynamics of the human being and the world in which he lives, blending it with the products of a large
thought universe outside certain disciplinary boundaries.
This study aims to show i
n fluid modernity analysis
how Bauman, as a
sociologist
-
philosopher
, approached to one of the most important agenda items of today's: to
the “refugees”.
In a fluid modernity where everything feels fluid, unpredictable and uncertain,
the proposal for a
solution to the question of refugee status must also be evaluated in light of this reality.
I
n the days of
t
emporariness, groundlessness, rootlessness, mistrustfulness, unpredictability
and fluidity dominates
,
the issue of
immigration has taken its share f
rom
this liquid state
of modernity, too.
Bauman's analysis of refugees also
comes to the fore in the light of his deep sociological view, as a beam of hope that transcends the pessimistic
future conception. In this sense, the study deals with Bauman's argu
ments that presented in fluid modernity
analysis, for constructing a common world vision that includes not also the world we are in but also the "other"s
that is alienated in immmigration issue.

 
An Artificial Arm Pressure Able to Reproduce Oscillometric Blood Pressure for Testing Holter Devices Claudio De Lazzari Igino Genuini,

The aim of this work is the realization of an "Artificial Arm Pressure" permitting to reproduce oscillometric waveforms able to replace expensive clinical trials for validating and testing a Holter blood pressure device. To perform this new device a hybrid simulator (numerical/hydraulic) of the left cardiocirculatory network was implemented in order to reproduce in different fixed times different oscillometric blood arterial pressure waveforms. The “Artificial Arm Pressure" consists of a numerical simulator of the left cardiovascular system, in which it is possible to fix the left atrial pressure (preload) and the left arterial pressure (afterload) and of an hydraulic system consisting of a D/A converter, a servo-amplifier, a D/C motor and a “gear pump”. The numerical simulator allows to vary the heart rate, the time duration of systole/diastole and the morphology of the ventricular/aortic pressure waveform in order to reproduce different physiopathology cardiovascular diseases. The hybrid simulator can be used to program the type and amount of steps you want to perform in 24/48-h to check the correct operation/calibration of the Holter blood pressure device. A Holter programmed to acquire data every 15 min has been tested for 24-h on the "Artificial Arm Pressure". The comparison between simulated and measured data shown that for systolic (diastolic) blood pressure the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.6% (±2.9). In the case of HR, the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.0%.

The Fascicle Undulation Effect on the Activating Function in Magnetic Stimulation of Peripheral Nerves with Transverse and Longitudinal Fields Eugen R. Lontis Karsten Nielsen

Analysis of activating function for a long, myelinated nerve fiber with undulating path in transverse and longitudinal induced electric fields was performed. The induced electric field was computed using a finite element model composed by a round coil beneath a bath with saline solution. Longitudinal and transverse components of the induced electric field were computed along two axes, one tangential and the other axial to the coil. The influence of a transverse field on the modified activating function was analyzed when the fiber path was determined by the fascicle undulation, and by the fascicle undulation plus the fiber undulation inside the fascicle. For the first path type, undulation wavelength of 40 to 90 mm and 0.8 mm amplitude determined a classic activating function with: (a) multiple virtual cathodes that could generate two or three stimulation sites for axially oriented coil, and (b) virtual cathode with distorted shape in amplitude up to 35% and location up to 67% for tangentially oriented coil. For axially oriented coil, the transverse field term of the modified activating function was comparable in amplitude with the classic activating function, however significant attenuation could occur due to perineurium. For the second path type with wavelength of tenths of millimeters and amplitudes of a quarter of the wavelength, the classic activating function had such a dramatic increase in the spatial frequency that could not predict the stimulation site with the usual interpretation of the virtual cathode. Similarity between the results obtained with the first path type and the ones obtained in a previous in-vitro experiment suggests that the undulating fascicles within the nerve trunk can be responsible for stimulation with transverse fields.

Comparison of Enthalpy Method and Water Fraction Method to Mathematically Model Water Vaporization During RF Ablation Yuliia Fatieieva Pedro Almendárez

During high-temperature energy-based therapies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) the target tissue reaches temperatures around 100ºC, which causes tissue dehydration by water vaporization. In order to be as realistic as possible, RFA theoretical models should include the formulation of these phenomena. There are currently two fixed mesh methods of modeling the electrical and thermal effects produced by water vaporization: the enthalpy method and the water fraction method. Our objective was to compare both methods, especially to assess the thermal and electrical performance in terms of electrical impedance progress during heating, distributions of temperature, and temperature progress at some specific locations. The results showed the performance of both methods to be qualitatively analogous, with similar impedance progress, temperature distributions and temperature progress. They were hence equally able to mimic the thermal and electrical performance in a pulsed protocol, i.e. during the period without applying RF power. The main difference between the methods was the time at which impedance started to rise. All these findings suggest that the two methods offer equivalent results in RFA modeling. However, since the enthalpy method has one less problem to be solved (dynamic volume fraction of liquid water in the tissue) it is less complex, has a lower computational cost and therefore seems to be more suitable for modeling RFA with dry or internally cooled electrodes, i.e. those in which there is no interstitial saline infusion. However, the water fraction method would be more appropriate in the case of RFA with externally irrigated electrodes.

Fabrication of Asymmetric Polysaccharide Composite Membranes as Guided Bone Regeneration Materials Na Li Mingyan Zhao

Periodontal regeneration can be achieved by guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membranes, which act as a physical barrier to exclude migration of connective and epithelium, favoring the repopulation of periodontal ligament cells. Asymmetric polysaccharide GBR membranes with two different surfaces were developed in this study. Positive chitosan (CS), negative hyluronaic acid (HA) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) were composited by electrostatic interaction, forming smooth and dense membranes as upper surface to inhibit the ingrowth of cells from gingiva. The lower porous and coarse surface was obtained by gel freeze-drying and mineralization to improve the regeneration of the bone tissue. The performance of the membranes was characterized by Infrared Radiation (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), tensile strength and biological evaluation. It was found that the composite membranes with chitosan content of 56.7 wt%in the dry state possess the highest tensile strength, with elongation 10 times more higher than that of the pure CS ones. Additionaly, open pores with diameter of 10-100 µm and homogenouse distributed nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) were investigated on the coarse part. Cell studies demonstrated that the porous surface promoted the growth of the preosteoblast. Overall, the composite membranes may be useful for regeneration of periodontal regeneration.

Logical Design of the E-Cig for a Fine Control of the Inhaled Nicotine for the Reduction of the Damage from Tobacco Agostino Giorgio Michele Guerra

The Electronic Cigarette (e-cig) is increasingly recognized as a pharmaceutical/medical device because the digital smoke appears helpful in reducing the nicotine addiction and the reduction of damages from tobacco. However, to this aim, it is not enough to know the nicotine concentration in the liquid digitally smoked, because there is no notice about the quantity of liquid digitally smoked, until the liquid tank of the e-cig is empty. This means that there is no notice about the equivalent of one cigarette has been smoked because there is no end-cigarette control in the e-cigs commercially available. Therefore, in this paper, criteria are proposed, implemented and simulated for a fine control of the inhaled nicotine based on a notice of end-cigarette given to the smoker. It is proposed a logical design of the e-cig with the end-cigarette control: the logic model is implemented in a digital circuit model, useful to design the e-cig for a fine control of the inhaled nicotine. The fine control of the nicotine is necessary to reduce the addiction from tobacco and related damages.

Discrimination Ability Analysis on Texture Features for Automatic Noise Reduction in Brain MR Images Yu-Ning Chang Herng-Hua Chang

Noise is one of the main sources of quality deterioration not only for visual inspection but also in computerized processing in magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis such as tissue classification, segmentation and registration. Accordingly, noise removal in brain MR images is important for a wide variety of subsequent processing applications. Most existing denoising algorithms require laborious tuning of parameters that are often sensitive to specific image features and textures. Automation of these parameters through artificial intelligence techniques will be highly beneficial. This paper attempts to systematically investigate significant attributes from popular image features and textures to facilitate subsequent automation process. In our approach, a total number of 39 image attributes are considered that are based on three categories: 1) Image statistics. 2) Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). 3) Tamura texture features. To obtain the ranking of discrimination in these texture features, a T-test is applied to each individual image features computed in every image based on noise levels, intensity distributions, and anatomical geometries. Preliminary results indicated that the order of significance in the texture features approximately varies in noise, slice, and normality. For distinguishing between noise levels, the features of contrast, standard deviation, angular second moment, and entropy from the GLCM class performed best. For distinguishing between slice positions, the features of mean and variance from the basic statistics class and the coarseness feature from the Tamuraclass outperformed other features.

Bitter Taste Receptor Agonist (Quinine) Induces Traction Force Reduction and Calcium Flux Increase in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Rats Huilong Zeng Yue Wang

Recently, bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have been found in the lung, which can be stimulated with TAS2R agonist such as quinine to relax airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via intracellular Ca2+ signaling generated from restricted phospholipase C activation. This provides a promising new therapy for asthma because enhanced contractility and impaired ability of relaxation of the ASMCs within the bronchial wall of asthmatic patients are thought to be ultimately responsible for airway constriction in asthma. However, further study is required for characterization of the effect of TAS2R agonist on the mechanical behaviors of ASMCs, in particular the traction force generation and associated mechanism in asthma model. Here, we sensitized Sprague Dawley rats with ovalbumin (OVA) for up to 12 weeks to simulate chronic asthma symptoms. Subsequently, we isolated ASMCs from these rats, and studied the traction force and intracellular Ca2+ signaling of the cells with/out treatment of quinine hydrochloride, a well-known TAS2R agonist. The results demonstrated that quinine hydrochloride relaxed the ASMC in a dose dependent manner. It also evoked dose-dependent increase of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the ASMCs. Perhaps more importantly, the quinine-induced traction force reduction and Ca2+ flux increase were correlated. Taken together, our findings indicate that TAS2R agonists (e.g. quinine hydrochloride) could reduce the ability of ASMCs to generate traction force via activation of the intracellular calcium signaling, which may contribute as one of the mechanisms for TAS2R agonist-induced ASMC relaxation. This provides additional evidence to support TAS2R agonists as a new class of compounds with potential in treatment of chronic asthma.

Stiffness of Substrate Influences the Distribution but not the Synthesis of Autophagosomes in Human Liver (LO2) Cells Fang Xu Yue Wang

Extracellular matrix (ECM) often becomes stiffer during tumor development, which not only gives the tumor's hardness feel but also actively contributes to the tumor formation. A good example is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that usually develops within chronically stiffened liver tissues due to fibrosis and cirrhosis. On the other hand, HCC cells exhibit reduced autophagy in a malignancy dependent manner, suggesting autophagy is suppressed during tumor development. However, it is not known whether ECM stiffness would influence autophagy during tumor development. To investigate this issue, We cultured the human liver (LO2) cellsthat stably expressed autophagosome indicator LC3 on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gels with stiffness varying from 11 to 1220 kPa.and on plastic cell culture dish as controls for up to 48h. We found that the total protein level of LC3-II in LO2 cells was not affected by the substrate stiffness. However the autophagosomes in LO2 cells cultured on the soft substrate (11 kPa PDMS gel) were localized and accumulated around the nucleus, while those on the stiff substrate (1220 kPa PDMS gel or plastic dish surface) were dispersed throughout the cytoplasmic space. Therefore, our data suggest that ECM stiffness may not directly synthesize nascent autophagosomes, but instead influencethe location/translocation and ultimately distribution of autophagosomes in the cells.

Telemed-care, an Advanced ICT Platform using Facebook, Apps and Web-Technologies for Telemedicine Purposes Agostino Giorgio  

This paper deals with a telemedicine system called Telemed-care with its own software part named Care-app, designed by the author. The platform is suitable both of them for personal computers and for mobile devices (tablet and smartphone), and properly uses all the well-known Facebook facilities, smartphone’s apps and web-apps, to support the execution of remote medical visits.

Telemed-care aims at the home healthcare (homecare) including the tele-auscultation in real time already successfully validated by the heart specialists of the U.O. of Cardiology in the general hospital (Polyclinic) of the University of Bari. This paper describes the platform features and capabilities with a remote medical visit procedure.

Influence of Al Content on the Corrosion Behavior of Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys in Simulated Physiological Solution A. Raj Bharat B. Sesha Sai Kumar

Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have gained wide popularity in the biomedical field as promising candidates for degradable implant applications. Among Mg alloys, AZ (aluminum and zinc) series alloys are the most widely investigated for implant applications and reported in the literature. In all AZ series Mg alloys, aluminium content is the influencing factor that imparts different properties to the Mg alloys. In the present study, pure Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 Mg alloys were selected and the effect of aluminium content on the biocorrosion has been investigated in Ringer’s solution. It was a clear observation that the increased aluminum content has a severe effect on the degradation behavior of magnesium. From the weight loss measurements, AZ31 has shown lower corrosion rate compared with pure Mg and AZ91. The surface morphologies also showed the formation of more pits on pure Mg and AZ91 Mg alloy compared with AZ31 Mg alloy. By correlating the degradation behavior with the microstructure, galvanic corrosion was found to be the main reason behind the accelerated corrosion rate in AZ91 Mg alloy compared with AZ31 alloy. The phases on the corroded sample surfaces were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found that the corrosion products which were deposited on the surfaces provided protection against the chloride ions which was indicated by the decreased corrosion rates as immersion time was increased.

An Automated Approach of CT Scan Image Processing for Brain Tumor Identification and Evaluation Shabana Urooj Amir

Brain Tumor identification and evaluation requires Computed Tomography (CT) scan and image processing in medical diagnosis. The Manual methods for the detection of abnormal cell growths in brain tissue is both time consuming and non-reliable. This paper initiates with a discussion of a clinical diagnosis case of normal brain tissue and other with tumor affected images. The affected area is identified first with manual approach and further an automated approach is discussed using NI Lab VIEW software for locating the exact position and its evaluation. The described method provides a better way of diagnosing brain tumor in a quick and reliable automated manner. In the view of this, an automatic segmentation of brain MR images is needed to correctly segment White Matter (WM), Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Gray Matter (GM) tissues of brain in a shorter span of time. The manual segmentation of brain tumor is abstruse job and may provide erroneous results.

Application of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems as Neural Interface Dinesh Bhatia BabluLal Rajak

The aim of this work is the realization of an "Artificial Arm Pressure" permitting to reproduce oscillometric waveforms able to replace expensive clinical trials for validating and testing a Holter blood pressure device. To perform this new device a hybrid simulator (numerical/hydraulic) of the left cardiocirculatory network was implemented in order to reproduce in different fixed times different oscillometric blood arterial pressure waveforms. The “Artificial Arm Pressure" consists of a numerical simulator of the left cardiovascular system, in which it is possible to fix the left atrial pressure (preload) and the left arterial pressure (afterload) and of an hydraulic system consisting of a D/A converter, a servo-amplifier, a D/C motor and a “gear pump”. The numerical simulator allows to vary the heart rate, the time duration of systole/diastole and the morphology of the ventricular/aortic pressure waveform in order to reproduce different physiopathology cardiovascular diseases. The hybrid simulator can be used to program the type and amount of steps you want to perform in 24/48-h to check the correct operation/calibration of the Holter blood pressure device. A Holter programmed to acquire data every 15 min has been tested for 24-h on the "Artificial Arm Pressure". The comparison between simulated and measured data shown that for systolic (diastolic) blood pressure the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.6% (±2.9). In the case of HR, the percentage of variation was in average about ±2.0%.

Medical Devices for Measuring Respiratory Rate in Children: a Review William Daw Ruth Kingshott

Respiratory rate is an important vital sign used for diagnosing illnesses in children as well as prioritising patient care. All children presenting acutely to hospital should have a respiratory rate measured as part of their initial and ongoing assessment. However measuring the respiratory rate remains a subjective assessment and in children can be liable to measurement error especially if the child is uncooperative. Devices to measure respiratory rate exist but many provide only an estimate of respiratory rate due to the associated methodological complexities. Some devices are used within the intensive care, post-operative or more specialised investigatory settings none however have made their way into the everyday clinical setting. A non-contact device may be better tolerated in children and not cause undue stress distorting the measurement. Further validation and adaption to the acute clinical setting is needed before such devices can supersede current methods.
Keywords

Development of a Small Portable Device for Measuring Respiratory System Resistance Based on Forced Oscillation Technique Wei Chang Kuibi Shi

Spirometry and forced oscillation technique (FOT) are two different methods that are currently used for lung function test. However, the former requires patient’s effort to cooperate, thus is often unreliable for certain patients such as the young children and the latter is always related to bulky and expensive machines. In order to overcome the limitations of current device, we developed a portable prototype of FOT device for measuring respiratory resistance. The device consisted of a small advanced voice coil actuator to generate sinusoidal oscillatory airflow with amplitude of 2.5 cmH2O and frequency of 5 Hz, which was then superimposed onto the normal breathing airflow of the patient via a mouth piece. The pressure and flow signals of the respiratory airflow after absorption and refraction by the airways and the lung tissues were detected and acquired using NI USB-6211 data acquisition card and synchronous sampling pressure and flow sensors. After the upper computer received the digital signals that the capture card converted, the signals were processed and analyzed in real-time by the proprietary LabVIEW-based software. The analysis included digital signal filtering and impedance calculation in frequency domain, resulting in respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). The results of present experiments on healthy volunteers demonstrated that the device could measure the respiratory system resistance with good reliability and accuracy. Importantly, due to both the hardware and software design the weight and volume of this device was reduced down to 3.5kg and 2500 cm3, respectively, proving the prototype to be worth of further developing into an inexpensive and portable tool for testing or monitoring lung function at rural community clinics or homes.

Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Smooth Muscle Layer Thickening on Stress Distribution in the Airway Wall Jian Chen Xiaohao Shi

Many chronic respiratory diseases are associated with airway remodeling such as hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells. It is well known that the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells directly affects the mechanical properties of the smooth muscle layer. Consequently, it may cause uneven distribution of stress and thus local stress stimulation of the cells and tissues in the airway wall, possibly leading to pathogenesis of airway dysfunction such as airway hyperresponsiveness. However, it is difficult to experimentally study the effect of smooth muscle layer on stress distribution in the airway wall. Therefore, in the present work, we built a finite element model which simplified the anatomical structure of the airway wall as a three-layer structure that included an inner wall layer, a smooth muscle layer and an adventitia layer. Based on this model, we varied the smooth muscle layer thickness either uniformly or locally and then computed the stress distribution in the modeled airway wall. The results revealed that the minimum stress occurred in the adventitia layer, and the maximum stress occurred in the smooth muscle layer. More importantly, the smooth muscle layer thickening, occurred either uniformly or locally, led to elevated stress level and enhanced stress concentration in the smooth muscle layer. And the enhancement of stress level and concentration was variable depending on the pattern of smooth muscle layer thickening. For a given extent of smooth muscle layer thickening, the stress level and concentration appeared to be determined by the number of locations and the separation distance between the locations at which the smooth muscle layer thickening occurred. In other words, the maximum stress level in the smooth muscle layer increased from 2.712kPa to 2.842KPa depending on whether the local thickening occurred at one location, 3 or 5 equally separated locations, 2 connected and 1 distanced location, or 3 all connected locations. These simulation results provide important insight for better understanding the mechanism through which the airway smooth muscle is involved in the alteration of airway dysfunction in health and disease, which may be helpful in developing novel diagnosis/therapy via targeting smooth muscle hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy for the prevention/treatment of asthma.

Effect Assessment of Airflow Resistance by Local Airway Stenosis with 3D Printing Airway Model Kuibi Shi Wei Chang

Clinically noticing airway constriction can randomly cause small airway quickly closed and the surrouding airway occlusion happens subsequently. A phenomenon may happened called "avalanche phenomenon" inside airway [1]. But few study on how local airway stenosis affects the respiratory flow. Because the real local airway stenosis and its flow are still unable to be directly observed and measured. In this paper, narrow numerical model of the main and branched airway are established based on CT data of normal human airways. Then the trachea and bronchial branched airway constriction models are printed out on the 3D printer by PLA material. Finally, to measure airflow impedance of different airway models and analyze the impact of structural changes in the airway (shrink and narrow) airway impedance, we adopt independent research and development Forced Oscillation Technique(FOT). The test results preliminary show that the trachea stenosis has big effect on the airway viscous resistance (Rrs) and the elastic resistance (Xrs). The bronchial stenosis obviously increases the airway elastic resistance. This article provides a new method for the study on how local constriction affects the airflow inside airway in the future.

Developing a Human Balance Test System (DETES) in Order to Investigate Control Mechanisms of Human Erect Posture S. Gürses M.E. Akçay

An originally designed 3-dof (2-dof perturbation platform and 1-dof cabin) human balance testing system (DETES) has been developed for delivering mechanical and perceptual stimuli in a controlled embedding environment in order to investigate sensory-motor control of human erect posture at physiological and/or pathological conditions. The human balance (especially studying vestibular system involved mechanisms) demonstrating complex (nonlinear) dynamical behavior in the context of postural adjustments having ecological roots/meanings (information) is to be tested (by means of quiet and perturbed stance) and analyzed for supporting (differential) diagnosis, monitoring/following the progress of the disease, and creating the new adaptive motor learning protocols for rehabilitation.

Modeling a Cell Motility on the Surface with a Pit Arkady Voloshin  

Living cells respond to outside physical environment in many ways including changing their geometry and location. A cell was modeled as a tensegrity structure that consists of the cytoskeleton, the cellular nucleus and lamellipodia. This model was based on the use of isolated elastic components consisting of a set of continuous compression components and a set of continuous tension components. To investigate the influence of surface topography on cellular movement, several representative cases were designed and simulated. By using internal strain energy as a main criterion to estimate the stability of the cell at various locations, we could show that cells have a tendency to move towards and stay on the sidewall of a pit. They also have a tendency to leave the concave corner. The obtained simulation results were in agreement with the available experimental evidence. Thus, the proposed model and approach may be a valuable tool for understanding the mechanics of a cell motion.

Systemic, Physical and Pharmacological Treatment of Spinal Column and Somatic Diseases or Russian Alternative to Chinese Acupuncture Klimenko Mikhail Mikhailovich Luchkina Viktoria Vladimirovna

The complex KUMP-01 was designed for relief of acute and chronic pains in spinal column. The complex became the basis for new medical technologies of combined treatment with the use of medicinal products against the background of restoring of vertebral column physiology. This allowed to manage spinal column pains and treat somatic diseases as well as maintain the proper quality of life.

نشأة الشعر الديني عند العرب وأثره في الآداب الأوربية د. محمد عباسة  

ظهر الأدب الديني عند العرب منذ بداية الرسالة المحمدية، وكان أول من مدح رسول الإسلام والمسلمين، الشعراء الذين انتدبهم محمد (ص) للدفاع عن الدعوة الإسلامية. وإن كان الشعراء قد سبقوا العرب في المدائح الدينية، إلا أنهم لم يبلغوا ما بلغه العرب في عهد الإسلام. وإذا كانت المدائح الدينية والمواعظ والزهديات قد نشأت لدواع محلية، فإن بعد احتكاك العرب والمسلمين بغيرهم من شعوب الأمم المجاورة، تسرب إلى شعرهم الديني بعض المفاهيم والأفكار الأجنبية، وقد يكون ظهور الشعر الصوفي عند العرب في بداياته متأثرا بهذه الثقافات. لكن بعد اتساع رقعة البلاد الإسلامية، وانتقال الشعر إلى خارج الحدود المشرقية، استطاع الشعراء العرب المسلمون، وعلى وجه الخصوص، الأندلسيون، أن يطوروا الشعر الديني ويذهبوا بالصوفية إلى أبعد الحدود، مما أدى بأدباء أوربا إلى التأثر بمضامين وأشكال الشعر الديني من قصائد وموشحات وأزجال.

العلاقات الاجتماعية بين العرب والفرنجة وتأثيرها على الأدب والفكر د. محمد عباسة  

الأدب المقارن من الدراسات الحديثة التي نشأت في أوربا في القرن التاسع عشر الميلادي، وذلك بفضل الباحثين الذين عكفوا على دراسة الآداب العربية والشرقية. وقد تبين لهؤلاء الدارسين أن هناك أوجه شبه متعددة بين الأدب الأوربي والأدب العربي. واتجهت البحوث إلى أن الأدب الأوربي القديم هو الذي تأثر بأدب الأمم الأخرى. غير أنه لا يمكن أن نسلم بهذه الفرضية ما لم ندرس العوامل التي بفضلها انتقلت العلوم والآداب من أمة إلى أخرى. الصلات الأدبية تمكن من تحديد أصالة الأدب والفكر وتبرهن على مظاهر التأثير. وفي هذا البحث، نحاول الكشف عن مختلف العلاقات الاجتماعية التي كانت قائمة بين العرب المسلمين والإفرنج في العصور الوسطى. وقد خلصنا من خلال هذه الدراسة المقارنة إلى أن هذه العلاقات التي أدت إلى احتكاك العرب بالإفرنج، مكنت هؤلاء الأوربيين من التعرف على أهم عناصر الحضارة العربية الإسلامية والتأثر بها في شتى الميادين، وعلى وجه الخصوص، الفلسفة والأدب.

حب الآخر في الشعر الأندلسي والبروفنسي د. محمد عباسة  

لقد عمل الإسلام على نبذ العصبية وإرساء مبادئ التسامح والمحبة، وجعل من الشاعر شاعر أمة لا شاعر قبيلة. لكن العرب انحرفوا عن هذه المبادئ عند قيام الدولة الأموية التي عملت على إحياء العصبيات الجاهلية وتشجيع النقائض بين الأحزاب السياسية مما أدى إلى ظهور طوائف عرقية في المجتمع الإسلامي تشبعت بالشعوبية. أما بلاد المغرب فلم تعرف هذه الصراعات العرقية منذ ظهور الإسلام فيها. لقد تزوج الأندلسيون بنساء إسبانيات وتغزل شعراؤهم بالنصرانيات، وقد انتقل هذا النوع من الحب إلى جنوب فرنسا، ونظم فيه شعراء البروفنس الذين تأثروا في هذا الموضوع بالشعراء الأندلسيين. وعلى الرغم من الصراع الذي كان قائما بين المسلمين والنصارى في شبه الجزيرة الأيبيرية، إلا أن ذلك لم يمنع الأندلسيين من احترام غيرهم. غير أن بعض الشعراء البروفنسيين لما نظموا هذا النوع من الشعر لم ينسوا أحقادهم تجاه الإسلام والمسلمين.

الترجمة في العصور الوسطى د. محمد عباسة  

تتناول هذه الدراسة حركة الترجمة التي ظهرت في أوربا في القرون الوسطى على يد علماء النصارى واليهود والمسلمين، إذ ترجموا أغلب المعارف العربية الإسلامية من فلسفة وعلوم وآداب وتاريخ إلى اللغات الأوربية. أما أهداف الترجمة ومقاصدها فكانت تختلف باختلاف طبقات المجتمع الأوربي ونواياها. وقد خلص البحث إلى أن حركة الترجمة في أوربا قد ازدهرت في كل من شمال إسبانيا وجنوب فرنسا وإيطاليا وجزيرة صقلية، بين القرنين الحادي عشر والثالث عشر للميلاد، في الوقت الذي كان يهاجر فيه العلماء والفلاسفة المسلمون من الأندلس إلى بلاد النصارى، فرارا من المرابطين والموحدين. وكان من نتائج هذه الترجمة أثرها البالغ على النهضة الأوربية.

اللهجات في الموشحات والأزجال الأندلسية د. محمد عباسة  

ظهر الشعر عند العرب لأول مرة في القرن الرابع الميلادي في القبيلة وبلهجتها. وفي نهاية القرن الخامس الميلادي، استطاع فحول الشعراء الجاهليين أن يوحدوا لغة الشعر العربي. لقد ظل الشعر ينظم باللغة الفصحى إلى أن ظهرت الموشحات والأزجال الأندلسية التي لم تلتزم بالفصحى. فالوشّاح سمح لنفسه أن ينظم الخرجة بلهجة عامية أو عجمية، كما تسربت بعض العناصر اللهجية إلى الأجزاء الأخرى من الموشح، أما الزجّال فقد نظم زجله بلغة غير معربة، كما أباح إدخال عناصر فصيحة وأخرى عجمية في ثنايا شعره. غير أن التعدد اللغوي لم يحط من قيمة الموشحات والأزجال، كما أن العناصر العجمية التي وظّفها الشعراء الأندلسيون في موشحاتهم وأزجالهم لا تعني أبدا أن هذا اللون من الشعر المستحدث قد استمد خصائصه من أغنية عجمية، فالموشحات والأزجال أندلسية المنشأ وعربية الأصل وهي بذلك تمثل مرحلة من مراحل تطور الشعر العربي.

التصوف الإسلامي بين التأثر والتأثير د. محمد عباسة  

لقد ظهر التصوف عند المسلمين متأثرا بالزهد الذي اتصف به الرسول الكريم وصحابته، وكان من أهم عوامل انتشار الزهد النصوص القرآنية والأحاديث النبوية الشريفة التي تدعو إلى تزكية النفس والعمل من أجل الآخرة. لكن بعد الفتوحات الإسلامية واختلاط العرب بغيرهم من الشعوب، تسربت إلى الزهد الإسلامي بعض العناصر من الأديان الأخرى. وقد أدى تطور الزهد إلى ظهور التصوف، وهو أسمى من الزهد ويتصل بحب الذات الإلهية. ويرتكز التصوف على عنصرين أساسيين، أولهما العنصر العاطفي وهو النزعة إلى الحب التي تتجلى في العناصر الغزلية عند الشعراء. أما الثاني، فهو العنصر الفكري المتمثل في عفة النفس. ظهر عدة متصوفة عبر العصور الإسلامية في المشرق والمغرب، من أبرزهم الغزالي وابن الفارض ومحي الدين بن عربي، طرحوا أفكارهم من خلال أشعارهم وكتبهم. وفي القرون الوسطى اطلع الأوربيون على تراث العرب المسلمين فتأثروا بعلومهم وفنونهم، وكان مما تأثروا به التصوف الإسلامي الذي تتجلى مظاهره بوضوح في نصوص المدرَسيين (السكولائيين) وغيرهم من الفلاسفة الأوربيين.

الفلسفة العقلانية عند ابن رشد د. محمد عباسة  

نحاول من خلال هذه الدراسة توضيح الحقائق الإيجابية في فلسفة ابن رشد، ونلقي الضوء على الأسباب التي دعت بعض العلماء إلى محاربة العقلانية الرشدية. فأبو الوليد بن رشد يعد أكبر شارح لفلسفة أرسطو، وقد تولى الدفاع عن الفلاسفة معارضا آراء الإمام الغزالي التي تحامل فيها على الفلاسفة المسلمين، مما جعل المتكلمين واللاهوتيين يتهمون ابن رشد بالإلحاد. وكان فيلسوف قرطبة أول من حاول التوفيق بين الشريعة والحكمة. وبفضل الترجمات التي قام بها النصارى واليهود في جنوب أوربا خلال القرون الوسطى درس فلاسفة كثيرون في أوربا كتب ابن رشد، كما ظهر منهم الرشديون. وأما العرب، فقد أهملوا العلوم العقلية بعد وفاة ابن رشد، وكان ذلك من بين العوامل التي أدت إلى انحطاط الحضارة العربية الإسلامية، منذ نهاية القرن الخامس عشر الميلادي إلى غاية النهضة العربية الحديثة.

الحروب الصليبية ونزعة الحب الكورتوازي د. محمد عباسة  

الحروب الصليبية التي شنها الأوربيون على العرب في الأندلس والمشرق لم تمر دون جني ثمارها الثقافية. فالحروب بين العرب والأوربيين هي عامل من العوامل التي أدت إلى انتقال بعض خصائص الحضارة العربية الإسلامية إلى أوربا. والحب الذي طرقه الشعراء العرب بكل موضوعاته يعد من أهم العناصر التي تأثر بها شعراء أوربا عند احتكاكهم بالعرب المسلمين أثناء الحروب وأوقات السلم في القرون الوسطى. نحاول من خلال هذه الدراسة أن نبين غرابة هذا الحب عن مقومات أوربا، وقد استخدمه الشعراء للثورة في وجه الإقطاع. لذلك بذلت الكنيسة قصارى جهدها لمحاربة الشعر الغزلي الذي يمجد المرأة، كما اضطهدت الشعراء الذين تبنوه، ومع ذلك، استطاع هذا الحب أن يغير عادات المجتمع الأوربي وقوانينه.

العلاقات الثقافية بين العرب والإفرنج خلال القرون الوسطى د. محمد عباسة  

كان لاتصال الأوربيين بالعرب في المشرق والأندلس خلال القرون الوسطى أثره البالغ في تطوير الفكر الأوربي. فالأوربيون الذين كانوا يعيشون في عصور مظلمة، بدأوا يهتمون بعلوم العرب منذ احتكاكهم بالأندلسيين. وأهم ما لجأوا إليه، هو تعلم اللغة العربية، والتردد على مدارس العرب بحواضر الأندلس لنهل العلم من شيوخها، وترجمة المعارف العربية الإسلامية من اللغة العربية إلى مختلف اللغات الأوربية. لقد قام علماء أوربا بالإضافة إلى بعض المسلمين واليهود، الذين وظّفهم الحكام الإفرنج في معاهدهم، بدور فعال في نقل علوم العرب إلى البلدان الأوربية. وفي هذه الدراسة، حاولنا تسليط الضوء على العوامل الرئيسية التي مكنت العلماء الأوربيين، في القرون الوسطى، من الاتصال بثقافة العرب ونشرها في البلدان الأوربية. هذه العوامل كانت من الأسباب الرئيسية التي أدت إلى تطوير الفكر الأوربي.

مصادر شعر التروبادور الغنائي د. محمد عباسة  

إذا كان الأوروبيون قد عرفوا الشعر منذ عصر قدماء اليونان، فالشعر الغنائي المقفى لم يظهر عندهم إلا في أوائل القرن الثاني عشر للميلاد في جنوب فرنسا. ويعد الشعراء التروبادور أول من نظم هذا النوع من الشعر الذي انتشر بسرعة مذهلة في أغلب أنحاء أوروبا. فالشعر التروبادوري الأوكسيتاني الذي يتغنى فيه الشاعر الجوال بالمرأة ويمجدها، لا يعكس تقاليد المجتمع الأوروبي في ذلك الوقت، بل هو شعر غريب تماما عن الأوروبيين وأوروبا في القرون الوسطى. هذا الشعر الجديد يشبه إلى حد كبير، في أشكاله ومضامينه الشعر العربي الأندلسي، وبوجه الخصوص الموشحات والأزجال. ولهذه الأسباب خصصنا هذا البحث لدراسة أصول وتشكيل الشعر الأوكسيتاني في العصور الوسطى.

المدرسة العربية في الأدب المقارن د. محمد عباسة  

ظهر الأدب المقارن في أوربا منذ الثلث الأول من القرن التاسع عشر واكتمل في أوائل القرن العشرين على يد رواد المدرسة التاريخية في فرنسا. وظل المنهج التاريخي سائدا وحده لدى المقارنين لأكثر من نصف قرن إلى أن ظهرت أزمة الأدب المقارن في الخمسينيات من القرن الماضي التي فجرها الدارسون الأمريكان، مما أدى إلى بزوغ مدارس أخرى تنافس المدرسة الفرنسية أو تجاورها، منها المدرسة الأمريكية والسلافية والألمانية وغيرها. لكن لا أحد فكر وقتئذ في تأسيس منهج عربي في الدراسات الأدبية المقارنة. وبالرجوع إلى تاريخ الدراسات الأدبية المقارنة عند العرب يتبين لنا أن هؤلاء، وخاصة رواد النهضة، قد سبقوا غيرهم في مثل هذه الدراسات، حتى وإن كانت بعض الأحكام ذاتية. وفي هذا البحث نحاول تحديد ملامح المدرسة العربية في مجال الأدب المقارن.

Bilinguisme et traduction en Andalousie Mohammed Abbassa  

Si l'Europe du Moyen Age, ne connait de l’art romain que peu de choses, elle ne savait absolument rien de celui des Grecs. Par ailleurs, les Arabes avaient traduit presque tous les ouvrages de la philosophie grecque. C’est pourquoi les Européens n’ont pas hésité à visiter souvent les villes andalouses et à y puiser, à la fois, les sciences arabes et la philosophie grecque. Cette étude est consacrée à la traduction des sciences arabes effectuée en Europe au Moyen Age par des savants chrétiens, musulmans et juifs. Un bon nombre d'ouvrages de la philosophie arabe et l'histoire des Musulmans ainsi que des œuvres littéraires ont été traduits de l'arabe aux différentes langues latines.

Les sources de l’amour courtois des troubadours Mohammed Abbassa  

La poésie lyrique et rimée n'apparut qu'au début du XIIe siècle dans le Sud de la France. Les poètes Troubadours étaient les précurseurs de cette nouvelle poésie qui fut rapidement propagée dans toute l'Europe. Cette poésie d'amour chevaleresque dans laquelle le poète idéalise la dame, ne reflète aucunement les traditions de la société européenne à l'époque, mais une poésie qui est tout à fait étrangère. Elle ressemble, en réalité, à la poésie andalouse. C'est pourquoi nous avons consacré cette recherche à l'étude des origines et la formation de la poésie des Troubadours occitans au Moyen Age.

Big or Small? Does Board Size Matter in Times of Financial Distress? Evidence from Kenyan Listed Firms - A panel Approach. Dr. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba Dr. Lydia Muriuki

The study sought to establish the effect of board size on financial distress of listed firms in Kenya. The study used a panel study of a 10 year firm observations from 2004-2013. The study utilized resource dependency theory to underpin the study. Financial distress was measured using Altman Z score. Random effect model was used to achieve the objective of the study. The study findings indicated that board size was positive but insignificant with financial distress of listed firms in Kenya (β=. 0.490>0.05). Board size does not matter in times of financial distress in Kenya. Few empirical studies have examined the effectiveness of the board size with financial distress especially in the developing countries. This study contributes to the existing literature by examining such associations and providing updated empirical evidence from a developing country.

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